Influence of Smoking on Population Health in the UK – Introduction
The science group of individuals is creating a powerful body of evidence that demonstrates the significance of the environment in utero (including substance and hormonal concentrations) for the child’s final health and even the aging adult. This piece of writing summarizes the proof that shows this crash begins with beginning. Only a full life-cycle assessment will help us appreciate this impact, and merely such an understanding will create logically prioritized alleviation strategies to speak to the greatest threats first. Obviously, the time for analysis begins at what time the next age group is but a twinkle in the eye. Key words: birth defects, substance contact, beginning, fertilization, review.
There is a rising appreciation of the crash that very early existence environs (birth weight, shock, xenobiotic exposures) has on the health of the youngster and the adult. The life-course move toward to health and disease recognizes that these extremely early impacts add to disease afterward in life (reviewed in Gillman 2002). From this viewpoint, any long-term potential learn that attempts to expose and identify belongings on children’s health be supposed to comprise an assessment of the health of both parents previous to and at the time of start, counting xenobiotic load, dietary state of the mother, and the participation of any assisted reproductive skill. These skin have by now been shown to have demonstrable short-term impacts on the health of the youngster. Long-term follow-up is necessary if we are to fully appreciate the health burden attributable to these skins and to develop more knowledgeable hypotheses concerning exposure-disease relations. Only from such a total picture can we hope to create policy choice that determinations use our resources the majority effectively to get better the health of age group to approach.
This research focused on this truth that although by no means a thorough review, this article presents a number of come again? We know concerning these impacts. We end that explicit appraisal of such contact and factor before and approximately the time of beginning is indispensable for a genuine sympathetic of the determinants of health in our brood, and, by extension, the after that cohort of adults.
The Case for Early Analyses
Explicit capacity of exposure, body burden, or dietary status in a couple previous to conception is essential for frequent reasons.
One critical cause is that recall is variably reliable. Some studies establish that the aptitude of a being to recall exact exposures was good to outstanding for a number of medications (reviewed in Harlow and Liner 1989; Kelly et al. 1990) and some ecological exposure and pesticides (Blair et al. 2001; Feldman et al. 1989) but no improved than possibility for others (Feldman et al. 1989; Kelly et al. 1990). Although manifold survey may add to the likelihood of obtain an accurate image of what the exposure truthfully were (Farrow et al. 1996), this be able to be unwieldy and may yield a relatively little increase in self-assurance.
As well, questionnaires have an important limitation: they imprison only what is remember, which can approach only from what the member knows or is aware of. highly, environmental exposures arc occult. Exposures to and amalgamation of excipients and lively agents from manufactured products often occur with no our knowledge or awareness. Phthalates in air or makeup can guide to measurable levels in vivo, for instance (Blount et al. 2000), an interior contact that no survey, however well constructed and administered, would be bright to find and rebuild. Specific phthalates are able of disrupting reproductive growth in rodents (reviewed in CERHR 2002) and are supposed of causing similar belongings in other species, so this hole in our sympathetic is critical. The limitations of survey data were demonstrated lately for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), where there was no friendship between possible basis of contact by survey and actual serum height of more than a few coplanar PCBs (Shadel et al. 2001). since few consumers are conscious of their exposures or the source thereof, survey data will not be helpful for categorizing learn subjects into most-exposed and least-exposed groups for a lot of compounds of present (and probably prospect) anxiety.
Arguably, one of the best reasons for drama a prospective longitudinal learn is the far above the ground likelihood of finding new associations stuck between before unanticipated exposures and a health result. The more we know about pardon? Compounds are in the corpse and in what amount, the better our confidence will be in connect those exposures with health outcomes. This correctness cannot be obtained with questionnaire substitute data, but need actual capacity as well as measurements of compounds further than those that we know nowadays to be hazard.
