Ethnic Minority Movements in USA – Abstract:
The aim of this study is to conduct an in-depth survey of the ethnic movements initiated in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the main factors behind this research is the exploration of ethnic disputes in the nation on the one hand and the effect of these conflict movements on the political, social and cultural lives of the individuals of the United States on the other. The research is also concerned in finding the motives behind these movements and the private, social, political and financial advantages of some people in the name of fight for the uplift and freedoms of members of their corresponding ethnic group and society acquired or designed to acquire from these movements. The researcher will make a conclusion in the end on the basis of the research conducted on the topic selected for this study.
History of human life on the earth is frequently stated to be the history of clashes and conflicts between individuals, communities, groups, societies and nations (Ritzer 2008, p. 33). These conflicts arise in wake of the clash of financial and political interests, though stances of these conflicts are taken in the name of race, ethnicity, religion, sect, culture and other issues (Macionis 2008, p. 392). Consequently, the individuals involved into conflicts seek support from the members of their respective groups and communities by augmenting their sentiments in the name of religious, ethnic and racial differences. Hence, the opportunists tend to fry their own fish by taking benefits out of the unfavourable states of affairs prevailing in the social surroundings. It is particularly the case with the multicultural societies including USA, UK, France and others, where the individuals belonging to diverse ethnic, racial and religious communities co-exist under one and the same environment (Macionis 2008).
Ethno-racialism is a Universal Phenomenon:
The studies reveal the very fact that although no society could be viewed as free from ethno-racial discrimination, yet the same evidently exists in the multicultural regions of the world, particularly Europe, the USA and the Middle East with its extreme awkwardness, high intensity and condemnable severity (Macionis 2008, p.390). Consequently, existence of different ethnicities and racial groups serves as a universal phenomenon, though some of the societies, especially USA, witness existence of almost all ethnic groups in the country. The American society consists of white Anglo Saxon, indigenous Red Indian, African American, and central and south Asian and Far East populations, and hence represents almost all ethnicities existing on the face of the earth (Bloom 1987). It is partly due to the reality that the USA has observed tremendous progress in all areas of life during the last two centuries (Weeks 2003). As a result, the individuals from various zones and regions of the globe have migrated to USA on temporary or permanent basis for seeking higher education, getting medical treatment, starting corporate ventures and in search of job and employment.
Besides, the ancestors of a considerable majority of the contemporary era African Americans had also been taken as slaves for the service of their white counterparts from seventeenth century onward (Donoghue 2010, p. 943). It not only introduced the black racial groups in the country, but also led to frequent occurrence of clashes of interests between the white majority and black minority, resulting into the civil rights movements launched by the largest ethnic minority or blacks to obtain rights for them equivalent to the white majority of American society (Donoghue 2010, p. 947). These rights included the right to live as free members of society, seek education and health facilities, cast votes in favour of the candidates of their choice, and be treated as white citizens. Hence, major ethnic movements were launched, organised and participated by the African American members of United States.
The black community, called African Americans, serves as the second largest racial group and the largest ethnic minority of the USA (Weeks 2003, p. 31). Despite spending several decades as slaves in the service of their white masters, the blacks ultimately strived to break the chains of slavery during second half of eighteenth century, which resulted into abolishment of slave trade in the country in 1808 (White et al. 2013, p. 16). The blacks during slavery had to undergo starvation, cold weather, nakedness, beatings, whippings, and other inhuman treatments at the hands of their masters (Donoghue 2010, p. 943). Some of the white masters and slave traders kept the African slaves naked in cold season even, and imposed harsh punishments on them on trivial mistakes (White 1999, p. 53).
