Tuesday , October 17 2017
Home / Research Papers / Psychology / Emotional Intelligence and Pro social Self-Regulation in University Students

Emotional Intelligence and Pro social Self-Regulation in University Students

The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Pro social Self-Regulation in University Students

Acknowledgement

First of all, I would like to thank ALLAH ALMIGHTY who has provided me the great courage to undertake and complete this research.

I pay my special gratitude to my Director and supervisor Professor Dr. for approving my research topic who always very co-operative towards students. She always payed attention to my work and guided me in very impressive manner. I would also thank the commendable and inspiring supervision of Ms., who has provided me encouragement and guidance to complete this research project. I find the words too inadequate to express my gratitude for her supervision.

I would thank my family who always supports me in every matter of my life and my friends who stand by me in every thick and thin.

Last, but not the least, I pay my humble thanks to participants of the study. I also thank computer lab and library staff members of my institute and the Main Library who had been very helpful in accessing material for my research project.

Table of Contents

Title Page No.
Declarationi
Certificateii
Acknowledgementiii
List of Contentsiv
List of Tablesvii
List of Appendicesviii
List of Abbreviations and Symbolsix
Abstract1
Chapter I
Introduction 2-14
            1.1 Emotional intelligence2
                        1.1.1 Components of Emotional Intelligence6
                        1.1.2 Models of Emotional Intelligence7
                                    1.1.2.1 Mayer and Salovey’s Model of emotional                                                      intelligence7
                                    1.1.2.2. Goleman’s Model of Emotional Intelligence8
                                    1.1.2.3. Bar-On’s Model of Emotional Intelligence8
                                    1.1.2.4. Trait Model of Emotional Intelligence9
                                                1.1.2.4.1. Well Being9
                                                1.1.2.4.2. Self-Control9
                                                1.1.2.4.3. Emotionality9
                                                1.1.2.4.4. Sociability10
                        1.1.3 Emotional Intelligence: The Quranic Perspective10
            1.2 Prosocial Self-Regulation12
                        1.2.1 External Regulation14
                        1.2.2 Introjected Regulation14
                        1.2.3 Identified Regulation14
Chapter II
Literature Review 16-25
            2.1 International Researches16
            2.2 Indigenous Researches21
            2.3 Rationale24
            2.4 Objectives25
            2.5 Hypotheses25
Chapter III
Method 26-33
            3.1 Research Design26
            3.2 Sample26
                        3.2.1 Inclusion Criteria26
                        3.2.2 Exclusion Criteria26
            3.3 Operational Definitions29
                        3.3.1 Emotional Intelligence29
                        3.3.2 Prosocial Self-Regulation29
            3.4 Assessment Measures29
                        3.4.1 Demographic Information Sheet29
                        3.4.2 Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF)29
                        3.4.3 Prosocial Self-Regulation30
            3.5 Translation of Tools30
            3.6 Procedure32
            3.7 Ethical Consideration33
Chapter IV
Results 34-42
            4.1 Reliability Analysis34
            4.2 Summary of the Findings42
Chapter V
Discussion 43-47
            5.1 Conclusion47
            5.2 Limitations48
            5.3 Suggestions48
            5.4 Implications49
References 50-59

List of Tables

Tables  Page No.
Table 3.1Descriptive Characteristics of Demographics27
Table 4.1Descriptive Statistics and Reliability Analysis of Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire- Short Form, Prosocial Self-Regulation Questionnaire34
Table 4.2Correlation among Demographic variables, Trait Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation in University Students (N=175).36
Table 4.3Step wise Regression Analysis for Emotional Intelligence Predicting Prosocial Self-Regulation37
Table 4.4Step wise Regression Analysis for Emotional Intelligence Predicting Prosocial Self-Regulation38
Table 4.5Independent Samples t-test for Gender Differences across Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation in University Students(N= 175)39
Table 4.6Independent Samples t-test for Group Differences across Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation in University Students (N= 175)40
Table 4.7Independent Samples t-test for Difference in Residence across Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation in University Students (N= 175)41

List of Appendices

Page No.
Appendix APermission Letters from Authors of Assessment Measures60-62
Appendix BPermission Letter from Institute of Applied Psychology63
Appendix CConsent Form64
Appendix DDemographic Information Sheet65
Appendix ETrait Emotional Intelligence

Prosocial Self-Regulation

66-70
Appendix FPlagiarism Report71

List of Abbreviations and Symbols

EIEmotional Intelligence
PSRProsocial Self-Regulation
TEIQue-SF Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire- Short Form
SRQ-PProsocial Self-Regulation Questionnaire
MMean
SDStandard deviation
ULUpper limit
LLLower limit
CIConfidence Interval
 αReliability coefficient
 βUn-standardized coefficient
ΒStandardized regression coefficient
SEStandard error
 pSignificance
 dCohen’s measure of sample effect size for comparing two sample mean
KNo. of items
fFrequency
%Percentage
NNumber in sub-sample
NNumber of participants
RMultiple correlation coefficient
R2Coefficient of determination
FF distribution, Fisher’s F ratio

Abstract

The present investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation in university students. It was hypothesized that there would likely to be a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation in university students; and emotional intelligence would predict prosocial self-regulation. It was further hypothesized that there would be gender and group differences in emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation. Correlational research design was used. A sample of 175 university students (M= 20.46, SD=1.32) was recruited using convenient sampling technique. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides & Furnham, 2003) and Prosocial Self-Regulation Questionnaire (Ryan & Connell, 1989) were used for assessment. Pearson product moment correlation and stepwise regression analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that well-being was negatively correlated with identified regulation. Emotionality was positively correlated with introjected regulation whereas emotionality was negatively correlated with identified regulation. Well-being was a positive predictor and emotionality was a negative predict of introjected regulation. Well-being was a negative predictor of identified regulation. There were gender and group differences across emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation in university students. Implications for emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation are discussed.

Chapter I

Introduction

In the modern time it is very hard to find someone who works for the betterment of the other people regardless of any reward or benefit. Being able to recognize and manage our own emotions and the emotions of others, commonly known as emotional intelligence, and engage with people in a way that draws them to us and working for betterment of other people without any reward known as prosocial behavior is of a great importance in adolescents because in this age these behaviors are developing. Islamic education also educates emotional schooling to its followers. There are numerous Quranic verses as well as the sayings of the Holy Prophet (SAW) which transfer to the emotional life of human beings. The emotional abilities like tolerance (Al-Baqarah: 155-157), perseverance (AL-Ahqaf: 13), empathy (Al-Baqarah: 273), hope (Al-Baqarah: 218), etc. have been given excessive importance in the Islamic teachings. In view of this importance the present research is going to explore the relationship of emotional intelligence with prosocial self-regulation in university students. This chapter intends to highlight the definitions, theories of emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation.

1.1 Emotional Intelligence

            The groundwork of emotional intelligence is shaped in the early working of the study of emotions and intelligence. Emotional intelligence is the ability to screen one’s own and other person emotions to differentiate between different emotions properly, and to use emotional details to guide thinking and behavior (Robert, Zaidner & Mathews, 2001).

The perception of Emotional Intelligence is a comparatively new concept suggesting a framework integrating features of emotional information processing, emotion regulation and effective behavioral reactions to emotional stimuli. This context, firstly suggested by Mayer and Salovey (1997), defines Emotional Intelligence as a group of abilities related to an individual’s proficiencies of (1) recognizing emotions in self and others, (2) adding emotions into thought courses, (3) effectively processing difficult emotions and (4) regulating one’s own emotions and those of others.

Whereas some authors named Emotional Intelligence as a personality trait (Petrides & Furnham, 2000), others make an effort to explain it as a part of human abilities, using the similarity with educational intelligence as guiding principle (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 1999). Skills related to emotional intelligence are directly linked with positive social contact and well-being, while emotion dysregulation is considered a key device underlying several psychopathologies (Davidson, 1998).

Goleman (1995) claimed in his book of emotional intelligence that “Emotional Intelligence is a leading aptitude, a capacity that strongly affects all other abilities, either facilitating or meddling with them”.According to Harrod and Scheer (2005), emotional intelligence is the collection of a person’s attainment oriented traits.

Hein (2005), while presenting his definition of Emotional Intelligence, describes emotional intelligence as an inborn ability which can be either established or damaged by experiences of life. As emotional intelligence is related with success in life and daily social relationships and dealing, it is important for developing a resilient personality that various environmental aspects that can affect emotional intelligence growth should be taken into account.

