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History, Dynamics and Structure of Airplane



  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Body
    • History
    • Airplane Dynamics
    • Airplane Structure
    • Modern Aircraft
  • Single-Engine Piston
  • Conclusion


The paper attempts to assess the value of aviation and how the particular plane has changed the entire picture of the world and taken us onto the road of industrialisation. Several indicators have been included to highlight the beginning and evolution of the plane and how it develops its completely different shape that is common today that from the original idea of a photo of the Wright brothers. The first plane’s histories and account have been included as it is a relevant point for conveying the evolution of modern planes and their different application.


Aircraft are one of man’s most important inventions. World Wars surmise was a measure of how powerful a nation is, but one of its gaging forces is the strength of its air force explained by their high powered military and war planes. Historical aircraft engineering has resulted in several trials and developments that have been reduced to build an aircraft that can cope with wind speed and gravitational pull. Even before the inventions of the Wright brothers in the 18th century, where gliding planes became the basic outline of modern aircraft, many engineers and inventors strive to build An aircraft based on mathematical equations through its drawings and visual designs. Nevertheless, in recent centuries modern planes originated from collective efforts by inventors and engineers. Part of the design and production of modern aircraft are earlier innovations such as the windmill that will act as the early plane propeller, the kite as wings and definitely the modern helicopter. Today modern aircraft are important equipment for industrial use, military use, and space exploration. Economic growth, especially in export-dependent countries, can also create economic bombasts through faster consignment of goods to countries using private planes. Such is the achievement on aircraft design.

History, Dynamics and Structure of Airplane



I. History

Airplane history is part of men’s desire to fly and glide in the air like birds do. Even in mythology, flying was then perceived. Daedalus the First prisoner of Greek mythology was imprisoned by King Minos in the labyrinth of the Minotaur along with his son Icarus. They decided to flee through flying to avoid the Minotaur’s devour. Using wax as wings they escape the labyrinth. Icarus soared near the sun with the pleasure of flight and this caused his death. The wax fell into the Aegean Sea and submerged. Daedalus however managed to escape. This idea has become men’s dreams to invent one machinery or a birdlike aircraft someday. Several centuries ago and the myth was turned into a modern tale, the Puritan fairytale. According to the story, during the 17th century the era of research on the inventing of aircraft is at its height. Leonardo da Vinci’s brilliance is their epitome. Da Vinci’s ornithopters were a draft piece which was supported by mathematical equations. His mind was concerned with flying birds and flapping-wing devices. His flying machine based on this idea. Da Vinci’s work lacks technological merit, which is why his flying machine was not considered a great accomplishment but merely a draft that required further refilling. In 1714 Emmanuel Swedenborg’s a Swedish theologian has created his own flying machine, the Daedalian. Similar to the concept of Da Vinci, it also focuses on bird flights with just a mere concept. After Swedenborg’s Daedalian comes now the concept of Sir George Cayley, experimenting the hang gliders. The renowned Otto Lilienthal advocated to the idea of Cayley. Cayley’s experimentation led him to a conclusive ground that there was a distinct element of lift and thrust, thus there is a possibility that a fixed-wing aircraft can be made. (Bradshaw,2008). His demonstration was of using an inclined plane to portray the different angular movement of a plane, the lift, pitch and roll stability. Using a single rudder-elevator escalated to a universal joint, he shows how to manage flight in the middle of the air. Through this experiment, Cayley led the foundation of aerodynamics. The focal point of his experiment is his first gliding flight. Unfortunately, his death marks the end of his own experiment. (Tripp, 2005). This possibility construed by Cayley drove Lilienthal to pursue on the experiment. Lilienthal’s focus is to create a fix-wing glider. His experiment however reaped when his idea the style of perfecting a glider before attempting powered flight (which Gibbs-Smith refers to as the ‘airman’ approach) and a table of the lift provided by curved wings was considered as an approach to modern airplane inventions. (Bradshaw, 2008). The year after, a cornucopia of airplane inventions was attempted by many inventors and engineers hoping to build the first aircraft design. Yet, the field on inventions was teeming with paper drafts and theories without supportive details such as actual experimentation to justify the paper. Largely, the portion of man allotted to prove his invention was all failure. Europeans spirits dominate the fields of airplane inventions, including Ferber, Henri Robart, Solirene, Levavasseur, Clement Ader, Percy Pilcher, and Sir Hiram Maxim. Octave Chanute and Samuel Pierpont Langley made significant attempts in the U.S. (And Ibid.) Few inventors nevertheless mark the beginning of aircraft era. One significant inventor is the British inventor William Samuel Henson, he patented his work mainly design for Aerial Steam Carriage. His idea attributed to the modern airplane; a fixed-wing monoplane with propellers, fuselage, and wheeled landing gear, and with flight control by means of rear elevator and rudder. (Tripp, 2005). His design was fascinating but meets the same previous failure. Attempts was also made by Clement Ader, the creator of Ader Bats and successfully made the first actual flight but he falls to the ground in a distance of 50 m. In 1896 Samuel Pierpoint Langley, the proponent of aerodrome, made his flight with a mechanically propelled aircraft but with certain flaws on its designs ruptured his ambition to attain the first successful air flight. After Langley, in 1901, Gustave Whitehead built his masterpiece the Whitehead Albatross & the Whitehead No. 21. Similar to the image of the Albatross, it was a huge flying machine powered by a carbide/acetylene engine driving the two propellers while another smaller engine drove two of the machine’s four wheels (Gray, 2008). His prepositions about his flying magnitude and the speed of his designed machine leave the critics claims for exaggeration; a rift of hesitation opens his readers as well as the capability of his design. The persistency of the inventors to develop a flying machine also created a momentum on the inventions of hot air balloon. In 1782 Jacques Étienne and Joseph Michel Montgolfier invented the first practical hot-air balloon called the Montgolfier balloon. Hot air balloon plays a significant role in World War I, one of it is the large hot air balloon used by the German army, the huge Hindenburg. This balloon carries military armaments to the German armies in the WWI propelled by 5 to 10 men. The demise of the huge Hindenburg was when it crash into a radio transmitter in Germany that killed its passengers. Another defeat of the hot air balloon used mainly by Germans is the emergence of flying aircraft that used by the military. It is the first gliding aircraft originated from the inventions of Wright brothers. Hot air balloons disadvantage is its speed, provided that its components rely on flame and on heated air. The wind direction is another barrier especially when it altered the route of the balloon to the different direction.