Although the members of black community had been inflicted with lynching, whipping and maltreatment, they finally set free in wake of abolishment of slavery during 1860s. The first civil rights movement was also launched by the black ethnic group of the United States by 1865; therefore, it is referred as the post-Civil War movement 1865-95 (Yacovone 2004, p. 3). It was the era when the blacks used to be humiliated, maltreated and abhorred by a large majority of the white population (Levy 1998, p. 100). In addition, the blacks used to experience forced social segregation, denial of political rights and disgrace at public places (Ezra 2009, pp. 1-2). Moreover, the children of black community were looked down upon in unsegregated schools, and were not allowed to get mixed with the white children (Bloom 1987, p. 2). As a result, the black community had to suffer a lot while travelling in public transport and while visiting any public area across the country (White 1999, p. 39).
One of the majors reason behind the whites’ demonstrating their displeasure towards the blacks included the significant difference in social and financial position of white and black members of US society, which led to the class conflict between the two (Faulkner 1983). The white people did not like even the mixing or social interaction of blacks with whites (Faulkner 1983). The Ku Klux movement organised by the white night riders also mirrored the same, where the affluent white horsemen raided on the places of the African Americans, and thwarted and tortured them on finding any clue and evidence of their having relationships with the white women (Donoghue 2010, p. 944). Hence, their being the descendants of slaves served as an essential element that stopped the whites to allow equal social status to the blacks. In case, a white man finds any sign of his spouse’s bloodline with the African American, such an “unpardonable offence” would never be tolerated at any cost (Chopin 1899). Despite the fact that the life was equally worse for this minority ethnic group of the USA; however, the blacks started civil rights movement in the South, the area in which they had some considerable proportion in population in nineteenth century.
By the end of eighteenth century, industrialisation revolution had set its foot beyond Europe towards USA. Consequently, industrialisation process had started demonstrating its appearance in various areas of the country. It contributed to a great extent to the African Americans to get rid of the miserable state of affairs that was the continuous source of mental agony for them (Bloom 1987, p. 2). It was partly due to the very fact that the establishment of industrial zones encouraged both white and black people to migrate from rural to urban areas in search of employment, which offered potential opportunities of jobs in mills and factories. Hence, the black people found the middle and lower middle members of white community amidst them, who were experiencing the socioeconomic problems similar to those attributed to the downtrodden African American community of the country (Levy 1998). Consequently, upsurge of the middle and lower classes, consisted of the white people challenged the supremacy and exploitations of the upper class of the agrarians. This conflict between two social classes of the same racial group not only resulted in the victory of the poor and defeat of the elite, but also turned out to be beneficial for the uplift of the downtrodden African Americans subsequently (Bloom 1987).
Started by the summer of 1865, the ethnic minority movement laid stress upon obtaining equal rights for the black community. It was the time when the enlightened US President Abraham Lincoln had signed the bill for the abolishment of slavery from the country (Nye & Morpurgo 1979, p. 463). The end of slavery was not only an outcome of long and dreary struggle made by the black ethnic group to set their community free from the shackles of slavery through Thirteenth Amendment introduced by the legislatures in the US Constitution, but also setting free from slavery was a great achievement for the African Americans (White 1999, p. 86). Though the slaves had to undergo physical and sexual exploitations at the hands of their white masters during 18th and 19th centuries; nevertheless, they could have food and shelter as slaves from their masters. As soon as they find themselves free from slavery, the black people strived to concentrate upon obtaining education, health and other facilities in the same lines being offered to their white counterparts in the country.
However, the first question that haunted the minds of the community was how the African Americans would lead their life without having any place to reside and earn as well, as they neither had shelter nor proper source of income altogether. Since the blacks were neither educated, nor they had learned any skill that could assure them a secure and respectable employment, the majority of them were at a perplexed situation subsequent to the abolishment of slavery. Moreover, whenever the African Americans applied against a job, an overwhelming majority of the white employers would have always given priority to the members of their ethnicity instead of preferring the descendants of slaves. As a result, the blacks appeared to be at a perplexed state of affairs on getting free from slavery. Nevertheless, instead of giving up their struggle essential for their growth and development, the ethnic minority explored the possibilities of finding new ways that could assure their progress for the future years to go (White 1999, p. 42).