The concept of emotional intelligence can be derived from the early works of Thorndike and Gardner (1983). Thorndike explains Social Intelligence as the ability to recognize one’s and other’s internal state, aims and actions, and acts towards them optimally on the basis of that information (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Gardner (1983) proposed that human beings have a number of intelligence that is related to different areas of the brain and distinguished between seven kinds of intelligence, that is: (1) spatial, (2) physical, (3) musical, (4) linguistic, (5) logical-mathematical, (6) interpersonal and (7) intrapersonal intelligence. This became theory of Multiple Intelligences in which he suggested the presence of personal intelligence which contains interpersonal intelligence (relating to one’s intelligence dealing with other, more precisely, it refers to ability to notice and discriminate between emotions of others and include their moods tempers as well as motivations and meanings) and intrapersonal intelligence (relating to one’s intelligence dealing with oneself). Although Gardner did not refer the above mentioned as emotional intelligence. Gardner’s notion of inter and intrapersonal provided basis for later moods of Emotional Intelligence (Schutte et al., 1998).

In order to develop a robust personality, students must learn such crucial life skills. Nelson and Low (2005) highlight the significance of understanding emotional mind in order to develop such skills in students that help productive thinking and wise action. Cornwall and Walter (2006) have claimed that purely academic view of education is no more productive in the recent society and it should be improved by recognizing the significance of social and emotional features of education.

In emotional intelligence, emotions directly influence thought to assist better decision; thinking and action whereas, reasoning and thinking operate on emotional information. There are some basic canons of how emotions influence thinking. When we are in an adverse temperament, the search for errors increases, we focus more on details and tend to be more serious. Whereas, being in positive mood helps to produce and see more results. It further assists in having an open, expansive view of the world (Emmerling, Shanwal, & Mandal, 2008).

We learn and evaluate our and other people’s emotions and react suitably by reflecting the information and energy of emotions towards our daily life and work. Therefore, individuals who can drive their emotions wisely towards the aims that they want to attain in their work, education, or private life and who can achieve these goals may be defined as “intelligence in regard to emotions” (Deniz, Tras, & Aydoga, 2009). The ability to recognize emotion in others is associated with measures of information, social abilities, positive thinking and academic success (Edman & Edman. 2004).

In recent years, the literature sees increasing concentration in the neurobiological basis of emotion perception and regulation in humans. Neuroscientists and cognitive psychologists recognize the important role of emotions in cognitive processes such as verdict, decision-making, problem solving and interpersonal awareness (Damasio, 1994).

The notion of emotional intelligence has been established over a period of time with the progression of knowledge about human behavior and psychology. The confab in this section concerns with the ideas of emotions and intelligence that led to the concept of emotional intelligence. Moreover, the models of emotional intelligence have been observed and emotional intelligence has been explored in the Quranic viewpoint. The translation of the Quranic Verses is taken from “The Translation and Interpretation of The Noble Quran” by Al-Hilali and Khan (1996).

1.1.1 Components of Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence has five components which are: self–awareness, self–regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. The first component of emotional intelligence is self-awareness which means, “having a deep understanding to one’s emotions, powers, weaknesses, needs and drives” (Goleman, 1995). People who keep this quality avoid the excesses of being overly critical and whimsically hopeful. Furthermore, these people know how their feelings and moods affect them, others and their job performance (Goleman. 1995).

The second component of emotional intelligence is self-regulation. This is an ongoing discussion people have with themselves, which frees them being hostages of their feelings (Goleman, 1995). People who have high amount of self-regulation have much competence of facing the uncertainties of a proceeding industry than those who has low notch of self-regulation. The veracity of a home can be boosted with the help of high level of self-regulation. People with high level of self-regulation do not make bad judgments through imprudent behaviors. Self-regulation will help persons to make thoughtful choices, which stay in control of their feelings.

The third component of emotional intelligence is motivation, which prolongs to the deep inner aspiration to attain for the sake of achievement. Motivated individuals want to succeed beyond their and everyone else’s expectations. Motivation makes people agitated; therefore they constantly explore new perspectives to find better ways of doing their trades. Highly motivated individuals remain hopeful even though they have practiced failure or a hindrance. Motivated person is devoted to succeed in its areas and objectives (Goleman. 1995).

The fourth component of emotional intelligence is empathy which means to be thoughtful and aware of other’s feelings. Empathic individuals are also active in recalling talent because they are able to develop personal bond with others. The last component of emotional intelligence is social skills. Individuals use their kindliness in order to have people do what they want. Social individual is a real persuader (Goleman. 1995).

1.1.2 Models of Emotional Intelligence

Following are the models of emotional intelligence and their terms are:

  1. 1.1.2.1 Mayer and Salovey’s model of emotional intelligence
  2. 1.1.2.2. Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence
  3.  1.1.2.3. Bar-On’s model of emotional intelligence
  4. 1.1.2.4. Trait model of emotional intelligence
  • 1.1.2.1. Mayer and salovey’s model of emotional intelligence.

The word emotional intelligence has been devised by John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey in early 1990s, to explain qualities like understanding one’s own and others emotions and to use this facts for guiding thoughts and actions (Mayer & Salovey, 1990). They suggested a four-branch model of emotional intelligence that centers on the abilities of a person to identify emotional information and to bring out abstract thinking using this emotional information (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). This model includes; 1) the abilities to recognize emotions in one and others correctly; 2) use emotions to assist thinking; 3) cognize emotions, emotional linguistic, and the gestures carried by emotions; 4) manage emotions so as to achieve specific goals.

On the foundation of this model Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (2000) have built a measure of emotional intelligence named MSCEIT (Mayer, Salovey & Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test).

  • 1.1.2.2. Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence.

Goleman (1995) has explained emotional intelligence in word of “skills such as being able to encourage oneself and continue in the face of frustration; to control desire and delay satisfaction; to regulate one’s mood and keep distress from overwhelming the ability to think; to feel for and to hope”. In his previous work, Goleman (1998) proposed a model of emotional intelligence comprising of five domains that contain 25 proficiencies. The five domain included Self-Awareness, Self-Regulation, Motivation, Empathy and Social Skills.

Later, he advanced the model on the basis of statistical work of Boyatzis, Goleman and Rhee (2000). The model proposed by Goleman (2000b) classifies four areas of emotional intelligence that include 20 competencies. The four major domains include: 1) self- awareness; 2) self-management; 3) social awareness; 4) relationship management.

  • 1.1.2.3. Bar-On’s model of emotional intelligence.

Bar-On (2006) states emotional intelligence in terms of such emotional and social skills that affect our understanding and expression of ourselves, our understanding for others and communication with them, and the ability to deal with everyday demands. After 17 years of study, he developed the Bar-On EQi that is a systematically developed and validated assessment of emotional intelligence. It reveals a person’s skill to cope with daily encounters and helps foresee one’s achievement in life (Abisamra, 2000). This inventory consists of five major modules and 15 subscales of these components. The five scales include: 1) intrapersonal component; 2) interpersonal component; 3) stress management; 4) adaptability; and 5) general mood.

  • 1.1.2.4. Trait model of emotional intelligence.

Trait model of emotional intelligence are known by the addition of a wide range of personality variables and self-perceived abilities and they should be agreeing to Zeidner, Mattews and Roberts (2001) be mainly investigated within a personality framework. According to Petrides and Furnham (2001), trait emotional intelligence is a group of emotion-related dispositions and self-perceptions set at the lower levels of personality pyramids. The four major domains include: 1) well-being; 2) self-control; 3) emotionality; 4) sociability.

1.1.2.4.1 Well being. According to Petrides and Furnham this Factor describes our overall well-being. It was based on three aspects, self-esteem; how confident we were and our levels of self-respect, trait happiness; how content and how good we feel about the present, trait optimism; how positive we feel about the future (Petrides & Furnham, 2001).

1.1.2.4.2 Self-Control. This Factor describes how well we regulate external pressure, stress, and impulses. It includes emotion regulation which means capacity to regulate our emotions, stay focused and remain calm in upsetting situations, impulse control; whether we think before we act, or to take hasty decisions, stress management; how well we manage pressure and stress (Petrides & Furnham, 2001).

1.1.2.4.3Emotionality. Another component of trait emotional intelligence describes our capacity to perceive and express emotions and how we use them to develop and sustain relationships with others. This component includes empathy; our capacity to understand other people’s viewpoints and if we take their feelings into account, emotion perception; capacity to understand our own and other people’s emotions, emotion expression means capacity to express our emotions, relationships means the capacity to forge and sustain fulfilling relationships both in and out of work (Petrides & Furnham, 2001).

 1.1.2.4.4 Sociability. Petrides and Furnham explained sociability as the capacity to socialize, to manage and to communicate with others. It includes emotion management; as the capacity to manage other people’s emotional states, assertiveness; how forthcoming we are and the degree to which we stand up for our own rights, social awareness; capacity to feel comfortable in social contexts and how we behave in the presence of people we do not know very well (Petrides & Furnham, 2001).

