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  • Interlanguage is a separate system between L1 and L2
  • The learner has not the proficiency to marten the rules of L1 and has facilitation in TL
  • Errors are national and logical while reproducing the language in TL
  • Interference is more grammatical than log phonological.
  • Pakistani English has many types of errors
  • Conclusion

The Essay

          Separate Linguistic system based on the observable output which results from Learner’s attempted production of L1 and TL norms is known as Inter Language. According to Selinker (1972), who first used this term: the speakers of a native language (NL) do not suddenly become the speaker of TL (Target Language). It is a continuous process of making and testing hypothesis of L1-L2 in such state of mind the learner is confused between existing knowledge and new structures.


It is “Approximate System” (Nemsen) and transitional competence by order

The Learners, here do not get proficiency  but near-native like competency as well. They in correctly apply rules of their NL to the TL on they have not completely learn’t the limitation of the rules. The rules many seem logical and correct in the mind of L2 learner for example a child using Punjabi as MT (Mother Tongue) would produce a sentence in English i.e. L2 like.

—          You did what?

—          I go on the dinner

However, if the learner, fails to receive corrective feedback these Interlanguage errors may forms fossilize. According to Kreshen (1997).

“Authentic use of Language allows – – – – to construct a mental model.”

There are certain causes of Inter Language errors.

  • Borrowing patterns from MT
  • Extending patterns from TL
  • Expressing meaning through over generalization

However, a tree diagram can show the procedure


The Interference of L1 is more grammatical rather phonological. In this, case learner’s language has to face high rate of weird and non-standard English syntax if English is TL. Some of the example are

  • Ali down the wall came.
  • They always are
  • You came in Mehndi on
  • The bind is flying on the tree
  • This did who?

Besides grammar, there are other distinct features like word formation and Laxical variation and syntactical development which can be affected by Interlanguage. But Rehman (1993) considered not errors but the sign of production of the new Language.

Baumgardener (1993) pointed out common types of errors in Pakistani English due to the interference of Punjabi, Urdu and other regional language.

  • Lack of surplus of tenses
  • We all are working since morning.
  • We all have been working.
  • Ignorance of gender discrimination
  • Pakistan is my mother land. It is the Land of four provinces.
  • Subject noun mistakes:

In Urdu there is no discrimination between using he, she as the subject. ‘Woo’ is used for both. Younger Learners may have more Inter Language errors than olders.


          Interlanguage is a stage where the learner needs more feedback to use the language effectively. The child seems rational in committing those errors but rules of TL get more refund as more input is received.

Also Study:

Interpretation of Communication With Example

Strong and Weak Forms

Process of Translation

  • Baumgardner (1993). The English Language in Pakistan. Karachi Oxford University
  • Rahman (1990) Pakistani English Islamabad National institute of Pakistan
  • ESL-EFL Inter Language.htm
  • Britanica  (2005).com

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