One of the most noteworthy outcomes of the ethnic rights movement 1865-95 included the protection of civil rights of the African Americans that had then recently got freedom from slavery in the South (Yacovone 2004, p. 26). In addition, the ethnic minority had also obtained the right to cast their votes in favour of the black candidates contesting elections in the South. Somehow, passing of Jim Crow laws in 1892 was equally beneficial and perturbing for the black community. It was partly because of the very fact that the laws allowed the establishment of separate institutions for the blacks including health, educational and other institutions that were exclusively meant for the African Americans (Kousser 1974). Hence, the community obtained the opportunity of introducing the systems of their choice including getting their children admitted in the racially segregated schools. Before this, the black children had to face the hatred of the white majority while studying in the same schools where majority of students belonged to the white children. Before the implementation of Jim Crow laws, the black ethnic minority not only experienced mental torture in public places, but also their children were physically beaten and molested in schools in different ways because of their dark skin colour. The segregated schools were to remain intact for the next six decades. Somehow, the Supreme Court of USA abolished the segregated institutions through its verdict in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education by declaring the segregation of schools on the basis of ethno-racial identity to be unconstitutional (Kousser 1974).
Passing of Civil Rights Act 1875, and revocation of Ku Klux Klan Act 1871 were two important developments attributed to the first civil rights movements organised on the basis of ethnicity in the USA. Although the Civil Rights Act 1875 bestowed all civil rights upon the African Americans attributed to the mainstream white population including equal status in all public places and while travelling in public transports; nevertheless, the rights were only delegated in theory, not in practice. It is because of the overall conduct or behaviour of the majority of white population, which was still hesitant in allowing equal status to the black population. On one side, the African Americans were segregated from the white dominated society of America; and on the other side, their isolation from the mainstream population to some extent increased the feelings of nationalism in the black community of the country. The second ethnic minority movement of USA reflected their utter desire to return to their fatherland from where they or their ancestors had been taken as captives.
Started from the period of winning the right to cast their votes in the South, and having their independent organisations in various parts of the country, the blacks felt the need of getting united under one banner to obtain a respectable place for them in society for the future decades to go. In addition, the literary movement, later called the Harlem Renaissance movement, also turned out to be supportive in respect of developing the nationalist passion among the blacks. The prose and poetry, created during the last years of nineteenth century to the first few decades of twentieth century, also paved the way towards the community’s yearning for going back to the unknown yonder lands their ancestors actually belonged to, and from where they had been taken as captives to be sold as slaves of the affluent white population (Blackmon 2009).
Second Ethnic Movement and Marxist Perspective:
The second ethnic movement attributed to the African Americans is stated to be started by 1896, which was to last for comparatively a longer period of nearly six decades (White 1999). One of the most significant factors behind the beginning of second civil rights movement associated with the black community included different Supreme Court rulings appeared during the last years of nineteenth century, which had separated the white and black communities from each other in light of the principle of ‘separate but equal’. As a result, the both the communities were barred from travelling in same railroad coaches on one side, and studying and teaching in the same institutions on the other. Here appears the Marxist perspective of social conflict, which maintains that there always remains a state of consistent conflict between haves and haves-not in all societies since the known history of the world (Ritzer 2008, p. 35). Unequal distribution of wealth, resources and opportunities tend to lead the societies towards the situation of conflict, where the individuals and communities having riches, resources and finances would not let the others to have access to the same. Hence, the elite social stratum always looks determined to separate itself from the middle and lower classes of society for the preservation of their status-quo as well as for looking distinguished members of society (Macionis 2007, p. 312).