1.1.3 Emotional Intelligence: The Quranic Perspective.

After the creation of Adam (AS), Allah (SWT) educated him the “names of things”(Al-Baqarah: 31) which, according to some reviewers, include feelings and emotions(Ali, 1946). Rudimentary emotions, like pleasure, sorrow, rage, love, etc. are present in animals also. Though, what separate human from animals is the proper display of emotions with the help of intellect. Emotional Intelligence is the ability of a person to identify and control emotions and productively use emotional information. Islam delivers guidance in all the aspects of life― “Verily, this Quran guides to that which is most just and right…” (Al- Isra: 9) therefore, the model of emotional intelligence is apparent in the teachings of Islam. There are several Quranic verses as well as the sayings of the Holy Prophet (SAW) which relate to the emotional life of human beings.

According to the Holy Quran, man is obliged to think and ponder upon his self, “Do they not think deeply about themselves?” (Ar-Rum: 8) as Allah has placed His sign in man’s self, “And also in your own selves [there are signs]. Will you not then see?” (Adh-Dhariyat: 21)

In fact, man very well knows his self even though he pretends to be ignorant. “Nay! Man is a witness against himself. Though he may put forth his excuses” (Al- Qiyamah: 14, 15).

In sum, Emotional intelligence is such a quality that assists a person to understand the emotions of people positively, to relieve the stress, to communicate effectively, to accept the challenges and resolve the conflicts among the people and in this present research we are using the trait model of intelligence. On the other hand, prosocial behavior means to engross voluntary in providing benefits to others. This behavior basically demands psychological and social rewards for its services. The main relation between emotional intelligence and the prosocial self-regulation is that they both are working for the benefit of mankind. We can say that as much as a person is emotionally intelligent he could be more beneficial for others as he can understand the problems and issues of others easily and can help them in a better way according to the needs of a person.

Moreover such a person a person feels satisfaction to help others because internally such persons are too much motivated to help others that is termed as prosocial self-regulation. The following section will highlight definition and theoretical background of prosocial self-regulation.

1.2 Prosocial Self-Regulation

Self-regulation is an integrated learning process, consisting of the development of a set of constructive behaviors that affect one’s learning. These courses are planned and adapted to support the quest of personal goals in changing learning environments (Rayan & Connell, 1989). Prosocial behavior is well-defined as actions that help other people or society as a whole (Twenge, Baumeister, Dwall, Ciarocco, & Bartels, 2007). It is categorized by helping that does not benefit the helper; in fact, prosocial behavior is often accompanied by costs prosocial behavior can be termed as voluntary actions planned to help or benefit another individual or group of people (Knickerbocker, 2003). While these actions benefit the receiver, they can also be expensive to the doer (Bénabou, 2005). The every aspect of prosocial behavior amongst humans has long been an important puzzle in the social sciences (Simpson, Bret,& Roob, 2008).

Prosocial behaviors are voluntary behaviors made with the purpose of helping others (Eisenberg & Fabes, 1998). This definition carefully circumvents the possible benefits to the person performing the prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior is often going together with psychological and social rewards for its performer. In the long run, people can benefit from living in a society where prosociality is common. It has therefore been difficult for researchers to classify purely altruistic behaviors, benefiting only the recipient and not the performer. Nevertheless, behaviors benefiting others, but whose core goal is self-advantageous, usually are not considered prosocial.

Sharing, helping, and accommodating forms of behavior are trademarks of social competence in childhood and adolescence. In addition, these behaviors have been related tentatively and empirically to other forms of social competence such as social acceptance and approval and to intellectual capabilities such as academic performance (Knafo & Plomin, 2006).

All infants are born with some empathetic ability that permits them to connect emotionally with other individuals (Sagi & Hoffman, 1994). As children grow up, however, the development of this inborn empathy rest on their relationships with others. Adolescents whose best friends show prosocial behaviors also incline to engross in such behaviors themselves (Barry & Wentzel, 2006).The importance of personal relationships for all children, along with the increased importance of peer relationships for early adolescents, advises that educators can have a great influence on students’ social growth by creating a school wide culture in which each student has chances to see prosocial behaviors demonstrated by other students and by adults. In such a culture, the way teachers treat students and the way students treat one another is a part of their learning experience (Lickona, 1997).

Central to self-determination theory (SDT) is the division between self-directed motivation and controlled motivation. Autonomy involves acting with logic of preference and having the experience of choice in the words of philosophers such as Dworkin (1988). Autonomy means approving ones action at the highest level of reflection. Built-in motivation is an example of self-directed motivation. When people engross an activity because they find it interesting, they are doing the activity only volitionally. In contrast, being measured involves acting with a sense of burden, a sense of having to involve in the actions. The use of extrinsic rewards in the early tests was found to make controlled motivation Dworkin (1988).

Self-determination theory postulates that autonomous and controlled motivations differ in terms of both their highlighted regulatory procedures and their supplementary experiences, and it further proposes that behaviors can be categorized by 1) external regulation; 2) introjected regulation; and 3) identified regulation.

  • 1.2.1 External regulation.

External regulation refers to behaviors for which the locus of initiation is external to the person, for example, the offer of a reward or the risk of a penalty. A student who does an assignment for teacher’s praise or to avoid parental hostility is externally regulated. The behavior is accomplished because of an external likelihood, and these contingencies are reflected the loci of initiation and regulation. External regulation signifies the least self-determined form of extrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1991). 

  • 1.2.2 Introjected regulation.

Taking in but not accepting a regulation as one’s own is the basis of introjected regulation. Such regulation covers internalized rules or demands that force one to behave and are buttressed with threatened sanctions (e.g., guilt) or promised rewards (self-aggrandizement). Introjected regulations, although within the person, are not part of the integrated self (Deci & Ryan, 1991), so behavior regulated by introjects is not considered self-determined. In short, although introjected regulation is internal to the person, it bears more similarity to external control than to self-determined forms of regulation because it involves coercion or seduction and does not entail true choice.

  • 1.2.3 Identified regulation.

Identified regulation occurs when the person has come to value the behavior and has identified with and accepted the regulatory process. With identification, the directing process has become more fully a part of the self, so the person does the activity more eagerly. Behaviors thus regulated are considered more autonomous or self-determined than are behaviors regulated by external contingencies or introjects, because identification permits the person to feel a sense of choice or will about behaving (Deci & Ryan, 1991).

Hoffman’s theory proposes that prosocial behavior becomes gradually other-oriented as children developed. Infants feel self-distress in response to the distress of others as they are incapable of distinguishing their own experiences from those of others. Increasingly, self-distress is replaced by other-oriented concern, requiring some understanding of others’ mental states (Hoffman, 2000).

In short, when individuals are emotionally intelligent they can simply put themselves in other’s place, and are more likely to support and are more inclined to help and give comfort to others. As children develop cognitively, their ability of thinking about others increases. Their improved sociocognitive skills, particularly perspective taking and moral reasoning develop pro-social behavior. It is important to investigate these variables in our culture so as to check if pro-social self regulation is influenced by emotional intelligence.

Chapter II

Literature Review

The literature has been reviewed to explore the theoretical concepts behind the major variables of the study and the research conducted in the similar area. The study is conceptualized in the light of this review. It includes the review of related studies conducted in the field of emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation.

2.1 International Researches

Jena, Bhattacharya, Hati, Ghosh, and Panda (1980) conducted a research on emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior: multidimensional trait analysis of technical students. The sample was comprised of 300 students including both males and females of postgraduate and research scholars of various departments. The results revealed that well-being, emotionality, and sociability were positively correlated with prosocial behavior and also predicting prosocial behavior from four facets of trait emotional intelligence namely; well-Being, self-control, emotionality and sociability.

Palmer, Walls, Burges and Stough (2001) conducted a research on Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Emotional intelligence was assessed by Trait Meta Mood Scale in 43 participants employed in management roles. Effective leaders were known as those who showed a transformational rather than transactional leadership style as measured by the multifactor leadership questionnaire. Emotional intelligence correlated with several components of transformational leadership suggesting that it may be an important component of effective leadership.

Charbonneau and Nicol (2002) conducted a research on emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The sample of this research was 100 adolescents including both males and females. The results of this research revealed significant relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior.

Bracket, Mayer, and Warner, (2003) conducted a research on emotional intelligence and its relation to everyday behavior and the sample was comprised of 330 college students. They used ability test of emotional intelligence, big five personality inventory. The results revealed that women scored significantly high in emotional intelligence than men and showed significant relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior.

Austin, Dahl, Wagner and Lukas (2003) investigated the relationships between overall emotional intelligence as measured by the Bar-On emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts as measured by the Career Thoughts Inventory were investigated in a  population of career undecided non-student adults. More specifically, the factors of emotional intelligence most related to negative career thinking were examined, as were the type of negative career thoughts most associated with emotional intelligence. Findings revealed that a significant inverse relationship between total emotional intelligence.