The first hot-air balloon was guided by ropes, but improvements were made later. The unsuccessful attempts of aircraft inventors did not end the longing of men to design the modern airplane. It was not until the year 1890 that the Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur Wright developed the first successful flying machine. Living in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, both were working in a bicycle shop. Their idea to build the flying machine was substantiated with their inherent knowledge on mechanical fields. Several researches drew nearer their attention on building the aircraft. Since several researches suggested for gliders thence their first experiment focuses on gliding planes. Using kite as part of their experiments, they fly an unmanned gliders. After this experiment they developed a steer to control the plane by putting rudder on its wings that shall serve as the propeller. This would help the pilot to control the direction of the plane as well as its height. (History of planes,2001). After adding the significant mechanical materials for the plane, Orville Wright made his first successful flight in a self-propelled craft that was called the Flyer. With the Flyer, the first flight travels for a distance of about 37 m. A built-in 12 horse power engine function the whole system on it. Its wings were 40 feet wide, wooden, and covered with cotton cloth. The pilot would lie on his stomach on the lower wing and steer the aircraft. (Ibid.) The final flight lasted for about a minute and covered 260 m. For several replenishment, the first practical plane was then created than can tumble and glide in any direction and in any movements in the air. This achievement began the dawn of early fighter planes. Throughout the efforts of those inventors that contributed in the initiation of the first successful flight, the earlier airplane beginnings was relegated because the people did not immediately identify the might-be potential of the airplanes. Not until Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge decided to test the capabilities of the Wright brothers ‘ newly built airplane. He and Orville Wright flew in the plane on September 17, 1908 but disaster met with them when the propeller broke at a height of 75 feet. This incident killed Selfridge and left Wright injured. The Wright brothers are continuing to pursue after the accident in fixing the plane and eliminating the previous error on the planes. Their perseverance was considered a high value and thus they earned a military contract to design the first military aircraft in 1909. The importance of airplane was recognized when the French engineer Louis Blériot crossed the English Channel in a Blériot XI, a monoplane of his own design. This flight shows the world that a plane can be a potential tool for fighting. This was further augmented in the 1910 and 1911 when American pilot Eugene Ely uses a war plane to take off and land on the ground. When this achievement was displayed in the world, airplanes now became an important war tool. The US army has first displayed his might especially when their initial steps of employing the Wright brothers brings a good deal. Using the biplane of the Wright brothers, they made the first bomb test. The Italian impetus exhibited its supremacy in the same year using airplane to monitor its foe, the Turks in the Italo-Turkish War. The Guido Dinelli’s Aeroplano was also the pride of the Italian in building their air force. Airplane importance brought out by war introduced the different methods in flying. The 1913 had become “the glorious year of flying” in which aerobatics, or acrobatic flying, were introduced, and upside-down flying, loops, and other stunts proved aircraft maneuverability. (Tripp, 2008). World War I’s beginning provides for many brilliant ideas to improve the biplanes. Such tools, after understanding the aircraft’s potential device, now serves as a worthy gadget that can be fitted for a larger war institution. Together with the engineered ships that were used as a commercial transportation resource to turn it into battleships and warships, power raids are now taking place the ground and the sea and the stars. It is likely to deduce that innovative ideas will only surface if an ultimate ambition creeps inside the heart of man to create a great dissension that will lead to other nation’s extinction and thus the leaning power will rest on the ablest among the able. The Europeans even before the introduction of airplane by the Wright brothers had