Making simultaneous size of body burden is important since of the altering natural world of xenobiotics. One of the consequences of phasing out unrelenting organic contaminant is that additional xenobiotics now have shorter half-lives, and a organic sample taken in not on time pregnancy or after delivery cannot be considered envoy of in vivo levels at the occasion of beginning or during near the beginning pregnancy (reviewed in MacIntosh et al. 1999). An outstanding instance is methoxychlor, urbanized to put back dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). It has a comparable spectrum of future effects but is a great deal additional willingly excreted and therefore has a much-reduced propensity to bioaccumulate (Kapoor et al. 1970). Phthalates are one more instance: these are cleared from the corpse with relative pace (several days to a few weeks) and do not bioaccumulate considerably (Tanaka et al. 1978). From the community health and ecological perspectives, this is indisputably good, though it income that in fact formative which levels of which compounds are unfavorable requires frequent organic example and analysis.
A consequence of these short half-lives is substantial sample-to-sample difference. Even with no clear changes in performance, urinary levels of a number of pesticides have been exposed to differ by factors of four eras or more (Macintosh et al. 1999). Consequently, a solitary example will be poorly envoy of the long-term levels in that person.
A advantage of repeated example is that it would house the altered behaviors exhibit by women when they be acquainted with they are with child (Lelong et al. 2001; Root and Browner 2001). If these distorted behaviors also abridged their exposures to, and interior load of, harmful xenobiotics, then the abridged internal half-lives plus the distorted behaviors determination considerably reduce interior levels, making late-stage analyses even fewer representatives of previous levels. Measuring interior levels of xenobiotics approximately the occasion of beginning will provide a great deal more realistic image of the exposure of the origin at the dangerous period of beginning.
Study of the dietary status of a woman previous to pregnancy would permit for the opportune dimension of prepregnancy heaviness and the compilation of dietary times gone by and laboratory information. Studies have established that self-reported prepregnancy heaviness may be prejudiced, especially in the middle of plump women, who are more probable to undervalue their prepregnancy heaviness (Perry et al. 1995; Stevens-Simon et al. 1986). Dietary deficiencies, consideration to be owing to long-standing nutritional habits and not a unexpected affront, may resolve if a woman revolutionize her diet following she knows that she is with child. By getting a nutritional history prior to beginning, we can get rid of recall bias and text diet during the dangerous periods (Sempos 1992; Wet et al. 1999). Early compilation of laboratory data is significant for more than a few reasons. First, hemodilution, which begins near the start in the second trimester plus varies in degree and timing in the middle of persons, makes understanding of a number of micronutrient levels hard (e.g., plasma zinc attentiveness). Second, other physiologic modify that occur throughout pregnancy (e.g., increased renal emission of water-soluble vitamins, hormone-mediated move of nutrients to placenta and mammary glands, reduce of serum albumin) make formative micronutrient status throughout pregnancy hard (King 2000). Third, it might be important to gauge micronutrient levels previous to pregnancy since changes in performance (e.g., termination of smoking and/or alcohol expenditure) and use of flatten and multivitamin additions throughout pregnancy may have a result on laboratory values. Last, changes in the type and amount of food consumed as healthy as changes in bodily activity may have an effect on values (King 2000). By evaluating dietary status previous to pregnancy or in early pregnancy previous to physiologic and behavioral alter; one can more precisely evaluate a woman’s dietary status and the associations flanked by nutritional status throughout near the beginning pregnancy and following functional outcome. Knowledge of such relations might lead to interventions that stop adverse outcomes, such as the stipulation of folic acidic to stop birth imperfections.
The rest of this appraisal will focus on a diversity of key issues and their relations to the health of the ensuing child: compounds in semen; mix in the prepregnant feminine; the belongings of assisted reproductive technology (ARTs); the effects of preimplantation contacts; the influence of early motherly nutrition; and a appraisal of the period of most compassion for producing malformations and fetal changes.
Pages and pages of the tabloids and the broadsheets are dedicated to the latest nationwide obsession: our health and the customs in which we can conjure up eternal childhood and immortality with the help of a fat folder and sufficient storeroom freedom for an ever-expanding compilation of option pills, potions and creams.