Deshpande, Joseph, and Shu (2005) conducted a research on the impact of emotional intelligence on counterproductive behavior in China. They explored the impact of perceived emotional intelligence of 118 Chinese respondents on perceived ethicality of various counterproductive behaviors. Respondents in the high emotional intelligence group perceived 6 of the 16 items to be more unethical than the low emotional intelligence group. There was a significant difference in aggregate counterproductive behaviors between high and low groupings of three (self-regulation, social awareness, and social skills) of the five facets of emotional intelligence and over all emotional intelligence. There was no significant difference in overall counterproductive behavior between the student and manager sub-samples.

Fariselli, Ghini, and Freedman, (2006) conducted a research on age and emotional intelligence to find out the relationship between age and emotional intelligence. They use Six Seconds’ Emotional Intelligence Assessment (SEI) and the sample was comprised of 405 American people between 22 and 70 years old. The sample includes more females (249) and male (155). The findings showed that some parts of emotional intelligence do increase with age, though the effect is slight; in addition there are elements of emotional intelligence that do not increase with age indicating some competencies must be developed through training.

Arora, Russ, Petrides, Sirimanna, Aggarwal, Darzi, and Sevdalis (2007) conducted a research on emotional intelligence and stress in medical students performing surgical tasks. Seventeen medical undergraduates completed an unfamiliar laparoscopic task on a simulator. Subjective stress before, during (retrospectively), and after the task was measured using the self-report State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Objective stress was measured using continuous heart rate (HR) monitoring. Participants also completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire short form (TEIQue-SF). The highest levels of subjective stress were reported during the task and correlated positively with trait emotional intelligence as well as with the trait emotional intelligence factors of well-being and emotionality. Objective stress (mean HR) during the task was positively related to the sociability factor of trait emotional intelligence. Higher trait emotional intelligence scores were also associated with better after-task recovery from stress experienced during the task. Students with higher trait emotional intelligence are more likely to experience stress during unfamiliar surgical scenarios but are also more likely to recover better compared with their lower-trait-Emotional intelligence peers.

Grant (2008) conducted a research on does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity. Two field studies support the hypothesized that intrinsic motivation moderated the association between prosocial motivation and persistence, performance, and productivity. In Study 1, intrinsic motivation strengthened the relationship between prosocial motivation and the overtime hour persistence of 58 firefighters. In Study 2, intrinsic motivation strengthened the relationship between prosocial motivation and the performance and productivity of 140 fundraising callers. Callers who reported high levels of both prosocial and intrinsic motivations raised more money 1 month later, and this moderated association was mediated by a larger number of calls made.

Shipley, Jackson, and Segrest (2010) conducted a research on the effects of emotional intelligence, age, work experience, and academic performance. They explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic performance and the sample was comprised of undergraduate business students (N= 193). For the assessment of emotional intelligence they used Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF). Emotional intelligence was found to be positively associated with work experience. However, emotional intelligence was not significantly associated with age. Global trait emotional intelligence was not significantly associated with academic achievement, however, students in the mid-range GPA had a significantly higher mean “well-being’ factor score than students in the higher-range GPA.

Joseph and Newman (2010) conducted a research on emotional intelligence: a integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. They test cascading model of emotional intelligence, as constructed a correlation matrix based on meta-analytic estimates. These estimates include 21 published meta-analytic correlations plus 66 original meta-analyses. Existing correlation estimates based on the 21 published meta-analyses were corrected for attenuation in the predictor and criterion. The results showed that self-reported emotional intelligence measures, performance-based ability EI showed uniformly weaker correlations with personality.

Iverson (2010)conducted a research on helping others helps me: prosocial behavior as a function of identity development and self-regulation in emerging adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between identity development, self-regulation, and prosocial behavior in emerging adulthood. Data from 182 undergraduate students (17 to 22 years old) at a small, private Midwestern liberal arts college indicated that self-regulatory style predicted prosocial tendencies and behavior more strongly than identity development variables of exploration, commitment, self-focus, and other-focus. Emerging adults were choosing to engage in prosocial behaviors and internally regulate positive aspects of their behavior even as there were continuing to progress in their identity development.

Platsidou (2013) conducted a research on Trait emotional intelligence predicts happiness, but how? An empirical study in adolescents and young adults. This research investigated hoe trait emotional intelligence dimensions intertwine to predict components of happiness.

Blake, Piovesan, Montinari, Warneken, and Gino (2014) conducted a research on prosocial norms in the classroom: the role of self-regulation in following norms of giving” to examine the children who were prosocial in elementary school tend to have higher academic achievement and experience greater acceptance by their peers in adolescence. The sample was comprised of 433 children between 6 and 13 years of age in two variations of the Dictator Game. They showed that two components of self-regulation, attention and inhibition, predict children’s ability to follow the stated norm for giving. These results revealed that some children were poorer at holding the norm in mind and following through on enacting it.

Falanga, Caroli, and Sagone (2014) conducted a research on humor styles, self-efficacy and prosocial tendencies in middle adolescents. This study explored humor styles, prosocial tendencies, and empathic/social self-efficacy in 302 Italian middle adolescents. They used Humor Styles Questionnaire (Penzo et al., 2001), Empathic and Social Self-efficacy Scales (Caprara et al., 2001), and Prosocial Tendencies Measure (Carlo &Randal, 2002). Results: affiliative and self-enhancing humor positively correlated with empathic/social self-efficacy, while self-defeating humor negatively correlated with social self-efficacy. Helping behavior in emotionally critical and dire situations positively correlated with empathic/social self-efficacy and, only for boys, with affiliative humor. Moreover, public and anonymous prosocial tendencies negatively correlated with affiliative humor. Differences for sex and age emerged.

2.2 Indigenous Researches

Salami (2007) investigates the relationships of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy to work attitudes of secondary school teachers in southwestern Nigeria. The sample consisted of 475 secondary school teachers both males=230 and females=245 randomly selected from southwestern Nigeria. Measures of demographic data form, career commitment, organizational commitment, emotional intelligence and self-efficacy and work-family conflict were administered to the teachers. Data collected were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results of the study indicate that emotional intelligence and self-efficacy had significant relationships with work attitude.

Ahmad, Bangash, and Khan (2009) conducted a research on Emotional intelligence and gender differences. This research investigated emotional intelligence among males and females. The sample of this research was comprised of one hundred and sixty participants (N= 160) including both 80 males and 80 females from N.W.F.P and they used snowball sampling technique for the selection of participants. Personal information sheet was used to obtain the demographic information and to find out the level of emotional intelligence among males and females they used Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The results of this research reveal that males have high emotional intelligence as compared to females.

Khosravi, Manafi, Hojabri, Aghapour, and Gheshmi (2011) conducted a research on the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective delegation. The main objective of this qualitative research was to explore the relationship between manager’s Emotional Intelligence (EI) level and effective delegation in industry. In order to test and discuss this relationship, some perception from past and relevant researches and texts are required. This paper also describes the core and practical concept of Emotional Intelligence and delegation, followed by the importance of effectiveness in work place.

Nasir (2011) conducted a research on correlation of emotional intelligence with demographic characteristics, academic achievement and cultural adjustment of the university students. The sample was comprised of 615 students studying in International Islamic University Islamabad and Bar-On EQi was used to measure emotional intelligence and Cultural Adjustment Scale was used to measure adjustment level of the students. The results of this research revealed that emotional intelligence was a significant predictor of academic achievement as well as cultural adjustment and that demographic characteristics play a mediating role in these relationships. Cultural adjustment was also considered a significant predictor of academic achievement of sojourner students that can mediate the impact of emotional intelligence on academic achievement.

Javeed and Syed (2014) conducted a research on relative effect of nuclear family and joint family upon emotional intelligence and loneliness. The sample was comprised of 100 nuclear family child and 100 joint family child from Aurangabad town. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of nuclear family and joint family upon emotional intelligence and loneliness of children. The results of this research reveal that joint family child had significantly high emotional intelligence rather than the nuclear family child while nuclear family child had high loneliness than the joint family child.

The above literature shows that emotional intelligence was associated with effective leadership, counterproductive behavior, negative career thoughts, emotional intelligence, academic performance, effective delegation and happiness respectively and prosocial self-regulation was associated with performance, productivity, motivation, prosocial tendencies and identity development respectively. The sample was comprised of university students, children, adolescents, adulthood, young adults, managers, undergraduate business students, medical students, secondary school teachers and employees of management respectively. Above mentioned theories and researches shows that emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation are related with each other. There are no studies that are related to emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation in Pakistan. Much of what we know about studies is based on different variables.

2.3 Rationale

            The purpose of the research is to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation among university students. Emotional intelligence is the ability that lets an individual to screen one’s own and other person emotions to differentiate between different emotions properly, and to use emotional details to guide thinking and behavior (Robert et al., 2001) while prosocial behavior is to help other without anticipation of any reward (Knickerbocker, 2003). Research shows that there is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior(Bracket et al., 2003; Charbonneau & Nicol, 2002) and highlight the significance of understanding emotional mind in order to develop such skills in students that help productive thinking and wise action (Nelson & Low, 2005). In simple words emotional intelligence is somewhat important for other people without any external reward. However, the underlying motivation to help others following Central to self-determination theory – SDT (Deci & Ryan, 1991) has not been thoroughly investigated in our culture.  If this link is studied, it can enhance the understanding of the role of emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation for prosocial behavior of the students. The present study will create awareness among students and will direct them to help one’s self, others and society in a better way.