Although Marx has observed the conflict of interest between bourgeoisie (producer or owner) and proletariat (worker or labourer), where clash of interest between the two leads to the eventual conflict; however, the situation of clash of interest between the white and black communities also mirrors the same. It is actually because of the reality that the former had obtained command over all available resources, and were also at the helm of power and governmental affairs for decades, while the latter belonged to the poor and downtrodden group of society with no adequate resources essential for leading a peaceful and secure life altogether (White et al. 2013). Veblen (2012) in his Theory of Leisure Class has also pointed out towards the activities exclusively attributed to the upper stratum of society. The theorist is of the view that wealth and time are essential for the individuals for enjoying leisure hours in recreation and pleasure seeking activities. Since it is the upper class only, which contained both time and wealth in plenty during Veblen’s time, leisure could exclusively be confined to this class (Veblen 2012, p. 22). Same was also applied to the white community of USA, which reflected the manners and hobbies associated with the leisure class. In addition, it also looked down upon the blacks in the similar manner as the members of upper class look down upon the lower classes of society in general. The same elements can be found in the Marxist perspective of social conflict.
Though Marxist theory does not exclusively blame capitalism to be the only factor behind clashes between social classes; however, it manifestly maintains conflict of interest as the pivotal point that tends to regulate the interrelationship among the members of different communities and groups (Coser & Rosenberg 1989). Nevertheless, capitalist economic system weakens association between the social classes on the foundations of economic status and financial position, and hence leads to the division of society into factions. Since the affluent individuals look interested in having distinguished status and position within a social establishment, they do not allow the lower classes to enjoy the same rights and privileges to which they have got access. “Marx notes that unequal access need not at all times and under all conditions lead to active class struggle. But he considered it axiomatic that the potential for class conflict is inherent in every differentiated society, since such a society systematically generates conflicts of interest between persons and groups differentially located within the social structure, and, more particularly, in relation to the means of production” (Coser & Rosenberg 1989).
Here appears another noteworthy thing i.e. the affluent social class maintains that they have reached the respectable and powerful position by dint of their hard toils and by making investment of time, money and energies while starting a corporate venture and hiring different employees against wages and salaries to be paid by them against their services. Hence, putting one’s investments at stake really requires courage and determination to achieve something in life. The same point is valid and could be applied to the developed and powerful states and countries of the world, which had attained superiority over rest of the world by dint of their hard work, knowledge, wisdom, technical and strategic advancements in the fields of science, laws, navigation, communication, ammunition and finances. It was actually the strategic and economic superiority of the European powers by dint of which they had invented latest military equipment to subjugate the Asian, Latin American and African states, captured their wealth and made them to be their slaves (Mahajan 2003, p. 116). Since the white population of America also had obtained powerful status in international arena, sense of superiority had haunted their minds. Therefore, they would not allow equal status and position to the African Americans, whom they considered to be their slaves and descendants of the slaves of their ancestors.
The Marxist perspective had stress upon distribution of resources and opportunities on the principles of justice and equality, so that all members of a social establishment could get equal chances of growth, work and even leisure-time consumption, which could bring positive change in society. “The individual with abundant leisure would have the opportunity to devote himself to more than one activity, to express himself to diverse fields of endeavour, both physical and intellectual; and as an economic producer he would find more occasion to develop all round abilities by participating in the work of management and by learning something of the science and technology upon which the operations of industry are based” (Bottomore 1964, p 143). The reason behind Marxism’s declaring capitalism a serious threat to the interests of the labour classes or proletariat, and beneficial only for the upper class or bourgeois is this that the investors and owners under capitalist economic system would exploit the workers and labourers.
Somehow, he neglected the very point that the investors have taken several risky decisions by putting their finances and future at stake for attaining the position enviable for the labour class. The same is also applied to the developed nations of the world, to which a distinguished social status and position have not been presented in plate; rather, they have made sacrifices of their time, energies and even lives of thousands of their military personnel to earn such a distinguished status in the international arena (Wilson & Wilson 2015). Nevertheless, Marx is justified in proposing such a social pattern, which could decide and determine the political and economic set up for a society. Since white community represented the producers and owners, while the blacks appeared to be members of working class, so the Marxist perspective successfully encompasses the struggle between the two.