At the similar time, paradoxically, the method of media reporting implies not so as to we have more managed over our feeling of well-being, but that we have barely any influence at all. No substance how a great deal we strive, sooner or afterward we determination be cut down by the dangerous business of livelihood and the opposing and conflicting recommendation doled out by so-called “experts”. Daily we understand writing about the recognition of ever additional difficult to understand and uncommon diseases (“It could be you!”) and the latest hazard hidden in what we consume and swallow
If we analyzed then we come to know that what stimulates this it seems that insatiable appetite. Some polemicists quarrel that, in an age of doubt and political powerlessness, the supremacy of our health, and the reshaping of our structure, is the only “power” that customers can wield. It is in addition the offshoot of both a distrust of the medical line of work and its demystification witnessed, for example, in parents who refuse the MMR inoculation for their brood, regardless of how much physician insists that he knows most excellent. Public health campaigns are a entire lot trickier at the present that the enduring no longer swallows big doses of paternalism.
Taking blame for one’s health, among the more wealthy, easily tips into cruel puritanism (the female who brings her wheat-free picnic out to dinner), debilitating fear and an overstated sense of susceptibility. We have the ludicrous irony of “the worried well” made unwell by the thought of being inadequately. It’s a neurosis that is petroleum’s by the media. Last month, for example, the Daily Mail approved a news report caution of fertility qualms for women who “stay too thin”. On its health pages, in the meantime, it offered go on a diet sheets and “The Secrets of Staying Slim Forever”.
In The Tyranny of Health: hospital and the regulation of way of life, the GP Michael Fitzpatrick argues, as a lot of have before him, that “the self-absorbed nature of the modern cult of health reflects the anxiety of an more and more atomized civilization … the fact that health initiatives be inclined to be in use more willingly by the better off means that the go forward of this program is likely to intensify communal fragmentation quite than help to conquer it”.
Even in the middle of those on senior incomes, however, putting hypothesis into put into practice is still rough in a consumer civilization where treat is encouraged since it whacks up income.
In the 1960s, for instance, 60 per cent of men and 40 per cent of women smoked frequently; today, in spite of public health campaigns, restrictions on publicity and contact of the relations with growth, the figure is motionless 28 percent.
Similarly, we know that fatness is “bad”, but motionless, as a nation, we are support on the pounds. It is predicted that fatness will affect 50 per cent of the population by 2040. Instead of just eating less, we use a staggering [pounds genuine] 10bn a year on go on a diet foodstuff and food and drink.
The psychologist Oliver James, in the middle of others, has sharp out that, today, we or a number of us, at some rate are looking high-quality and feeling awful. We are miserable, miserable, emotionally unfilled. As a result, we eat to fill what he calls “the supernatural void”.
The organization is all in favour of the confidential solution responsibility the injured party and difficult a personal rebellion in attitudes and behavior. But what is actually necessary, as health campaigners have extended argued, is fundamental communal alter.
Effect of Smoking on Health of the Population in UK
In 1980, a operational collection chaired by Sir Douglas Black, then leader of the Royal College of Physicians, shaped its account on the health of the state, in which it future a redeployment of resources, and that main concern be known to tackling scarcity. When it approaches to authority in 1997, Labour, to its praise, took heed. It chosen the first community health priest (Tessa Jowell, followed by Yvette Cooper, who was lately put back by Hazel Blears). And in its 1999 whitepaper “Saving Lives: our healthier nation”, it set absent a two-sided approach: first, to get better the health of the population as an entire; and next, to get better the health of the most horrible off.
Last year, the Health Secretary, Alan Milburn, announced a ten-year diagram to decrease infant humanity and premature adult deaths in the poorest parts of England. “For too extended,” he supposed, “the health debate in this state has been focused on the condition of the nation’s health repair and not on the condition of the nation’s health.”
Eight months later, the first account of the newly shaped Public Health Observatories local organisations set up to check health inequalities–revealed that the gap in life expectation stuck between the rich and deprived was widening. An infant born in Newham, east London, is probable to die six years previous than a boy born in wealthy Westminster.