2.4 Objectives

  • To find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and provincial self-regulation.
  • To find out predictors of pro-social self-regulation.
  • To find out gender and group differences across emotional intelligence and pro-social self-regulation.

2.5 Hypotheses

  • There is likely to be a relationship between emotional intelligence and pro-social self- regulation.
  • Emotional intelligence is likely to predict pro-social self-regulation.
  • There are likely to be gender and group differences in emotional intelligence and pro-social self-regulation.

Chapter III

Method

3.1 Research Design

            Correlation research design was used in the present research to find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and pro-social self-regulation in university students.

3.2 Sample

            Convenient sampling strategy was used for the collection of data. The Sample comprised of 175 (120 males and 55 females) university students falling between age ranges of 19-25 years (M= 20.46, SD=1.32). Data was collected from Psychology, Education, Mass communication, Islamiyat, Literature and Pakistan Studies departments of Government College University of Lahore.  25 students were taken from each department.

3.2.1 Inclusion Criteria
  • Students of BS and M.Sc who were in final year.
  • Physically abled as self-regulation for prosocial behavior was a variable of interest.
3.2.2 Exclusion Criteria
  • First and second years students of BS were not included.

Table 3.1

Demographic Characteristics of University Students (N=175)

Variablesf(%)M(SD)
Age20.46(1.32)
Gender
            Male120(68.6)
            Female55(31.4)
Monthly family income (PKR)85440.00(109631.38)
Education
            BS126(72.0)
            M. Sc49(28.0)
Department
            Psychology25(14.3)
            Education25(14.3)
            Mass.com25(14.3)
            Islamiyat25(14.3)
            Literature25(14.3)
            Pak. Studies25(14.3)
Father education14.42(2.49)
Mother education12.43(2.41)
Birth order
            First born123
            Middle born42
Continued
Variablesf (%) 
            Last born10
No. of siblings
1-216(9.2)
3-484(48)
5-657(32.6)
7-811(6.3)
9-127(4)
Family system
            Joint84(48.0)
            Nuclear91(52.0)
Citizenship
            Rural48(27.4)
            Urban127(72.6)
Residence
            Hosteled60(34.3)
            House115(65.7)

The above table shows the mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage of demographic characteristics of sample of this study.

3.3 Operational Definitions of Variables 

  • 3.3.1 Emotional Intelligence. The capacity to be aware of, control and express one’s emotions and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically is called emotional intelligence (Petrides &Furnham, 2003).
  • 3.3.2 Prosocial Self-Regulation. Self-regulation is an integrated learning process, consisting of the development of a set of constructive behaviors that affect one’s learning. These processes are planned and adapted to support the pursuit of personal goals in changing learning environments (Ryan & Connell, 1989).

3.4 Assessment Measures

Following were the assessment measures or tools to collect data for this research.

  1. Demographic Information sheet
  2. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF)
  3. Prosocial Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-P)
  • 3.4.1 Demographic Information Sheet.

Demographic Information sheet was formulated to inquire information about age, gender, education, department, father education, mother education, family system, number of siblings, birth order, citizenship and residence of the research participants.

  • 3.4.2 Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire.

Trait emotional intelligence questionnaire is a short form (TEIQue-SF) developed by Petrides and Furnham (2003). This tool consists of a 30 items. Respondents use a 7-point scale for the items in which 1is for completely disagree 2 is for disagree a bit, 3 is for disagree, 4 is for neutral, 5 is for agree, 6 is for agree a bit and 7 is for strongly agree. This questionnaire has four subscales and their names are well-being has 6 items (5, 20, 9, 24, 12, 27), self-control has 6 items (4, 19, 7, 22, 15, 30), emotionality has 8 items (1, 16, 2, 17, 8, 23, 13, 28), sociability has 6 items (6, 21, 10, 25, 11, 26) and the total reversed coded items are 15 (2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 22, 25, 26, 28).TEIQue-SF has internal consistency and test-retest both indicated scale reliabilities of 0.71 and 0.76. Urdu version of trait emotional intelligence was used and the scale was translated by Khan, Hasnain, and Kausar (2015).

  • 3.4.3 Prosocial Self-Regulation Questionnaire.

Prosocial Self-Regulation questionnaire was developed by Ryan and Connell in 1989. This tool consists of a 25 items. Respondents use a 4-point scale for the items in which 1is for very true, 2 is for sort of true, 3 is for not very true and 4 is for not at all true. This questionnaire has three subscales and their names are external regulation has 5 items (3, 6, 11, 17, 22), introjected regulation has 10 items (1, 2, 8, 9, 12, 15, 16, 19, 23, 24) and identified regulation has 10 items (4, 5, 7, 10, 13, 14, 18, 20, 21, 25). Prosocial self-regulation has 0.71 reliability. Urdu version of prosocial self-regulation was used and the scale was translated by Khan, Hasnain, and Kausar (2015).

3.5 Translation of the Scales

Trait emotional intelligence short form (Petrides & Furnham, 2003)was developed in English language and prosocial self-regulation was developed by (Ryan & Connell, 1989).  So it was difficult to use this scale in Pakistani researches because less educated participants in research cannot correctly respond on these items. The purpose of translation in native language was to make language easy so that everyone can understand it easily.  Because of cultural differences it is difficult for everyone to understand the other cultures languages.

Analysis of original instrument was done to clarify the concepts investigated by each item of the original instrument. The recruitment and briefing of a consultant from the country of the target language to supervise the translation process. The research supervisor supervised the whole research as well as translation process. The aim of this process was to obtain a translation of an original instrument in a target language (Urdu) that was both conceptually equivalent to the original instrument as well as easily understandable for the people who give response on the trait emotional intelligence scale and prosocial self-regulation scale. According to MAPI guidelines, two forward translations were obtained from two bilingual persons who were native speakers of the target language and fluent in the source language. The purpose was to obtain a consensus target language version. The consensus was developed in a meeting with supervisor between the two forward translations. And that translation was given preference which completed the meaning behind the items in English and on which there was a mutual consent too. Every effort was made by the translators to stay as close to the literal meaning behind the item as they can. In that way, a final version of Urdu translation was completed.

The purpose of backward translation was to obtain a translation into English (source language) of the target language version (Urdu). For this purpose, two backward translations were done.  Then researchers and supervisor develop consensus to make a final version of both English translations for comparing it with the original one. After getting a final version of backward translation, it was then compared with the original version of the trait emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation.

The aim of proof reading was to ensure that no typing spelling or grammatical mistakes remain in the target language version from the supervisor.

3.6 Procedure

First of all the researcher obtained permission from the authors of the measures to use their tools in the current study. Synopsis was approved from Board of studies (BOS), Institute of Applied Psychology. Before data collection, an authority letter was obtained from the University of the Punjab, Lahore that explained the nature of the research study and request for permission to collect data. Permission was taken from the concerned authority of Government College University of Lahore for collecting data. After that researcher met the students that were studying in Psychology, Education, Mass.com, Islamiyat, Literature and Pak. Studies and selected participants on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Researcher requested to those students to participate in the study whose who were willing to that questionnaire. Consent of participants, to be a part of the study, was taken and then they were informed about nature of the research. Confidentiality of the information regarding the results was assured to the participants. It was also being assured to the participants that their information was used purely for purpose of the research and they can withdraw from the research any time during the research process. After that questionnaire were distributed among the participants. Some instructions were given about how to fill the questionnaires. The participants were cooperating and excited to fill the questionnaires. After getting the questionnaires back, the participants were thanked for their cooperation. After data collection, questionnaires were scored and measured quantitatively.

3.7 Ethical Considerations

In order to conduct this research, following ethical considerations were kept in mind.

  • Permission from Board of Study in Institute of Applied Psychology was taken.
  • Support letters from supervisor and director of Institute of Applied Psychology was taken.
  • Tools were translated into Urdu after getting permission from their representative authors.
  • Permission was taken from the concerned authorities to collect data from the sample.
  • The consent was taken from the participants and they were allowed to withdraw from participation and terminate at any point of study.
  • The participants were assured that the information acquired from them would be kept confidential and would not be used for any other purpose except for this research.
  • Results were reported accurately.

Chapter IV

Results

The present research aimed to investigate the emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation in university students. The data analysis strategy involved (i) reliability analysis for all the scales and their subscales; (ii) descriptive analysis for all the demographic variables; (iii) Pearson product moment correlation to see the correlation among study variables; (iv) Hierarchical regression analysis to see the prediction in emotional intelligence and prosocial self- regulation; (v) Independent sample t-test to assess gender and group differences.