On one side, the white individuals of US society enjoyed all facilities and comforts the life offers to man; and on the other side, the African Americans were even deprived of creature comforts necessary for their survival. Hence, their deteriorating health conditions as well as miserable situation in field of education also were two major factors behind their launching struggles for obtaining rights for them on the foundations of justice and equality. Hence, the African Americans realised that they had been deprived of two very basic necessities of everyday life, both of which were enjoyed by their white counterparts in plenty. Additionally, the motive behind the organising of ethnic movement was struggling for obtaining a respectable status in US society. Since segregation of the community, in wake of the implementation of Jim Crow laws in the country, has endorsed the second class status of the African Americans, the community felt it really humiliating and insulting to live in the country as an inferior group (White et al 2013, p. 168).
In the same way, due to their having association with the labour and toil as slaves as well as lack of having hygienic and efficient food, the blacks underwent poorer health condition in comparison with the rest of the entire US population (White et al 2013, p. 135). Though the situation had taken considerable improvements after their getting free from the clutches of slavery and humiliation with the course of time; nevertheless, the feelings of having lower social status and deprivation haunted the minds of the African Americans to a great extent. It was the Harlem Renaissance movement, which increased sense of realisation among the African Americans with regard to their rights and privileges as free and equal members of American society (Blackmon 2009, p. 19). The movement later would produce the ethnic leaders and rebels in the persons of Rosa Parks, Martin Luther Jr., Malcolm X and many others, who would successfully strive for winning social and political status for the black people equivalent to the white members during the second half of twentieth century onward (Yacovone 2004).
Instead of addressing the African men and women in a proper and adequate manner by calling them Mr or Ms, they were addressed as boy and girl respectively by majority of the prejudiced white population without taking their age into slightest considerations. Similarly, it was also insulting for the African Americans that they had to leave passage and vacate seats in favour of their white counterparts across the country whenever the white members of society were in need of it (Parks 1999, p. 15). Hence, the sense of leading an inferior life always haunted the community, where they appeared to be helpless to cope with such feelings they used to experience in their everyday life. Kate Chopin’s Deisree’s Baby (1899) and William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily (1983) serve as two important literary pieces which appear to be supportive in understanding the perception and feelings of an overwhelming majority of the white stratum about the African American individuals collectively. The African Americans were not allowed to participate in sports and games in the teams of white players altogether by the end of first half of the previous century. Consequently, the talents and skills maintained by the blacks went waste due to apartheid and ethno-racial discrimination prevailing in the United States especially till the last three decades of twentieth century with all its ugliness.
Ethnic Minority Movement during 20th Century:
There is no second opinion in the reality that the US political authorities had maintained great concerns for the education and health of the citizens (Nye & Morpurgo 1979, p. 503). However, all these steps taken by the authorities remained confined to the whites only, and the blacks were still viewed to be the least developed community in respect of both health and education, as they were refused to be treated on the foundations of equality in the US society. Their educational institutions lacked adequate facilities attributed to the schools established for the white children. As a result, the community had to seek help from the Supreme Court for the abolishment of segregated institutions across the country.
Despite the very reality that the blacks had made some accomplishments at a collective scale in respect of earning some place in the US society from nineteenth century onward. Nevertheless, their destination still was far away, and required continuous and systematic struggles to win more respect in society and to get rid of the titles like nigger, coloured and others.
The condemnable court decision against the gang rape of a black woman, called Recy Taylor, in September 1944 at the hands of six white men in Alabama could also be viewed as a turning point in history of ethnic rights movement organised by the African American minority (McGuire 2010, p. 133). Not only this that the white Americans gang raped the woman, but also the US court refused to indict the offenders despite their making confession of committing the crime of gang rape against a black woman. Such a prejudiced and awkward decision was not only condemnable and shocking one for all individuals having belief in social justice and equality, but also imposed a black mark on the face of the US justice system, the so-called torch-bearer of human rights. As a result, the incident of gang rape, and subsequent verdict of the prejudiced court invited the anger of the entire African American community, which joined hands to raise protest against such a shameful partiality demonstrated by the court in favour of the influential culprits belonging to the white community (McGuire 2010, p. 14). Instead of being protected by the law enforcing agencies, the victim and her family had to lead a life under sheer feelings of fear and insecurity for the preceding months subsequent to the occurrence of the mishap.