actually began working on flying machine designs. With the idea of biplanes, several brilliant minds hope to redesign the biplanes, among of which are Louis Blériot and Dutch-American engineer Anthony Herman Fokker. Fokker’s renowned D-VII and D-VIII were important war planes that being utilize by the Germans to exhibit their supremacy over the Allied forces. The masterpiece of Fokker is to attach a gun on the biplanes while the propeller rotates adding a timing gear in order to fire the gun simultaneously while the propeller is in used. The success of the D biplane marks the beginning of the many fighter planes. The succeeding biplanes planes are airplane innovations or improvement from the previous biplanes with war armaments. Including a telescope, a cover deck to protect the pilot from being hit by the guns and a rearview mirror to have a better view on the enemy side, these are among the many additional materials of an innovative biplane. Several researches funded by the world power nations in order to create and post a name on airborne battle. Among of this are the designs produced by the nations of Great Britain used by the outstanding early British fighters included the Sopwith Pup (1916) and the Sopwith Camel (1917), flying up to 5,800 m (19,000 ft) and reaching a top speed of 190 km / h (120 mph). Notable fighters in France included the Spad (1916) and the Nieuport 28 (1918). By the end of World War I in 1918 both sides had fighters capable of flying at altitudes of 7,600 m (25,000 ft) and speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph). (Ibid.) One of the most significant used of airplane in the World War II, is the Battle of Midway fought in June 1942 where U.S. aircraft embattles with the Japanese aircraft technology. Several aircraft was developed in the 20th century when the Second War conflagrate the Earth. But like in the technological advancement achieve in the First World War, so is airplanes evolution in the Second World War. In the Cold War era, several airplanes occurred as a result of scampering around the globe of the World Powers. One of the most prided aircraft of the Allied powers chiefly a product of consortium of four nations, the UK, Germany, Italy and Spain is the EF2000. It is a specialized aircraft armed with many war tools. It has one 27 mm Mauser cannon, with 13 hard points (three wet) for : the S-225, AIM-120, ASRAAM and AIM 9M, a wide range of AG missiles including AGM65 Maverick, ALARM, Sea Eagle, Paveway, CR-V7, BL755, free-fall and retarded bombs. Maximum external fuel or weapons payload is 6500 kg. This plane is mainly used for ground attacks. Another prided fighter plane is the Lockheed F-22A. It is fulfilled due to the collaboration of Lockheed, General Dynamics and Boeing. Unlike the EF2000, the Lockheed F-22A can both used for air and ground attack. The Lockheed F-22A has a special 3D computer modeling. Its armament range from one long barrel 20 mm 6 barrel rotary gun, with three internal bays for : AIM 120 AMRAAM, AIM 9M, HAVE SLICK air-to surface missiles, Joint Direct Attack Missiles, Tri Service Stand off Attack Missile, PavewayLGB. The Russian may not be left behind with air supremacy of its opponent. They also developed their own aircraft. One of their prides is the Sukhoi SU-35. It is created to survive in any form of weather conditions derived from the SU-27, it can both contain air and ground attack. It has a special features such as fly-by-wire, relaxed static instability and 3D thrust vectoring. Among it’s contain armaments are one 30mm GSh-30 gun, plus hard points for 14 stores, including R-27, R-40 (AA-6 Acrid), R-60, R-73A, R-77 (AA-12) AMRAAM, Kh-25ML (AS-10 Karen, Kh-25MP (AS-12 Kegler), Kh-29 (AS-14 Kedge) and Kh-31 (AS-17 Krypton), KAB-500 bombs and rocket packs. Maximum weapons payload is 8,000 kg. Another aircraft they have is the SU-27 and SU-33. It has replaced Jak-28, Su-15 and Tu-28 interceptors, Engine 27550 lbs, Helmet mounted target designator integrated with fire control system and operates a slave laser range finder and IR tracker and a “panic button” computer function to return the aircraft to level flight from any angle. Armaments are 30 mmm gun, ten hard points, AA-10A,B,C,D, AA11, AA8, R33 (AA9 Amos), and AG weapons can be used. (Missiles and Airplanes developed in the Cold War, 2004). These are among the plane innovation in the era where global competition dominates. They marked that to rule the air based armaments; it can illuminate their success and invincibility among the World Powers.