4.1 Reliability Analysis

Descriptive analysis was performed to examine the k total number of items, mean, standard deviation, minimum-maximum score and reliability of the study variables.

Table 4.1

Descriptive Statistics and Reliability Analysis of Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire- Short Form, Prosocial Self-Regulation (N=175)

VariableskMSDMin-Maxα
TEIQue-SF30134.702.4883-198.77
Well being64.901.198-42.64
Self-control64.24.8811-42.12
Emotionality84.481.0313-56.51
Sociability64.28.8610-45.13
PSR-Q2549.3310.8326-88.83
External regulation52.54.805-20

.76

VariableskMSDMin-Maxα
Introjected regulation102.09.5410-34.72
Identified regulation101.56.5210-35.80

Note. TEIQue-SF= Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, PSR-Q= Prosocial Self- Regulation Questionnaire.

The reliability of trait emotional intelligence was .77 and the reliability of prosocial self-regulation was .83.  The Cronbach’s alpha reliability values of the scales were good to carry out further analysis.

It was hypothesized that there was a relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation in university students. To find out the relationship between them and demographic variables Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was conducted. The results of Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis are shown in the table 4.2.

Table 4.2

Correlation among Demographic variables, Trait Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation in University Students (N=175)

Variables23456789101112
1Age.36**.09.06.07.01.08.03.12-.07.19**.10
2Education.09.13.07.10.17*.06.10.09.10.03
3Family system.16*.18*.01.15*-.01-.04-.09.03-.05
4Total EI.74**.70**.84**.65**.03.06.12-.11
5Well being.36**.48**.36**-.07.12-.07-.17*
6Self-control.49**.03**.00-.05.08-.03
7Emotionality.48**.03.09.15*-.15*
8Sociability.10.07.14.00
9PSR.60**.86**.69**
10External regulation.45**.01
11Introjected regulation.41**
12Identified regulation

Note. For Education; 1= Bs and 2= Msc; Family system; 1= joint and 2= nuclear; EI=Emotional intelligence; PSR= Prosocial self-regulation.

*p < .05, **p <.01

The correlation results for demographic variables show that age was positively related with introjected regulation, while there is no correlation with other variables. Education was positively related with the subscale of emotional intelligence that is emotionality as the level of education increases the level of emotionality also increases. Family system was positively related total emotional intelligence, well-being and emotionality showing that those living in nuclear family system had more EI.

The results further revealed that well-being was negatively related with identified regulation, while no significant relation was found with other variables. Emotionality was positively related with introjected regulation, while negatively related with identified regulation for prosocial behavior.

It was hypothesized that emotional intelligence predicts prosocial self-regulation in university students. To find out the prediction Regression analysis was conducted at all three different domains of prosocial self-regulation.

To examine predictors of Prosocial Self-Regulation (External Regulation, Introjected Regulation and Identified Regulation), Emotional Intelligence (Well-being, Self-control, Emotionality and Sociability) were entered and step-wise regression analysis was carried out

Table 4.3

Stepwise Regression Analysis for Emotional Intelligence Predicting Prosocial Self-Regulation

VariableIntrojected Regulation
Model 1 βModel 2 β95 % CI
Emotionality.08*.13***[0.00, 0.15]
Well-being-.09**[-0.16, -0.01]
R2.02.05
F4.335.10***
∆R2.03
∆F.01***

Note. N = 150, ∆R2 = R2Square change, ∆F = F change, CI = Confidence Interval.

*p< .05. **p< .01. ***p< .001.

The result showed that only Emotionality and Well-being predicted Introjected Regulation where emotionality was a positive predictor and well-being was a negative predictor of introjected regulation. The results showed that well-being has greatest influence on introjected regulation as the β = -.20 was greateras compared to Emotionality (β = .15).

Table 4.4

Stepwise Regression Analysis for Emotional Intelligence Predicting Prosocial Self-Regulation

VariableIdentified Regulation
Model 1 β95 % CI
Well-being-.07*[-0.16, -0.01]
R2.02
F5.17*
∆R2.02
∆F.02*

Note. N = 150, ∆R2 = R2 Square change, ∆F = F change, CI = Confidence Interval.

*p< .05. **p< .01. ***p< .001.

The result showed that Well-being was the only variable which significantly negatively predicted Identified Regulation. The results showed that well-being has greatest influence on identified regulation as the β = -.17.

To determine the Gender difference in Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation we conducted the t-test on gender and the following domains. The following table showed the summary of analysis.

Table 4.5

Independent Samples t-test for Gender Differences across Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation in University Students (N= 175)

Males (n=120)Females (n=55)95% CI
VariablesMSDMSDt(173)pLLULCohen’s d
Well being30.057.2428.146.961.64.10-.384.210.26
Self-control25.595.6425.214.56.43.66-1.342.080.07
Emotionality36.408.6334.807.521.18.23-1.064.260.19
Sociability26.254.9524.545.592.03.04.053.370.32
External regulation12.554.0713.034.01-.72.47-1.78.820.11
Introjected regulation21.105.4520.745.33.41.68-1.372.100.06
Identified regulation15.765.2715.355.28.51.61-1.252.130.07

Independent sample t test was used to see the gender differences in emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation. Results revealed that there were significant gender differences in sociability the component of emotional intelligence. The results indicated that males were had more sociability as compared to females.

To determine the Citizenship difference in Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation we conducted the t-test on gender and the following domains. The following table showed the summary of analysis.

Table 4.6

Independent Samples t-test for Group Differences across Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation in University Students (N= 175)

Rural (n=48)Urban (n=127)95% CI
VariablesMSDMSDt(173)pLLULCohen’s d
Well being29.127.4729.587.10-.37.70-2.861.950.06
Self-control27.104.8124.855.392.52.01.493.990.44
Emotionality36.279.5535.757.82.36.71-2.273.301.23
Sociability26.205.7725.534.99.76.44-1.072.410.12
External regulation13.504.3412.403.901.59.11-.252.430.26
Introjected regulation22.544.7420.405.532.36.01.343.910.39
Identified regulation16.255.3815.395.22.95.33-.902.610.16

Independent sample t test was used to see the citizenship differences in emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation. Results revealed that there were significant citizenship differences in self-control the component of emotional intelligence. This showed that rural students were having more self-control as compared to urban students. Results also revealed that rural students were having more introjected regulation as compared to urban students.

To determine the Residence difference in Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation we conducted the t-test on gender and the following domains. The following table showed the summary of analysis.

Table 4.7

Independent Samples t-test for Difference in Residence across Emotional Intelligence and Prosocial Self-Regulation in University Students (N= 175)

Home (n=115)Hostelize (n=60)95% CI
VariablesMSDMSDt(173)PLLULCohen’s d
Well being29.067.213.217.15-1.00.31-3.411.103.60
Self-control25.105.3326.185.28-1.27.20-2.74.590.20
Emotionality36.048.0835.618.78.32.74-2.193.040.05
Sociability25.595.0925.965.44-.45.65-2.011.260.12
External regulation12.443.8413.214.39-1.20.23-2.04.490.26
Introjected regulation20.815.7221.334.74-.59.55-2.211.180.39
Identified regulation15.534.8915.805.96-.31.75-1.921.400.16

Results revealed that there were no significant residence differences in the components of emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation in university students.

4.2 Summary of Results findings

  • Age was positively related with introjected regulation, while there is no correlation with other variables.
  • Education M.Sc level was positively related with emotionality component of emotional intelligence.
  • Nuclear family system was positively related to total emotional intelligence, well-being and emotionality.
  • The results for scale of trait emotional intelligence reveal that well-being was negatively related with identified regulation, while no significant relation was found with other variables.
  • Emotionality was positively related with introjected regulation, while negatively related with identified regulation.
  • Well-being was a positive predictor and emotionality was a negative predict of introjected regulation.
  • Well-being was a negative predictor of identified regulation for prosocial behavior.
  • The results revealed that males were had more sociability as compared to females.
  • Rural students were having more self-control as compared to urban students. Results also revealed that rural students were having more introjected regulation as compared to urban students.

Chapter V

Discussion

The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation in university students and to check emotional intelligence serves as a predictor of prosocial self-regulation in university students.

The first finding of the study revealed that age is related with introjected regulation, the component of prosocial self-regulation while there is no relationship with emotional intelligence and other two subscales of prosocial self-regulation. This reveals that with increasing age introjected regulation is improved which is the component of prosocial self-regulation. This shows that people show more prosocial behavior towards others as with the increase in age the previous findings of prosocial self-regulation are consistent with the present research findings. As Scourfield, John, Martin and Mcguffin (2004) they conducted the study which designed to explore that development of prosocial behavior shows emerging and consolidating individual differences as children grow older.  Results shows that the influences on the distribution of prosocial behavior in children and adolescents show increased shared environmental and increasing genetic influences with age.

