Table of Content
- JUVENILE OFFENDING
- The Legal definition of the Juvenile Offending
- The Social –political explanations of the Juvenile Offending
- The Criminological explanations of the Juvenile Offending
- The Clinical description of the Juvenile Offending
- The statistical implications surrounding Juvenile offending
- How African American impacts juvenile Offending compared to other ethnic counterparts
- THEORETICAL CATEGORIES
- The biological theories
- Sociological theories
- Classical theories
In criminology of juvenile delinquency , many theories explain the primary cause of crime and the subsequent consequences to the criminal culprit. The paper surrounds on the juvenile delinquency which is also known as juvenile offending. The background thesis of the paper will review the reason why juveniles commit the crime, the way the law handles them, social-political explanations as well as the criminological explanation. Additionally, the review will focus on the statistical implications of the juvenile offending, the perception and the way it’s impacted on African American as compared to other race and the clinical explanation. Briefly, the article will discuss three theoretical approaches to sociological, biological and classical to portray how juvenile offending is addressed.
Juvenile Delinquency has been a critical issue over decades of years in the United States of America. The Juveniles have been violating the laws deliberately or due to ignorance which has significantly found them in problems associated. The assortment of factors has made the occurrence of Juvenile Delinquency which is punishable with the application of different ways depending on the magnitude of the offense. The social factors most importantly have been found causing more problems in the juvenile offending as compared to economic and political elements. Social setting from the home background to general societal setting problems such as home fight and vandalism subsequently resulted in the behavior misconduct (Okoronkwo, 2008).
Commercial settings such as inadequate housing, poverty level discrimination as well as class differences also contribute to crime among the juvenile. Many theories justify why juvenile delinquency occur particularly by acquiring antisocial behaviors which are mainly from external sources. Other methods presume that individuals are generally born to commit a crime. For example, gaining experiences from the neighborhood and having comfort disorder respectively has significantly lead to Juvenile Offending.
The legal definition of the Juvenile Offending
According to Federal law of criminology of Juvenile Delinquency Act, juvenile offending is the violation of United State Laws which is committed by the person below eighteen years of age that would be a crime if caused by the person above 18 years (Dowd & Ogletree, 2016). The action portrayed by the minors can also be referred to as behavior misconduct which is punishable to control the situation
The Social-political explanation of the Juvenile Offending
The law violation displayed by the juveniles ranges from social to political reasons. Robbery, alcohol consumption, taking sativa cannabis, tobacco possession, as well as conduct disorder, are some of the clear explanations of social crime committed. Similarly, political aspects such as deliberately influenced to destroy public or private property, failure to obey curfews and assault significantly leads to juvenile law violations (White, Haines & Asquith, 2017)). The element shows the antisocial behavior perceived from the external and internal sources can be rectified through a parental friendly environment.
The Criminological explanation of the Juvenile Offending
In criminological explanation, it shows that poor school attendance is the primary factor that leads to law violation. Other aspects such as poor standards of the school, social and political disputes both at home and in the community and among other are factors leading to law violation resulting to the high rate of crime (Lilly, Cullen & Ball, 2014). Criminological understanding of the Juvenile Delinquency can be clearly explained and justified through studying both the sociological and biological theories and among other approaches.
The Juvenile Offending Clinical explanations
The clinical part of criminology of Juvenile Delinquency can be addressed at a parental and the institutional level to ensure the minors have basics not to violate the Law (Dowd & Ogletree, 2016). Similarly, through offering quality education which covers social, economic and political advantages can significantly improve on the aspect.
The Statistical implications of the Juvenile Explanation
According to the National Centre for Juvenile the records show that in every 25% of all crimes there is one percent of the juvenile offender. The units also registered vandalism, car joyriding, assaults and substance abuse are the main factors causing the offense (teenagers in the U.S.: Juvenile Delinquency | Statista n.d.). The statistics show that more awareness is required to mitigate the minors from displaying the behavior misconduct in the adult level.
How African American impacts juvenile Offending compared to other ethnic counterparts.