Health dissimilarities are not now to do with fabric factors such as diet, bad accommodation and near to the ground incomes; they are too, as Richard Wilkinson argues in his volume Unhealthy Societies: the afflictions of disparity, connected to psychosocial issues such as low rank, weaker hold up networks, poor attachments in early days and a small number of existence chances.
The administration has recognised that the additional equal our civilization, the healthier it will be: since pending to power, new Labour has introduced neigh-bourhood regeneration schemes and the movement to reduce adolescent pregnancies, and has greater than before financial hold up for operational parents.
Public health programmes have full-grown more creative and customised, aim their message more skilfully. One system sends doctors absent to truckers, as truckers hardly ever go to a GP.
But in contrast to the money exhausted by the advertising manufacturing, the Health Development Agency’s [pounds sterling] 10m budget is weak. The new Primary Care Trusts have a manager of public health, but small in the way of capital. Anna Coote, director of community health at the King’s Fund, the health think-tank, argues that, even as “the government’s rhetoric is frequently radical, its actions are fundamentally traditional”.
The government’s strength of mind to win a third word in power, translated keen on spending additional on the sick in the NHS, has destined dangerously little notice being salaried to the long-term endeavour of prevent populace from flattering ill in the first put (and thus plummeting NHS expenditure).
Where do we leave from here? The GP Michael Fitzpatrick quarrels that doctors no longer just treat disease; now, additional than ever, they aim to control our individual behaviour. Moderation and exercise seem an easy enough communication for the improved off to appreciate. But known that we are only person, living in an alien customer world, the view spoken by Rene Dubos in The Mirage of Health (1960) has its magnetism. “It is part of the doctor’s purpose to make it likely for his patients to go ondoing the enjoyable things that are awful for them,” he wrote. “Smoking too a great deal, eating too much, and eating too much–without murder them any earlier than is essential.”
This research focused on this truth that approach of mind, assets, diet, position in civilization, support systems, exercise–all influence the health we contain However, the “option” of behaving in a way that isn’t of necessity good for our establishment is one which only persons on a decent profits can exercise–and even then by means of complexity.
Analysis and Finding
The poor are by now handicapped. Responsibility for their happiness has to recline with government–and so far not any, including Labour, has still begun to bring what lies at the spirit of any sound health make sure: a redistribution of profits and extensive moves towards parity.
Smoking is motionless the single biggest avoidable cause of bereavement and, for the people for whom it matters the majority, we have complete the smallest amount. Although we contain seen smoking rates in the middle of the most rich decline over the history 30 years, in the middle of the most disadvantaged in civilization, they remain attractive much the similar as they were 40 years ago, up on top of 70 per cent. Prisoners, the on the streets, solitary parents on advantage, all contain smoking rates on top of 70 per cent.
Smoking is one region where we have not really tried damage reduction in the similar method as we have with drugs and up till now we know that population smoke for the nicotine and not the tobacco smoke, mainly. It is not the nicotine that is murder them, but the tobacco smoke. If that populace could use cleaner source of nicotine, they would not be disappearing from their habit.
Jack Watters I would similar to create sure that we do not remember the huge price to the health of our country from smoking there is spirit disease and lung growth and as of alcoholism there is liver sickness. The health of a nation in a straight line leads to its wealth.
In the UK, amazing like 11 million adult populace in the population have used a number of form of illicit medicine in their lives; concerning three or four million of the mature population have used against the law drugs in the past year and amazing similar to two million of the mature population have old it in the history month.
The history month figure is fairly significant because that is more frequently than not the definition of a big shot who is actually by means of. We are chatting high-end drugs, not what populace call yielding drugs. Does it really substance if all these populace are using? I believe for a major proportion of those, it almost surely does not. For the 350,000 to 500,000 well-entrenched, quite chaotic, needy users, it probably does, as it does for their relations and associates. Also, there is the wider community that is impacted upon by their illicit medicine use and offense that goes by means of it.
Alex Bobak as a GP with fervor about smoking termination, I think there are a number of real basic physical constraints anywhere there are troubles in this state. GPs are awful at delivering smoking termination. This management has done very healthy We have set up the most excellent smoking cessation services in the earth, but sadly people do not be acquainted with about them; GPs do not be acquainted with about them; and GPs and healthcare professionals contain little or no information about smoking end.