Similarly, Iverson (2010) conducted a research on helping other helping me: prosocial self-regulation as a function of identity development and self-regulation in emerging adulthood and the results revealed that emerging adults choose to engage in prosocial behavior and internally regulate positive aspects of their behavior as even they were continue to progress in their development as these findings are consistent with our findings.

The researches on emotional intelligence have mixed findings. The results of present study revealed no significant correlation between age and emotional intelligence. Shipley et al(2010) conducted a research on the effects of emotional intelligence, age, work experience, and academic performance and the results of this study showed that emotional intelligence was not significantly associated with age.

Similarly Harrod and Scheer (2005) also did not find any correlation between emotional intelligence and age. The possible explanation of the present research results, because of narrow age range of our respondents who were mostly adults.

However, the results of present study was inconsistent with the study conducted by Fariselli et al. (2006) who set up a slight but significant correlation between age and emotional intelligence, nevertheless, they proclaimed that this relationship was very weak and there were more vital factors that explained difference in emotional intelligence.

Another research conducted by Nasir (2011) on emotional intelligence with demographic characteristics, academic achievement and cultural adjustment of the university students. This research showed that there was a significant correlation between age and emotional intelligence. These findings were insignificant with the findings of present research because the research sample was relatively small from that research and the tools that were used were not made according to the Pakistani culture.

Second finding of the present study reveals that education MSc level was related to emotionality which is component of emotional intelligence. Richard, Elizabeth and Scott (2002) conducted a research on learning cognitive and emotional intelligence competencies through graduate management education their results shows that cognitive and emotional intelligence competencies can be developed in postgraduate students and is consistent with the findings of our research. As the level of education increases, the experiences of life add to the abilities of problem solving and withstanding difficult situations.

However, Nasir (2011) conducted a research on emotional intelligence with demographic characteristics, academic achievement and cultural adjustment of the university students. The results of this previous research stated that foreign students showed positive correlation with study level revealed higher emotional intelligence scores of student at master level than those at bachelor level. But in the same study they found no significant correlation between education level and emotional intelligence in overall sample. The possible reason of our findings was that this may be due to the fact that as we grow and gain knowledge and education it makes us more aware of others issues and then we can better start understanding others and their emotions with the help of our emotional intelligence.

Third findings revealed that family system was positively related with emotional intelligence, well-being and emotionality which shows that students who belongs to nuclear family system are highly emotional intelligent as compared to students who belongs to joint family system this findings was inconsistent with the results of Javeed & Syed research which was conducted in (2014) their results shows that individuals who belongs to joint family system have high level of emotional intelligence and their sense of well-being is also high while our results shows that individuals who belongs to nuclear family system are more highly emotional intelligent and their sense of well-being is also high.

Another findings of the present research shows that well-being was negatively correlated with identified regulation while emotionality was positively correlated with introjected regulation and negatively related with identified regulation. These findings are consistent with Carlo et al., (2003) who suggests that emotionality is positively related with both dire and emotional prosocial behavior while it is unrelated with sympathy. Carlo and Randall (2002) conducted a research and their findings reveals that college students emotionality is negatively correlated with public prosocial behavior and was consistent with our findings this may be due to those individuals who were high in emotionality may generally involve themselves in actions which would help others in a better way.

Another study conducted by Jena et al. (1980) on emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior: multidimensional trait analysis of technical students, showed that well-being, emotionality, and sociability were positively correlated with prosocial behavior. Study conducted by Afolabi (2013) and Chu (2006), showed significant relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior.

Likewise, Charbonneau and Nicol (2002) conducted a research on emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results of this research revealed significant relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior. These researches were not studied in our culture and the tools were not culturally adapted.

Another finding revealed that well-being was a positive predictor and emotionality was a negative predictor of introjected regulation while well-being was a negative predictor of identified regulation. These results are consistent with the research conducted by Jena et al., (1980) on emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior: multidimensional trait analysis of technical students, stated that predicting prosocial behavior from four facets of trait emotional intelligence namely; well-Being, self-control, emotionality and sociability.

Trait EI is successful in associating with prosocial factors; higher score of which was evident for predicting prosocial factor and lower scores on the other hand predicts antisocial factors (Petrides, Sangareau, Furnham & Frederickson; 2006).

5.1 Conclusion

Emotional intelligence means to understand one’s and others emotions and to use that emotional information in a productive way and prosocial self-regulation means to motivate our self to help others and society in a better way. The present study was designed to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation in university students using correlation research strategy. The results of this present research revealed that there was a significantly negative relationship between well-being and identified regulation. Emotionality was positively related with introjected regulation, while negatively related with identified regulation. Well-being was a positive predictor of introjected regulation and emotionality was negative predictor of introjected regulation. It shows that if we are emotional intelligent we understand and help others according to the situation.

5.2 Limitations

  • The sample was selected from a public university in Lahore. Thus, the generalizability of the findings to private universities and the universities in other regions may be limited.
  • Some students thought that such type of information is related to their personal matters that they were not willing to share with others. But after telling them that there given information will be kept confidential. However, few students were keen to know about their personalities in the light of these inventories.
  • Scales were not developed for the indigenous population.
  • Assessment measures were self-report measures so the element of social desirability was high.
  • Two of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire subscales had somewhat lower reliability coefficient.

5.3 Suggestions

  • The study could be done with experimental and longitudinal design in future research.
  • The study was limited to Public Sector University. It may be replicated in other universities.
  • Interview with participant’s family in friends may provide more genuine and true information avoiding or minimizing the hindrance of self-report bias.
  • The use of indigenous tools would be more helpful.
  • A large sample size would be more helpful in future research

5.4 Implications

  • The findings of the present study add to the preceding literature.
  • Emotional intelligence can be taken into account for achieving educational goals,
  • The present can be used as a building block to enhance the understanding of the role of emotional intelligence and prosocial self-regulation in our daily life.
  • The current study helps gain insight in the concept of emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior of the students.
  • The present study will create awareness among students and will direct them to help one’s self, others and society in a better way.
  • Further validation studies can be conducted on this research which could strengthen its validation.