It was the time when the entire minority community decided to stand by the victim member of their community in order to seek justice for her by getting the offenders penalised under the statutes of prevailing law (McGuire 2010, p. 17). And the second dismissal of the gang rape case increased the magnitude of hatred and abhorrence among the black people of America against the then existing justice system. The incident turned out to be curvy point in respect of uniting the entire community against the ethno-racial bias observed by the white members of Henry Count juries that heard the gang rape case and issued verdict subsequently. It was actually the influence of this incident that the white gang rapists were indicted in Betty Jean Owen gang rape case of 1959 for assaulting and sexually molesting a black woman (McGuire 2010, p. 22).
Further developments in respect of ethnic minority movement were observed by the beginning of second half of twentieth century. It was particularly witnessed in famous Montgomery bus case (McGuire 2010, p. 15). Although the blacks had got the permission of travelling in the public transports across the country; somehow, still the community members were supposed to vacate their seat in case a white passenger entered the bus and did not have any place to sit. However, the revolt made by Rosa Parks in the famous bus incident turned tables in favour of the black community, where a young black lady named Rosa Parks refused to vacate the seat for a white passenger on December 01, 1955 (Parks 1999, p. 4). Parks took the plea that being the citizen of America, she maintained rights and privileges equivalent to those granted to the whites. Despite the fact that four African Americans had already made such type of resistance in public buses from 1942 onward; somehow, Parks earned great fame as African American rights activist because of her arrest occurred on the complaint of the white bus driver. Since Parks’ refusal and non-compliance had infuriated the white community and the bus driver exchanged harsh words with Parks, which resulted into the arrest of Rosa Parks. As a result, the African American community decided to observe complete boycott of the Montgomery buses in Alabama for the next one year and two weeks (Parks 1999, p. 13). The African Americans used to walk even for miles instead of riding in the Montgomery buses as a protest against the biased behaviour and misconduct of one of its drivers. Consequently, the court issued decree in favour of the black community and the bus company had to give way subsequently. The incident not only united the community across the country, but also laid the foundation stone of final ethnic minority movement, which would generate great outcomes for the future years to go.
Civil Rights Movement 1956-68—- the Most Fruitful Period of Ethnic Minority Movement:
The arrest and humiliation of Rosa Parks in public bus was the beginning of new era of equality and human rights protection in the USA. The incident was not actually the insult of a woman; on the contrary, it was the insult of the entire community, which had to pay ransom amount in the American society for their skin colour. Consequently, National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) appeared to be determined to play a more vital role for getting rid of humiliating status for them and for their future generations to come. It was partly because of the bitter truth that the blacks were persecuted, assaulted and their houses and churches were also attacks in wake of the Montgomery bus incident. Consequently, the next decade from 1956 to 1966 could rightly be declared to be nerve-testing years for the black minority across the country. Despite attending the racially segregated churches of America, the black activists including Martin Luther King Jr., Ralph Abernathy, Joseph Lowery, Wyatt T. Walker, Fred Shuttlesworth, and others viewed their struggle to be religious and Biblical in nature, where they were to defy the injustices and ethnic discriminations as according to the teachings of Bible and Jesus Christ (Branch 2006, p. 42). Similarly, the leaders and activists of NAACP, including non-Christian members, also regarded their struggle to be made for the uplift of truthfulness and equality preached by all faiths predominantly Islam (X & Haley 1987, p. 67). Therefore, their struggle and movement reflected religious and ethical signs and symbolism in its nature and scope. The leaders of this somewhat final ethnic minority movement were determined to bring racism to its ultimate end from the country. However, the ethnic group had to undergo resistance and hard times at the hands of racist group in the white population.