According to the expert analysis in frequently see smokers who contain got to the phase where they are enthusiastic and able to construct the leap into an aided quit effort, but approach up against a element wall. They do not know anywhere the smoking cessation armed forces are. Yes, they can right of entry them from side to side NHS Direct but, additional frequently that not, they go from side to side their GP and obtain batted back since GPs do not appreciate smoking termination.
We were chatting about the biggest avoidable cause of death and illness in the UK and the earth, but it is not part of the checkup curriculum. I find that totally amazing in 2007. It was amazing when I was a medical scholar and it is still not fraction of the set of neither courses nor the GP higher height set of courses. It is about time we got amazing practical done to teach the populace who are at the entry to delivering care to this populace. Ninety-five for each cent of populace who smoke are enthusiastic to nicotine. When they approach to a GP, as they do five or six period a year each, nine period out often or additional they are known wrong letters about smoking.
A PEST analysis, as distinct by David Lines et al is ‘Political, Economical, Communal and Technical analysis, a means of analysing the outside factors that may there opportunities or intimidation to a business.'(David Lines et al, 2004:p212). It is also recognized as PESTEL analysis when Environmental and Legal issues are built-in.
It is used to recognize external factors which may influence a corporation. (https://www.marketing-intelligence.co.uk/help/Q&A/question24.htm)
The following factors PEST looks at comprise government constancy, duty strategy, overseas trade regulations and communal wellbeing policies. Foreign trade system in particular are significant for an organisation preparation on opening up in a dissimilar state or do business with a dissimilar state as their laws may differ from persons the organisation by now employs.
Economical factors comprise commerce cycles, interest rates, cash provide, price raises, being without a job and disposable profits. An organisation preparation on contravention into a new marketplace would be healthy advised to seem at the economical issues that may have an effect on their future business plans, such as marketplace trends and customer prototype.
Sociocultural issues, such as population demographics, communal mobility, way of life changes, consumerism and height of education, be supposed to also be check intimately, and instance being the tobacco manufacturing. With populace flattering more health aware and with communal force on smokers growing in western countries the sales of tobacco contain been adversely exaggerated in this marketplace. Anti smoking campaigns, limits on publicity and wrapping and the proscription of smoking in most community places, as well as serious taxes and courtyard cases, have led tobacco corporation to think their marketing efforts mostly on the rising world.(Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes, 2002)
Technological factors comprise new discoveries, speed of technical transfer, administration expenditure on research and tax of obsolescence. These are significant issue to watch, particularly for populace in the hi-technology manufacturing which changes continually. For instance in the movable phones manufacturing new models with better reminiscence, new extras and request and other technical advances have replaced the unique ‘mobile’. A portable phone is no longer just a movable phone but a computer, diary, calendar, and in a number of suitcases office. With new models pending out almost each month it is important the movable telephone companies keep up with present trends to make sure their mobiles do not turn out to be out of meeting.
Importance for Organisations
Organisations are topic to a range of dissimilar pressures in the external surroundings to which they have to respond. For instance the cost of raw materials, present legislation or the conditions of global buy and sell (Alasdair Blair, 2001)
It is of exacting significance that PEST is used to look at prospect impacts to the organisation as they may be dissimilar to the past. For instance, an organisation which is preparation to open vegetation in dissimilar countries should be worried with administration family members and sympathetic future policies as it could be in service in state with dissimilar following systems.(Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes, 2002)
Also, in the construct up to the millennium one of the anxieties for organisations was whether computers would run correctly after 1st of January 2000, so they took exploit near the beginning to make sure that this possibility did not happen. (Alasdair Blair, 2001)
It is significant for a company, particularly if they are working on a worldwide level, to know what is occurrence in another countries financial system. For instance cheaper labour rates overseas would affect the competitiveness of UK products countrywide and internationally. An add to in interest rates in the USA will have an effect on the share price of UK stocks or unfavorable climate conditions in India may have an effect on the price of tea. (https://www.learnmarketing.net/environment.htm) A financial system which is thriving is characterised by convinced variables which can be seen when by means of the PEST analysis, such as low being without a job and high job self-assurance. Organisations have to be prepared to take benefit of such events and be clever to keep up with greater than before insist in such situations. The similar can be said when an financial system is low, as being without a job will exist high, job safety will be low so expenditure will also be low. An organisation have to be prepared to create cut backs, such as in labour and publicity, in such an possibility to make sure they do not misplace too a great deal cash.