References

  • Abisamra, N. (2000). The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic          achievement in eleventh graders (Unpublished raw data). Department of Psychology, Auburn University. Retrieved from http://www/banners/interstitial.html? http://members.fortunecity.com/nabads/reseach-intell2.html.
  • Afolabi, O. A. (2013). Roles of personality types, emotional intelligence and gender differences on prosocial behavior. Psychological Thought, 6(1), 124- 139, doi:10.5964/psyct.v6i1.53.
  • Ahmad, S., Bangash, H., & Khan, S. A. (2009). Emotional intelligence and gender differences. Sarhad Agric, 25(1), 127-130. doi: 00u9883jjd3321.
  • Al-Hilali, M. T., & Khan, M. M. (1996). Interpretation of the meanings of the noble quran in the english language. Riyadh: Darussalam.
  • Ali, A. Y. (1994). The Holy Quran: text, translation and commentary. State of Qatar:        Presidency of Islamic Courts and Affairs.
  • Arora, S., Russ, S. Petrides, K. V., Sirimanna, P., Aggarwal, R., Darzi, A., & Sevdalis, N.             (2007). Emotional intelligence and stress in medical students performing surgical    tasks. Academic Medicine, 86(10), 1311-1317. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e31822bd7aa.
  • Austin, R.K., Dahl, D., & Wagner, B. (2003). Relationship between negative career thoughts and emotional intelligence. International Journal of Community and Rehabilitation, 2(2), 81-95.
  • Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI).Psicothema, 18, 13-25. Retrived from http//www.eiconortium.org/research/baron_model_of_emotional_social_inelligence.html
  • Bar-On, R. (1997). Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). Technical Manual. Toronto:Multi   Health Systems.
  • Barry, C. M., & Wentzel, K. R. (2006). Friend influence on prosocial behavior: The role    of motivational factors and friendship characteristics. Developmental Psychology,   42(1), 153–163.
  • Benabou, R. J. T. (2005). Incentives and prosocial behavior. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2, 1-7. Retrieved from NBER Working Paper Series.
  • Bengston, V. L., (2003).Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Economic Studies, 70(3), 489-520.
  • Blake, P. R., Piovesan, M., Montinari, N., Warneken, F., & Gino, N. (2014). Prosocial norms in the classroom: The role of self-regulation in following norms of giving. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 115, 123-133. doi:org/10.101/j.jebo.2014.10004.
  • Boyatzis, R. E., Goleman, D., & Rhee, K. (2000). Clustering competence in emotional      intelligence: Insights from the emotional competence inventory (ECI), In R. Bar- On and J. D. A. Parker (Eds). Handbook of emotional intelligence, 29, 343-362. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
  • Brackett, M. A., Mayer, J. D., & Warner, R. M. (2003). Emotional intelligence and its relation to everyday behavior.Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1387-   1402. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00236-8.
  • Batson, C., Schoenrade, P., & Ventis, W. (1993). Religion and the individual: A social-     psychological perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Chu, L. C. (2005). The study of the relationship among locus of control, emotional            intelligence and prosocial behavior of elementary school students in Kaohsiung        City. Journal of Emotional Quotient, 22(9). Retrieved from  http://etd.npue.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETDsearch/view_etd?URN=etd-0501107-162450-1005.
  • Charbonneau, D., & Nicol, A. (2002). Emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors in    adolescents. Psychological Reports, 90, 361-370.
  • Cornwall, J., & Walter, C. (2006).Therapeutic Education: Working Alongside Troubled      and Troublesome Children. London: Rutledge.
  •  Goleman, D. (1999). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
  • Dashpande, S. P., Joseph, J., & Shu, X. (2005). The impact of emotional intelligence on    counterproductive behavior in china.  Management Research News, 28(5), 75-85.         doi: 10.1108/01409170510629050.
  •  Davidson, R. J. (1998). The nature of emotion: fundamental questions. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New    York: Putman.
  •  Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in             personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation. Perspectives on motivation, 38, 237-288. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Deniz, M. E., Tras, Z., & Aydoga, D. (2009). An investigation of academic procrastination, locus of control, and emotional intelligence. Spring, 9(2), 623-632. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ847770.pdf
  • Dworkin, G. (1988). Autonomy and Informed Consent. In Ethical Health Care. Patrician Illingworth and Wendy Parmet, 2 (8), 79-91. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall.
  • Edman, L. R., & Edman, S. O. (2004). Emotional intelligence and the honors student. Journal the National Collegiate Honors Council, 51, 1-28.Retrieved from  htp//findarticals.com/p/article/mi_6947/is_2_5/ai_n28246629/pg_3/?tag=content;   coll.
  • Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1998). Prosocial development. In Damon W. (Series ed.)    and Eisenber, N. Handbook of Child Psychology. 3: Social, Emotional, and    Personality Development (5th ed.). (pp701-778). Wiley, New York.
  • Emmerling, R. J., Shanwal, V. K., & Mandal, M. K. (2008). Emotional intelligence:           theoretical and culture perspective. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
  • Falanga, R., Caroli, M. E., & Sagone. (2014). Humors styles, self-efficacy and prosocial    tendencies in middle adolescents. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 214-218.     doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.243.
  • Fariselli, L., Ghini, M., & Freedman, J. (2006). Age and emotional intelligence. White Paper: Research on Emotional Intelligence, 2(2), 4-6.
  • Gardner, H. (1983). The theory of multiple intelligence. New York: Basic Books.
  • Goleman, D., & Rhee, B. (2000). An EI-based theory of performance. The Emotional Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for, Measure, and Improve Emotional     Intelligence in Individuals, Groups, and Organizations. Journal of Personality. 71, 329-480.
  • Goleman, D. (2000b). An EI-Based Theory of Performance, In D. Goleman, & Cherniss   (Eds). The Emotional Intelligence Workplace: How to Select for, Measure, and  Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals, Groups, and Organizations, 75,  698-709.
  • Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
  • Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
  • Gold, S. V., Macker, C., & Johnson, R. A. (2012). Manufacturer’s alliance for productivity and innovation (MAPI). Legal Research and Peer Networking. USA.
  • Grant, A. M. (2008). Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity. Journal of  Applied Psychology, 93(1), 48-58. doi: 10.i0370021-9010.93.1.48.
  • Harrod, N. R., & Scheer, S. D. (2005). An explanation of adolescent emotional intelligence in relation to demographic characteristics. Adolescences, 40(159), 503-512. doi: 0xc/22344/h65422200.
  • Hein, S. (2005). Definition of emotional intelligence. Retrieved from http://eqi.org/eidefs.htm#Introduction.
  • Hoffman, M. L. (2000). Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Iverson, E. (2010). Helping others helps me: Prosocial behavior as a function of identity    development and self-regulation in emerging adulthood. Journal of Gustavus Undergraduate Psychology, 24, 349-354.
  • Javeed, K., & Syed, Q. (2014). Relative effect of nuclear family and joint family upon emotional intelligence and loneliness. Academic Journal, 3(9), 234-456.
  • Jena, L. K., Bhattacharya, P., Hati, L., Ghosh, D., & Panda, M. (1980). Emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior: multidimensional trait analysis of technical students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 525-537.
  • Joseph, D. L., & Newman, D. A. (2010). Emotional intelligence: A integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 54-78. doi: 10.1037/a0017286.
  • Khosravi, B. G., Manafi, M., Hojabri, R., Aghapour, A. H., & Gheshmi, R. (2011). The     relationship between emotional intelligence and effective delegation. International    Journal of Business and Social Science. 2(19), 78-89. doi:kd00939488291/dd.
  • Knickerbocker, R. L. (2003). Prosocial behavior. India: Center on Philanthropy.
  • Knafo, A., & Plomin, R. (2006). Prosocial behavior from early middle childhood: Genetic and environmental influences on stability and change. Developmental    Psychology, 42, 771-789.
  • Lickona, T. (1997). Educating for character: How our schools can teach respect and          responsibility. New York: Bantam.
  • Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2000). Selectin a measure of emotional            intelligence: The case of ability testing, In R. Bar-On and J. D. A. Parker (Eds).        Handbook of Emotional Intelligence, 1(3), 232-242. New York: Jossey-Bass.
  • Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1990). Emotional intelligence, imagination, cognition and      personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 9(3), 185-211. doi:   oo145632278y33093.
  • Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (1999). Instruction Manual for the MSCEIT:          Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Toronto: Multi-Healh    Systems.
  • Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? Personality and           Individual Differences, 2, 3-31. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2014.09.003.
  • Nasir, M. (2011). Emotional intelligence with demographic characteristics, academic         achievement and cultural adjustment of the students of iiui (Doctoral    Dissertation).International Islamic University, Islamabad.
  • Nelson, D., Nelson, K., & Low, G. (2005). Emotional intelligence: Educating the right      mind for the 21st century. Retrieved from  http://www.tamuk.edu/edu/kwei000/Research /Articals/Artical_files/Emotional_Intelligence_right_Mind.pdf.
  • Palmer, B., Walls, M., Burgess, Z., & Stough. (2001). Emotional intelligence and   affective. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(1), 1, 5- 10. doi: org/10.1108/01437730110380174.
  • Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2003). Trait emotional intelligence: Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. European Journal of Personality,15, 320-420. doi: 1255jiff009857.
  • Petrides, V. K. (2001). Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait         taxonomies. European Journal of Personality, 15, 425- 448. doi: oo145632278y33093.
  • Petrides, K. V., Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional     intelligence. Personality and Individuals Differences, 29, 313-320. doi:10.1298/g.hos.00/1236.
  • Petrides, K. V., Sangareau, Y., Furnham, A., & Frederickson, N. (2006). Trait emotional   intelligence and children’s peerrelations at school.Social Development, 15, 537-547.
  • Platsidou, M. (2013). Trait emotional intelligence predicts happiness, but how? An empirical study in adolescents and young adults. International Journal of  Wellbeing, 3(2), 197-209. doi: 10.5502/ijw.v3i2.6.
  • Richard, E., Elizabeth, S., & Scottn, T. (2002). Learning cognitive and emotional   intelligence competencies through Graduate Management Education. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 1(2), 150-162.
  • Roberts, R. D., Zeidner, M., & Mattews, G. (2001). Dose emotional intelligence meet       traditional standards for an intelligence? Some new data conclusions. Journal of Emotion, 1, 196-231. doi: x10020093884776 in %20EI.pdf.
  • Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social  Psychology, 57, 749-761.
  • Sagi, A., & Hoffman, M. L. (1976). Empathic distress in the newborn. Developmental       Psychology, 12, 175-176.
  • Salami, k. (2007). Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy to work attitudes of secondary             school teachers in southwestern Nigeria. An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, 5(1), 212-225.
  • Scourfield, J., John, B., Martin, N., & Mcguffin, P. (2004). The development of prosocial behavior in children and adolescents: a twin study. Child Psychology Psychiatry             45(5), 927-835.
  • Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper. J. T., Golden, C. J.,    &Dornheim , L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167-177. doi:00987juy./,mijhg.
  • Shipley, N. L., Jackson, M. J., & Segrest, S. L. (2010). The effects of emotional     intelligence, age, work experience, and academic performance. Research in Higher Education Journal, 26, 433-440. doi: 014091705/km10629050.
  • Simpson, A., Brett, J. T., & Roob, W. (2008). Altruism and indirect reciprocity: The interaction of persona and situation in prosocial behavior. Social Psychology  Quarterly, 71, 37-50. doi: 00u9883jjd3321.

Also see these:

The Relationship of Self-Regulation among substance dependents and non-dependents Individuals

The Relationship Between Empathy, Self-Efficacy and Pro-social Behavior in College Students

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *