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Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Nanoparticles

Research Project on Metal Nanoparticles As Green Catalyst and Metal Nanoparticles Synthesis Characterization and Applications

Introduction to Metal NanoParticles:

Particles having the size from 1 nanometer to 100 nanometers termed as nanoparticles, and in nanotechnology, metal nanoparticlessmall particles behave as an identical unit in both chemical and physical aspects. Ultrafine particles are considered as nanoparticles, but the most molecules have the same size as nanoparticles, but these individual molecules are not classified as nanoparticles. Nanoparticles may be present in the shape of the cluster, powder or crystal.  Such clusters which have minimum one dimension in the range of 1 to 10 nanometers and size distribution is also narrow, can be termed as Nanoclusters. Agglomerates of fine powder referred as Nano-powder, and ultrafine particles referred as Nanocrystal (1).

Before the 18th century, nanoparticles were only used in the production of fancy glass, tile and pot. Michel Faraday was the first scientist who investigated the stability parameter of nanoparticles. In 1908, Mie investigated the reason behind the colour properties of these particles. Later on in 1925, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was given to Richard Zsigmondy for his ultra-microscopic study on the colloidal suspension of nanoparticles of gold.

The metallic nanoparticles of specific shape and size can be used as the catalyst due to its unique electrochemical properties. The high surface area and controlled edge step ratio increase the yield from the bulk metallic catalyst. Some properties of nanoparticles make it good for stereoselective synthesis.

Their unique properties make them suitable for catalysts, in last decades, the metallic nanoparticles particularly studied for their catalytic properties included in the field of surfactant for vesicles, water-soluble polymer and resins. The nanoparticles of Rh, Pt, Ir, Au, and Pd are used as the catalyst for isomerization, Fischer-Tropsch reaction, hydroformylation, and reduction of some compounds (2). Catalytic properties of the metal heavily depend on the size of the particles, like gold is the poor catalyst in the form of bulk, but when it transformed into Nano-scale particles, it catalytic properties increased as happened in the case of nanoparticles of Au (3) (4).

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