II. Airplane Dynamics

The third laws of motion by Isaac Newton became the foundation in building the modern plane. Newton’s third law of motion stated that an object experiences a force because it interacts with some other objects. Thus, every action cause an equal and opposite reaction. The force an object exerts must equally align with the same magnitude of the second object however on opposite direction. The airplane for instance interacts with the mechanics of fluid that are in the body of the plane and the wind forces that acts on it. Furthermore, the windmill operations illustrate the propeller of the plane, its operations and the factors that interacts on it. One of the fundamental phases of airplane is its lift, or that force that keep the airplane in high magnitude. Even without the flapping wings, airplane still has the ability to fly because they have the ability to push air down. Normally, the airplane’s wing is quietly elevated than that of the trailing edge. This is to push the air below and the air below will also pushes the wing upward. This motion warrants the Third law of motion of Newton.  The Bernoulli principle even studied the velocity on the flow of fluid while decreasing the pressure and vice versa. Thus, the pressure on the upper side of the plane is lower than that of the lower side. These factors became the foundation of engineers in building modern aircraft. Propeller or the mechanical device is attached to the airplane that serves to produce the thrusts. When the plane was driven, this will mechanically creates lift and drag equivalent to the air velocity.

The different blades of the propeller will yield to forward velocity which corresponds to the flight speed and the peripheral velocity which rotates the blade. One method of analysis on the propeller action is its momentum whenever it flows through the propeller disk. This action was compounded by the British engineer and naval architect William Froude.