Here it is noteworthy to describe that majority of the white population was against the assaults, attacks and molesting of the coloured people; nevertheless, this silent majority certainly considered the blacks as an inferior community that should not have the privileges equal to those had been granted to the whites in society. The racist factions of the majority white population had become proactive with regard to torturing and molesting the blacks. Hence, incidents of lynching, beating, raping and assaulting of blacks were remained frequent during 1956-66 in the country. On one side, the racist groups from white population had launched a campaign against declaring the blacks to be equivalent to them; and on the other side, the blacks looked firm and resolute to get the equal status implemented in soul and spirit in the US society as per the laws of the country. Rest of some ethnic and religious minorities also seemed to be determined to get discrimination in the name of race, ethnicity, religion and faith abolished from the US soil so that all communities could live on the basis of equality and freedom in USA. These groups include Muslims, Asian Americans, Latin Americans, Hindus, Buddhists and others. In the same way, the labour unions also added their share to thwart the two and half a century long discriminative behaviour adopted by some racists in America. The blacks remained victim of mental, physical and sexual tortures, assaults, rapes, lynching and hatred (White 1999). Nevertheless, the time was ripe when the racial and ethnic discrimination would be curbed with an iron hand. However, still more sacrifices would be required to be made by the African Americans to attain respect and honour for their community and the future generations ultimately.
The second half of twentieth century produced the leaders including Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X and others, who raised strong revolt against apartheid in USA. King Jr. also united the black community, organised demonstrations, travelled wide, made speeches and encouraged his community to observe civil disobedience in case their rights and privileges as equal members of society were supressed in any area of the country. The black leaders were attempted to be thwarted and intimidated; they were also persecuted, tortured and put in jails for raising slogans of equal status in society during 1950s and 1960s. However, the dedicated and committed leadership tolerated every hardship in best interest of their community.
Here it is noteworthy to describe that some elements in African American community, also took full advantage of the tension between white and black communities (Levy 1998). Some of the traitors among the black nation also worked as spies and agents of their opponents, and kept the secret agencies and pro-white organisations about the movement, programmes and plans of the African American leaderships (Branch 2006). Consequently, some of the most prominent figures including Malcolm X, Martin Luther and others became an easy target of the murder plans of the opponents, which certainly halted the pace of the ethnic rights movement launched by the African American community. Hence, the aims and objectives of the racists to divert the attention of the civil rightists appeared to be partially successful that abated the tide of movements launched by the blacks for obtaining equal status. Nevertheless, the future leaders held the torch of equality to purge the country of ethno-racial discrimination. As a result, both of the mainstream political parties including Democrats and Republicans started assuring the participation of African Americans as their members in Senate and states. The African Americans also obtained place in federal cabinet during 1980s. Today, an African American has been enjoying the most powerful and prestigious position in the country as the President of USA, who had twice been elected as President from Democrats Party.
To conclude, it becomes evident that the candle lit by the early nineteenth era African American torch-bearers of emancipation and equality in the country had started producing fruits in form of political, legal and social recognition of the rights of the African American community. Now no one is there to call the Africans as nigger, coloured, black, or in any other humiliating title or word in the country. Besides, no one can rape or torture the African as it used to be committed in past without having any fear of legal prosecution. Now, life, honour and property of every African American is protected in the same way as law is the custodian of the life and belongings of the white members of society. Not only this that the African Americans can visit every public place, can take education and health facilities out of their free will, can marry the person of their choice in every ethnic, racial, religious group and both the genders without having fear of persecution, but also one of their black members has been enjoying the position of President of USA for the last seven years. Nevertheless, some racists from both sides maintain hatred against each other, though publically, socially and politically, no one can declare the African Americans as an inferior community of the country anymore.
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