It can be seen obviously that PEST analysis gives an organisation a obvious benefit for the future by forecasts changes in the outside environment. This gives them the chance to prepare for the alter and, for example in the occasion of a high financial system, take full benefit and capitalise on this alter. The number of macro-environmental factors is almost limitless. In practise, an organisation has to prioritise and check those factors that power its manufacturing. Even so, it may be not easy to predict prospect trends with an outstanding height of correctness. However, the organisation may twist to scenario preparation techniques to contract with far above the earth levels of doubt in noteworthy macro-environmental variables.
- Article Title: It’s Up to You (Not): Taking Responsibility for Your Health Is Easy If You Are Wealthy. the Poor, on the Other Hand, Often Lack the Assets, Diet, Exercise and Support Systems That Are Necessary for Well-Being. Contributors: Yvonne Roberts – author. Magazine Title: New Statesman. Volume: 131. Issue: 4593. Publication Date: June 24, 2002. Page Number: xxiv+. COPYRIGHT 2002 New Statesman, Ltd.; COPYRIGHT 2002 Gale Group
- Article Title: Television: Era When Cinema Was a Big Draw; BEST OF THE WEEK MEMOIRS OF A CIGARETTE TONIGHT, CHANNEL 4, 10PM. Newspaper Title: Sunday Mail. Publication Date: July 1, 2007. Page Number: 15. COPYRIGHT 2007 Scottish Daily Record & Sunday; COPYRIGHT 2007 Gale Group
- Article Title: Round Table: When Is an Addict Not an Addict?. Magazine Title: New Statesman. Volume: 136. Issue: 4845. Publication Date: May 21, 2007. Page Number: 6+. COPYRIGHT 2007 New Statesman, Ltd.; COPYRIGHT 2007 Gale Group
- Article Title: Television: Era When Cinema Was a Big Draw; BEST OF THE WEEK MEMOIRS OF A CIGARETTE TONIGHT, CHANNEL 4, 10PM. Newspaper Title: Sunday Mail. Publication Date: July 1, 2007. Page Number: 15. COPYRIGHT 2007 Scottish Daily Record & Sunday; COPYRIGHT 2007 Gale Group.
- ADLER M. W., “The Terrible Peril: A Historical Perspective on the Venereal Diseases”, British Medical Journal, 281 ( 1980), 206-11.
- BYNUM W., “Policing Hearts of Darkness: Aspects of the International Sanitary Conferences”, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 15 ( 1993), 421-34.
- ALCORN K., “AIDS in the Public Sphere: How a Broadcasting System in Crisis Dealt with an Epidemic”, in E. Carter and S. Watney (eds.) Taking Liberties ( London, 1989), 193-212.
- AMMANN A. J., et al. “Acquired Immune Deficiency in an Infant: Possible Transmission by Means of Blood Products”. Lancet, 1 ( 1983), 956-8.
- BATEMAN D., “The Good Bleed Guide; A Patient’s Story”, Social History of Medicine, 7 ( 1994), 115-33.
- Szymczynski GA, Waliszewski SM 1981. Centent of chlorinated pesticides in human semen of a random population. Int J Androl 4:669-674.
- Talansky BE, Gordon JW. 1988. Cleavage characteristics of mouse embryos inseminated and cultured after zona pellucida drilling. Gamete Res 21:277-287.
- Tanaka A, Matsumoto A, Yamaha T. 1978. Biochemical studies on phthalic esters. III Metabolism of dibutylphthalate (DBP) in animals. Toxicology 9:109-123.