The major development on wind tunnel research on airplane was spearheaded by the American physicist Richard Travis Whitcomb. According to this theory, at each point along the airplane, the sharp rise in drag occurring at transonic speeds results from the distribution of the total cross-sectional area. By pinching in the fuselage where the wings are attached, the reduction in the combined cross-sectional area of the fuselage and the wing produces a decrease in the drag characteristics of the aircraft. (Swartz, 2005)

The plane designed by the Wright brothers employ the first wind tunnel and tested various wing designs and arches. Several tests were raised in pursuit of the gliding machine that shall employ mechanical advantage. Several tests were compiled by the Wright brothers. This includes the first precise lift and drag tables, the important parameters which govern flight and stability. The new glider was designed with a 10-m (32-ft) wing span by the popularity of the glider they made and had a double vertical fin mounted behind the wings at first. The first airplane’s architecture was embellished with wings and arches, however when turning it the problem arises. To address this problem, the wing-warping controls turned the fin into a rudder. This proved to be a success. The Wright brothers had tried to develop a powered flight, despite their success. Eventually, they created an 8.9-kilowatt (12-horsepower) motor and made their own efficient propeller. This paved the way in building the first bi plane.

Going back, several had attempted to build an airplane similar to the flapping wings of the birds but because of its limited force due to the fact that it was chiefly to imitate the way birds are and without the force of a human it will not work, thus it was only contained in the paper and was not accepted by the critics. The second object of imagination is a glider which became the foundation in building an airplane. But since it can only fly to a limited height and to a limited duration, the glider has a little success. When the biplane was introduced to the world by the Wright brothers including its capacity to fly in higher height and with a longer time in the air, it the aircraft has since been employed to represent the contending forces of the planet. Different hypotheses were questioned about the plane’s desired shape. Airplane construction demonstrates how the plane’s sides and form are suitably designed to withstand wind speed, wind pressure, and gravity. As commercial aircraft were launched in 1914 and larger aircraft were designed to transport passengers from other destinations. The first operation of the passenger airplane only appeal to the upper class as it is costly enough to be availed by middle class families and especially the poor ones.

The first passenger line was operated in St. Petersburg to Tampa, Florida. A few years later, the U.S. post air mail was introduced. When world wars ignited, the demand for a post air mail increased. The U.S. post air mail was mainly for freight, or transporting goods. Land based transportation cannot support the growing demand. One of the post war positive effects is the beginning of industrialization where there is now the presence of import and export goods to supply the needs of other nations. The introduction of these needs is also the beginning of a different aircraft that would suit commercial needs. Unlike war planes, commercial planes needed much space; a larger space should be constructed in order to fit all the things inside the belly of the airplane. The problem now is the weight of the newly constructed plane and its shape. Before plane construction, Evangelista Torricelli has come up with the study that air has weight. In this premise, several engineers have considered the shape of the plane that can support the weight of the air. Moving air has a component that can lift kites and balloons. The curvature over the top of the plane and its nozzle serves as a lifting element. The air above the curve moves faster as the plane lifts upward. This causes the slant horizontal view of the plane in perspective. The rising edge is higher than that of its tail. However, underneath its wings it moves slower. The concept is that slow air pushes the plane upward while the faster air pushes the nozzle down. Its wings serve to lift even with the heavier weight of the plane. The third law of Isaac Newton was applicable in this point, that for every action it produces an equal and opposite reaction. The wings pushing air down in this case is the practice, and the reaction is the air pushing the wings upward. It allows the plane to have lift, the upward force. There are four primary forces that act on the plane, this are the lift, drag, weight and thrust. Weight equalizes the lift given that they both act in different direction. In order for the airplane to fly, the lift that is being produced by the wings must be greater than the weight of the plane in order for it to take off. The wing must be powerful enough to carry on the whole weight of the plane yet can contain the extreme magnitude of the plane. Thrust is the force that pushes forth the airplane forward, the nozzle of the plane is an effective shape that tends to create a passageway and the tiny molecules of the moving air will be give way to the lifting object. Inside the mechanical system of the plane, there is the so called propulsion system that generates the force of the thrust. These objects can either be the propeller engine and/or the jet engine. The fourth primary force of the airplane is the drag. The main importance of the drag is the fluid that acts on the airplane. When the fluid interacts with the air, it creates friction and thus will ignite the movement of the plane. During the lift process especially to a high altitude, a formidable amount of drag is needed. Several minimizations were needed in other types of airplane such as the high-speed fighters in order for them to easily fly in the atmosphere. The altitude of the airplane is also important in the need to minimize the drag force. To reiterate the four force of the airplane conveys that all the sides and angle of the airplane is design to cope up with all the forces that moves in the atmosphere. One of the most significant or relevant topic in running a plane is how to control it. The pilot must be capable enough to control the plane movement. Among the listed below are the levers and buttons that used by the pilot in controlling the movement of the plane:

  1. Roll– it is to raised the ailerons on one wing or on the other wing. The result is that the wing with the lowered ailerons rises while the opposite wing lowered.
  2. Pitch – is the button that makes the plane to descend or to ascend. By adjusting the elevators on the tail of the plane, the plane can either have to ascend or descend. Lowering the airplane’s nose will makes the plane descend, while raising the elevators will make the plane to ascend.
  3. Yaw – This is true with fighter planes. The yaw is to turn the plane to any sides by pushing the rudder button that will move the plane to any direction. The airplane’s nose will move to where the rudder is directed. Along with the rudder, the ailerons will also act the same way. (The Dynamics of Airplane, 2008). There are also several control panels to move the airplane in all directions. The first is the ailerons. The ailerons serve to raise or lower the wings of the plane. The pilot can either raise one aileron and lowers the other aileron. The aileron is important especially when a disaster will happen, the movement of the wings will balance the moving air and to bring it back to its horizontal position. The other control panel is the rudder. The yaw was being discussed above as the object that turns the plane to any sides. The yaw was being run by the rudder. Using the right and the left pedals, the pilot can move the rudder left and right too. The right pedal is for the right rudder, the left pedal is for the left rudder. To move the plane to any sides, the rudder together with the ailerons was used. The elevator, the third control panel, is the main object for the pitch. The elevator is found on the tail of the plane. To run the elevator, the pilot has to use a control wheel to raise or lower the elevators. The last control panel is the brakes. It is design when the plane was on the ground to slow down the plane and ready to stop it. The top of the left rudder controls the left brake and the top of the right pedal controls the right brake. (Ibid). One critic on the shape and size of the airplane was Jack Northrop, as according to him, he believes that the development of all wing aircraft would trim down the price of down the price of riding into an airplane by providing a mathematical solution that would reduce the consumption of fuel of an airplane. He further said that the general structure of the plane is also the same as the modern plane we have today but its speed is incredibly different. All wing craft is faster than that of the conventional airplane. The components of the conventional airplane is an excrescences, all that is present outside the furnishing of an airplane is just a 20% minimum help. Instead of relying on the conventional airplane that speeded just enough and it is economically suited to the people, Northrop said that his all wing craft is slightly faster than that of the conventional planes and it is more economically efficient more than that of the conventional planes. (Northrop, 2008).Unrelenting studies continue to soar this days, perhaps Northrop has a appoint in saying that the creation of all wing craft will cut down the economic price of riding a plane, but further studies is needed to substantiate his contention. Many also aspire for the same aspiration of Northrop, to bring a change and ultimately to innovate existing ideas for the better of use of mankind, only that it will take more years to develop all conceptualize ideas.

