Strategic crime analysis involves studying long-term issues. In a prolonged time, these challenges emerge from systemic vulnerabilities produced by daily activity and climate. This article uses the Gotham Police Department statistics to complete a comprehensive crime research plan. These should discuss the crucial phases in the context and crime analysis process, analyze the growth and implementation of stratified officers, compare and contract crime detection and neighborhood policing, and examine strategies that are most successful in crime prevention and reduction.
Introduction: History of Crime Analysis
Strategic crime analysis consists primarily of quantitative data analysis. Monthly, quarterly, and/or annual compilations of illegal and non-criminal information including abuse, service calls, and traffic reports are analyzed in summary form. That is, general categories like date, time, location, and type of incident are analyzed instead of qualitative data like incident narrative descriptions. The analysis process examines variables including race, class, sex, income, population, location, and location type along with law enforcement information.
The two main goals of strategic crime research are 1) aiding in detecting and assessing long-term issues such as drug trafficking or auto-theft, and 2) conducting experiments to analyze or assess appropriate solutions and procedures. Both of these purposes fit the problem-solving process well. These types of studies include evaluation of crime prevention programs, in-depth examination of a crime issue, and a survey of citizens’ perceptions of crime and police.
They incorporate methodology for pre- and post-measurement, impact, and process evaluation. This includes activities such as deployment and staffing, redistribution of beats or precincts, data entry and integrity, and reporting process. In short, investigating organized crime uses mathematical tools and quantitative methodology to analyze long-term issues and assess operational processes. Analysts conducting strategic crime analysis primarily are also called problem or research analysts.
Scanning is the first step to problem-solving, identifying a cluster of similar, related, or recurring incidents through a preliminary review of information, and selecting this crime/disorder issue among competing priorities for future review. One way of using crime data details to search crime problems is a monthly crime comparison. Comparing similar areas overtimes that suggest a trouble area or crime category.
Just observing the Gotham Police reports given to create a strategic crime analysis, we must take into consideration the different phases of each crime. For example, in residential burglaries using force scanning the crimes, we can see some similarities occurring in the crime. First, the way the intruders entered by doggy doors seems to be questioned. It will encourage the Gotham Police Department to assume that the intruders are the same individuals.
Looking at the three crimes comparison, you’d also notice that criminals used pillowcases to collect the stolen items. Using pillowcases, no fingerprints can be left to identify the intruders. Another thing that stands out is the location of the jewelry from the left side of the dressers. Throughout this process, you see too many similarities in these burglaries.
The analysis involves the use of various sources of evidence to assess when a problem exists, who is involved, who is affected, where the problem is situated, where it happens, and how it takes. Individuals frequently believe they already know the essence and source of problems found in the scanning phase; thus, they do not perform extensive problem analysis. However, analyzing the problem from multiple perspectives with multiple data types often yields unknown information.
When it comes to the analysis phase of strategic crime analysis, the police department must ask themselves plenty of questions about the crime itself. It is one of the most important steps of strategic crime analysis. The residential burglaries that occurred, police officers or detectives examined issues like the examples listed above; what causes the problem when it occurs, location, etc.
For example, the officers must take what is in the burglaries’ reports, the crimes occur between 800 to 1600 hours. For example, when addressing the shoplifting theft problem, he insisted shoplifting theft problems focused on local shops in the city. Yet, when analyzing the data, it was discovered that this type of theft occurs throughout the jurisdiction. The detectives have a real idea of the issue as they only had a very few accounts of the shoplifting robbery and recovery.
Response is the implementation of a customized series of acts reflecting the study phase’s most relevant findings. Here are the measures considered when police enter a crime intervention phase:
- New strategy brainstorming.
- Searching for other communities with similar problems.
- Choosing alternate treatments.
- Identifying a contingency strategy and appropriate actors.
- Clear targets for the action program.
- Conducting planned activities.
Police and their partners select one or more responses or interventions based on the results of the previous step’s analysis. A response strategy is outlined that outlines the purpose of each response, the concrete priorities to accomplish these responses, and the roles of the different stakeholders involved in executing the response. When the solution is chosen, police and their collaborators execute it.
Response Analysis Phase
Assessment is assessing the effect of feedback on the targeted crime/disorder issue using information obtained from various outlets both before and after the feedback have been applied. Assessment is probably the most challenging part of the SARA (Scanning Analysis Response Analysis) process for law enforcement agencies, not only because efficacy measures are often difficult to determine and capture, but also because assessment takes time and effort to complete at a time when the problem-solving process is ending. Here are more detailed steps of a strategic crime analysis phase:
- Whether the plan was implemented.
- Pre- and post-response qualitative and quantitative results.
- Determine whether broad goals and specific goals were achieved.
- Identify some new approaches to improve the initial program.
- Regular monitoring to ensure continued efficacy.
Officers will use this process to determine whether the responses were delivered in a way compatible with the action plan, and how the responses achieved their desired results. Therefore, the step of response review involves components of process assessment and effect assessment.
Effective use of strategic crime analysis tends to focus on reducing opportunities rather than offender apprehension. For all the information provided by the Gotham Police Department are used to take the correct measures to deal with the long-term illegal activity taking place in that city. Crime analysis and mapping are important in all phases of problem-solving process. Measuring the problem accurately during scanning, analysis, and evaluation phases is important. Analysts may also aid in the intervention step of the SARA cycle by advising successful resource management and assessing where and when the crimes occur more often or excessively.
The importance of crime analysis in case management lies in the fact that members of a law enforcement department have varying perspectives and perceptions of a issue, and it is important for the crime analyst to either endorse or contradict these conclusions by presenting a thorough case analysis and method and solution impact assessment.
- Crime Mapping & Problem Analysis Laboratory. (N.d.). Retrieved from https://www.policefoundation.org/projects/crime-mapping-problem-analysis-laboratory/
- Santos, R.B. (2017). Crime analysis with crime mapping. (4th ED.) Sage Publications.
- Santos, R. B. (2014). The Effectiveness of Crime Analysis for Crime Reduction: Cure or Diagnosis? Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(2), 147–168 https://doi.org/10.1177/1043986214525080