- Tee PG, Sweeney AM, Symanski P, Gardiner JC, Gasior DM, Sehantz SL. 2003. A longitudinal examination of factors related to changes in serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels. Environ Health Perspect 111(5):702 707,
- Telisman S, Cvitkovic P, Jurasovic J, Piaent A, Gavella M, Rocic B. 2000. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function in relation to biomarkers of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper in men. Environ Health Perspect 108:45-53
- Terada Y, Luetjens CM, Sutovshy P, Schatten G. 2000. Atypical decondensation of the sperm nucleus, delayed replication of the male genome, and sex chromosome positioning following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICBI) into golden hamster eggs: does ICSI itself introduce chromosomal anomalies? Fertil Steril 74:454-456.
- Tesarik J, Mendoza C, Greco E. 2002. Paternal effects acting during the first cell cycle of human preimplantation development after ICSI. Hum Reprod 17:184-189.
- Toppari J, Larsen J, Christiansen P, Biwercman A, Grandjean P, Guillette LJ, et al. 1996, Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens, Environ Health Perspect 104(suppl 4):741-803.
- Van Langendonckt A, Wyns C, Godin PA, Toussaint-Demylle D, Donnez J 2900. Atypical hatching of a human blastocyst leading to monozygotic twinning: a case report. Fertil Steril 74:1047-1050
- Velie EM, Block G, Shaw GM, Samuels SJ, Schaffer DM, Kulldoff M. 1999. Maternal supplementation and dietary zinc intake and the occurrence of neural tube defects in California. Am J Epidemiol 150:605-616.
- Verlaenen H, Cammu H, Derde MP, Amy JJ, 1985. Singleton pregnancy after in vitro fertilization expectations and outcome. Obstet Gynecol 96:906-910.
- Wagner U, Schlebusch H, van der Ven H, Diedrich K, Krebs D. 1990 Accumulation of pollutants in the genital tract of sterility patients. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 28:683-688.
- Wei EK, Gardner J, Field AE, Rosner BA, Colditz GA, Suitor CW. 1999. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire in assessing nutrient intakes of low-income pregnant women. Matern Child Health J 3(4):241-246.
- Wells JC, Cole TJ. 2002, Birth weight and environmental heat load: a between-population analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol 119(3):274-282.
- Wennerholm UB, Bergh C, Hamberger L, Lundin K, Nilsson L, Wikland M, et al. 2000. Incidence of congenital malformations in children horn after ICSI. Hum Reprod 15:944-948
- Werler MW, Louik C, Shapiro S, Mitchell AA. 1996. Prepregnant weight in relation to risk of neural tube defects. J Am Med Assoc 275:1089-1092.
- Westergaard RB, Johansen AM, Erb K, Andersen AN. 1999. Danish national in vitro fertilization registry 1984 and 1995: a controlled study of births, malformations and cytogenetic findings. Hum Reprod 14:1886 1902.
- WHO. 1995. Maternal Anthropometry and Pregnancy Outcomes: A WHO Collaborative Study. Bull World Health Organ 73(suppl):1-98.
- Wilkinson CF, Lamb JC. 1999. The potential health effects of phthalate esters in children’s toys: a review and risk assessment, Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 30:140-155
- Wong WY, Thomas CMG, Merkus HMWM, Zielhuis GA, Boesburg WH, Steegers-Theunissen RPM. 2000. Cigarette smoking and the risk of male factor subfertility: minor association between cotinine in seminal plasma and semen morphology Fertil Steril 74:934-935.
- Xiao G, Pan C, Cai Y, Lin B, Fu Z. 1998. Effect of benzene, toluene, xylene on semen quality of exposed workers. Chin Med J 112:709-712.
- Xu B, Chia SE, Tsakok M, Ong CN. 1993. Trace elements in blood and seminal plasma and their relationship to sperm quality. Reprod Toxicol 7:613-618.
- Yazigi RA, Odem, RR, Polakoski KL. 1991. Demonstration of specific binding of cocaine to human spermatozoa. JAMA 266:1956-1959.