III. Airplane Structure

The structure of an airplane is design mainly to function all the invented faculties of the airplane and make it work. Before the 1920’s where a recent realization just dawned to the people airplane was not considered as an important invention since it was only used by the military people and not the ordinary people. But when commercial airplanes enter the field, this is the time that people came to realize that one of the most significant inventions is the airplane. Now to make the airplane work, it is important to know something its mechanical parts. The first one is the fuselage. The fuselage is the main deck where the pilot has all what he needs, all the controlling panels where inside the fuselage. In war planes, the fuselage refers to the section where engines, fuel electronic and some weapons are kept. The next property is the wings. Before the 20th century, the wings of an airplane being used are consists mainly of wooden ribs and spars and covered with fabric sewn tightly and varnished to keep it extremely tight. These materials where chosen because it is light and can lift the plane into higher altitude. The early planes are biplanes which consist mainly of two wings attached in the body of the plane and wires were used to connect both the upper and lower wings in order to create a strong a structure and that would fly in a substantial height. After the World War I. Improvements were made on the outer layer of the plane, the plane now was in over all metals and the wings were made of aluminum and steel. The planes after the World War were mainly for military used. Several gadgets were attached to the plane to completely surpass the impetus of its enemy. The Northrop Grumman Corporation manufactured the first plane that has a computer-aided design (CAD). This is the first plane that was added with a computer inside its control panel. The tail assembly is attached to the fuselage having vertical and horizontal stabilizers. The tail assembly’s component is the wings, the rudder and the elevators, they are termed empennage. The stabilizers will keep the plane flight stable. The rudder will help control whatever turns of the plane. The elevator on the other hand will aim the airplane to rise and descend. Another structure of the airplane is the landing gear. For most airplanes they use brakes, wheels and tires. The brake was discussed above as it is to make the plane slows down when it is ready to land. On the other hand, the tires are used to make the airplane standstill while on the ground. Brakes are used especially on emergencies. The control components of the plane are found in the fuselage of modern airplane. The airplane’s ability to rotate on any axis can be found way down to the control component of it. The primary controlling panels are yaw, pitch; lift the ailerons, the pedal. Its secondary control panels are devices such as the flaps, slats, trim tabs, spoilers, and speed brakes. Flaps and slats are employ during take off and landing. They are to increase the lift produce by the wings at a lower speed. Trim tabs are mini control tabs that are used in primarily used in larger tabs. A mini aileron tab is used as the larger aileron tab is in work. Elevator has also its trim tab as it aim to set the pitch attitude for the speed of the air. Instruments are special components of the airplanes being attached on it to monitor the flight, the direction and the speed. The most common type of it is the computer. Other type of the instruments includes the airspeed indicator, an artificial horizon, an altimeter and a compass. It is in this way that a pilot can monitor his speed, his destination, the airplane’s engine, the hydraulic and its fuel system. Private aircraft, commercial plane and military planes uses satellite rather than a compass. It is a system of navigation that is directed in the satellite of the earth to point on any destination in the globe without further aid. One example is the GPS (Global Positioning System), satellite equipment that is positioned in the globe that directs all aircraft to their destination. Military planes sometimes used the radio receivers such as the.

Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) and Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) combined with special screens for the cockpit to land in poor visibility conditions. Propulsion is a rotating turbine that serves the plane propeller to move. The earliest propulsion system uses internal combustion engines. Today, piston engines were in used however it has a complex nature. Military and commercial aviation employ the jet propulsion.

Modern Aircraft

Modern airplanes have several types. It is divided into five categories. These are:

  1. Commercial Transport Planes
  2. General Aviation Planes
  3. Military Planes
  4. Sea Planes
  5. Special Purpose Planes

Commercial Transport plane is used to carry passenger from a point of destination in the globe. It is used mainly for profiteering. Commercial airplanes are Boeing 747 and Airbus in Europe. The Boeing 747 is a four-engine jet that can travel 500 to 600 miles per hour or 805 to 966 kilometers per hour. The Boeing 747 can carry a thousand passenger, 200 passenger, 400 passengers or 50 passengers. Inside the belly of the plane, it can accommodate up to six galleries. Most Boeing had twelve washrooms and uses 47, 000 gallons or 178, 000 liters of fuel. It can actually fly to an altitude of 6, 495 miles or 10, 475 kilometers non-stop. Aside from the four engine jet, other commercial airliners have three engine jets and two-engine jets. A three engine jet has a lesser distance to flight not like that of the four engine jets. A three engine jets can accommodate passengers just like that of four engine jets. Today most of the airliners used were two engine jets perhaps because it has a lesser fuel consumption than that of the three engines and four engine jets. As well as it has lesser engine failure. Two engine failure is less costly than that of the two that is why most commercial planes employ the two engine plane. (Leo, 2008). General Aviation plane are used for non-commercial purposes or for private used. This type of plane is used for pleasure. Elitist and those that are incredibly rich sometimes prefer to have a private plane for them to go anywhere around the globe. Planes that are used by farmers to plant seeds, check soil erosion and count livestock. Planes that are used in making rain especially in a place where there is a lesser quantity of rain employ rainmaking through cloud seeding. This type of plane used is the general aviation plane. Business airplane is also a type of the general aviation. Business plane is usually designed to cope up with different weather conditions. Some of the different general aviation airliners are listed below.