In African American juveniles perceive the highest degree of juvenile justice engagement at all system levels as compared to other ethnic group counterparts (Hill, Lockyer & Stone, 2007). The juvenile justice system was found to be displayed more my African American which correlated with the Juvenile Offending as compared to other people of different race.
Biological theories play a significant role in understanding what causes crime and the associated consequences. The methods assume that some of the individuals are born with the trait of committing a crime with the physiological difference from those who don’t commit the crime and no much can be made to correct the character (Crossman, 2012). The act was found evident by the research conducted Cesare Lombroso who observed the prisoners who have a common physical feature of sloping their foreheads. More so, Lombroso examined other aspects such as biochemical and inheritance which may imply that the traits of juvenile offending are caused by diet and hormonal balance as well as abnormalities.
The theories suggest that the behavior misconduct caused by minors is triggered by external factors which make them violate the law. The experiences they get from the neighborhood, parent and social groups are the accelerators of the crime. For example, a research conducted by sociologist Clifford and Henry in a juvenile court showed that pattern of delinquency increased from the areas featured by poor health, housing, social -economic demerits as well as high populations (Hillege, Brand, Mulder, Vermeiren & Van Domburgh, 2017). The characteristics displayed such as social-economic always makes minors for engaging themselves in crime to meet their daily basic needs.
The theories show that it is easy to mitigate the delinquency in juniors by proximal monitoring of the minors particularly when they are in their tender age. Close supervision by the parents plays a pivotal role in avoiding the delinquency through correctly guiding them and being keen with the friendship making.
Classical theories are significant in understanding juvenile offending. The approach focuses on how minors try to seek pleasure at no cost and without getting tired (Dowd & Ogletree, 2016). As a result, it leads to engagement in behaviors which are away from societal settings. The father of Classical theory Jeremy and Cesare was used in the 18th century during the enlightening of the Unitarian and socio-contact philosophers who had personal gain motives.
In summation, Criminology of Juvenile Delinquency can be controlled through putting minimal effort which has great influence on minors to enable them live in a friendly world without necessary committing crime to achieve their goals. Punishment depending on the magnitude of the offense can be made to ensure juveniles remains in order. Guidance and counseling can significantly improve the behavior anticipated by the minors who can be done in school and at home by the tutors and parent respectively. Minors need to be protected and raised in an orderly manner to ensure the future societal morals are preserved for more and more generations.
- Crossman, Ashley. “Discredited Biological Explanations for Deviant Behavior and Crime.” ThoughtCo, 2 July 2012, www.thoughtco.com/biological-explanations-of-deviant-behavior-3026265.
- Dowd, N. E., & Ogletree, C. J. (2016). A new juvenile justice system: Total reform for a broken system. New York: New York University Press.
- Hill, M., Lockyer, A., & Stone, F. H. (2007). Youth justice and child protection. London: J. Kingsley Publishers.
- Hillege, S. L., Brand, E. F., Mulder, E. A., Vermeiren, R. R., & Van Domburgh, L. (2017). Serious juvenile offenders: classification into subgroups based on static and dynamic charateristics. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 11(1).
- Lilly, J. R., Cullen, F. T., & Ball, R. A. (2014). Criminological theory: Context and consequences.
- Okoronkwo, N. N. (2008) The phenomena of Black youth crime and how Black youths are portrayed in the media in the United Kingdom: Whether the portrayal can be considered. Journal of Criminology.
- Teenagers in the U.S.: Juvenile Delinquency | Statista. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/study/12296/teenagers-in-the-us-juvenile-deliquency-statista-dossier/
- Thornberry, T. (2018). Developmental theories of crime and delinquency. Routledge.
- Voisin, D. R., Kim, D., Takahashi, L., Morotta, P., & Bocanegra, K. (2017). Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System for African American Adolescents: Examining Associations with Behavioral Health Problems. Journal of social service research, 43(1), 129-140.
- White, R. D., Haines, F., & Asquith, N. L. (2017). Crime and criminology.