Single-Engine Piston

It has a single engine found in the nose of the airplane. Light Sport Aircraft. This is being used in Europe and in any part of the world. Business Jets. This plane can carry seven-person and can fly hundred to miles. Business jets were specifically used by businessman and businesswomen. Multiengine Piston. To drive this plane requires advance training and special FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) rating. Its component has two or more piston engines. Tricycle Gear. This General Aviation is an offshoot of the World War II, having a steerable nose wheel. Turboprops. This plane is run by gas engine. Amphibians. Amphibians are similar to floatplanes, they have retractable wheel to run in gas strips. Taildraggers. Helicopters. The first idea preconceived by Da Vinci, the helicopters is the most widely used private plane especially for short distances. Biplanes.  The vast majority of biplanes were used in the World War II, now there are only few biplanes that are in used. Gliders.  The first world’s most successful aircraft is the glider being projected by the Wright brothers. Gyroplanes. Tiltrotors. Kitbuilts or Homebuilts. Ultralights. (General Aviation. Different Kinds and Types of Aircraft. 2008.) These are all the series of General Aviation plane used widely today. Military aircraft is the most prevalent during the two World Wars and even improved during the aftermath. Military planes were especially designed to combat, for cargo, training, and observation. Combat airplanes were generally for fighting missions. Usually air fighters must be capable of Mach 2+ flight. These specialized skills are to enable the fighter to run the plane in a formidable speed that either matches the speed of sound to his speed, depending on the given ratio. Examples of Air fighters are those that have mentioned being used during the Cold War. Fighter aircraft today are Panavia Tornado, the Boeing F-15, the Lockheed-Martin F-16 Falcon, the MiG-29 Fulcrum and the SU-27 Flanker. The F-117 Stealth aircraft help to detect enemy radar and can disturbed it. Different aircraft today is mainly designed to access on every possible technological use of the enemy. War aircraft is also used to carry bombs, like that of the atomic bomb dropped in the island of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that had crippled Japan during the World War II. Another category of airplane is the sea planes. They are being subdivided into: Floatplanes, Flying Boats and Amphibians. Unlike the conventional airplanes, Sea planes have big float instead of wheels, their hull is usually boat like shaped to allow them to take off in the water. Sea planes were usually used by fisherman or sportsmen. Pilots who wanted to fly these planes will be needing a single or multiengine seaplane rating (SES or MES). Special planes are designed for special purposes such as spraying chemicals on crops or putting out forest fires. The development of airplane is also the developments of rockets and space shuttles. The NASA flies many space shuttles that serve to determine the bodies outside the planet earth. When the shuttle lands, it became the world’s most sophisticated glider, landing without propulsion.


One of the greatest achievements of man is the invention of airplane. It serves as a link to other nation as well as a link outside the bodies of the earth. More importantly, its recognition improves and speeded the success in the battlefield as well as the success in the economy. The aerospace company, the creator of the many and different types of airplanes have improved as well as adding spice in the lifestyle of many people. Part of different airplanes that flies to other airport is the international regulation that needed to be stabilized and regulate. The international law govern the used an airport by other nations aircraft. Agreement is set out to avoid any complications and to provide safety among its passengers. Several restrictions also were laid down to protect the host country from the un permitted use of an airport. The creation of planes and its significant use especially in wartime also brought some point of a detriment to the individual. It has the capacity to destroy a city like that what happened during the World War II. But like any other invented equipments its disadvantage is less considered than of its advantage. Air supremacy is also the basis of power by other nation. This only show how powerful an empire would be if he has the capacity to dominate in the air power. Not only in war planes but also with commercial plane usage. The plane is a mark of supremacy and power; and it is only through with developed and industrialized nations.

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