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Embedded Systems of Software and Hardware


Embedded systems are a combination of software and hardware, and Electronic system required a hardware platform that built with a microcontroller or microprocessor. Embedded system hardware requires elements like input/output interface, display, and memory. Embedded system comprises serial commutation ports, and memory, timers, power supply depends on the application and specific circuits.

Embedded Systems of Software and Hardware                 

The embedded software program is written in the high-level language, then compiled and achieve specific function within residual memory in the hardware chip. Embedded system design to keep three limits. Limited space availability in the system memory, processor speed, when the system runs power dissipation for events like run, stop and wakeup

Embedded systems classified into different types based on microcontroller performance and function requirements.

  Embedded systems types

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Embedded systems are differentiated into four categories based on performance and functions.

  1. Stand-alone Embedded system
  2. Mobile Embedded systems
  3. Networked Embedded systems
  4. Synchronic Embedded systems

Based on performance embedded systems classified into three types such as

  1. Mini-scale embedded systems
  2. Mid-scale embedded systems
  3. Ultra-modern embedded systems

Stand-Alone Embedded Systems

These integrated systems do not require any host computer, it takes data from input ports either digital or Analog converts data and sends resulting data to control drives or displays, stand-alone systems are Microwaves, washing machines, security cameras.re

Synchronic Embedded Systems

These embedded systems are defines as a time-dependent output. Time will be based on the time deadline. These systems are differentiated into 2-types such as hard and soft systems with synchronic

Networked Embedded Systems

These embedded systems are required a network connection; it can be any source of internet, this type of system widely popular in the market and fast-growing embedded systems. All networked embedded systems are connected to a web server accessed and controlled via a web browser. For example, security cameras, sensors are connected and works on protocol TCP or IP.

Mobile Embedded Systems

These embedded systems are limited to memory, used in portable devices like cell phones, mobiles, digital cameras.

Mini-Scale Embedded Systems

These systems are designed with an 8-bit or 16-bit microcontroller that may work with a battery, for developing these embedded systems required programming tools such are editor, assembler, or integrated development environments (IDE).

Mid-Scale Embedded Systems

These types of systems are adapted with 16-bit or 32-bit microcontrollers with a combination of hardware and software complications, for developing medium embedded systems required an embedded software programming tools such tools are debugger, source code tools, simulators, integrated development environment’s (IDE).

Ultra-Modern Embedded Systems

These types of systems integrated with integrated processors, programmable logic arrays, configurable processors, they are used in Ultra-modern applications, that need hardware and software integration in the final system

How Micro Mouse Works

Micro-Mouse is an intelligent walking robot, designed with embedded microcontrollers and a combination of sensors. Micro-mouse has been used to solve the maze for almost 30 years. This technology can be transformed into real-life industrial robots. In recent years technology developed in the Chain, eventually, become a new competition in the modern world, Micro-mouse automatically discovers the different mazes and remembers the path, and uses the corresponding algorithm to reach the target destination. Every year micro mouse international competitions are conducting in different countries

Maze Solving / Micro-Mouse Rules

Name of the Even:           Maze Solving

Robots per Event:             One

Length of Event:               10 Minutes Max

Robot Dimensions:           16 cm x 16 cm

Arena Specifications:       2.88m x 2.88m

Robot control:                  Autonomous

How Event Works:

A robot placed in the corner of the maze, consisting of 5 cm square segments. Maze consist of junctions, dead ends, left and right turns, dead centre of the maze is an open area, two sections wide and two segments long, the central area is positioned only left turn or only right turn robot can never reach it, the goal is to reach the centre of the maze by finding fastest root as possible


In this context the team’s design to built self-contained robot size of (Micro-mice) to negotiate a maze in the shortest possible time

Rules for Micro-Mouse

The robot is autonomous “no remote controls”. A micro-mouse shall not use any external source or combustion process

A micro-mouse shall not be fly over, jump over, climb, cut, burn, or destroy the maze.

A micro-mouse shall not be larger than width 16 cm and 16 cm length. Dimensions of the micro-mouse that change its size during a run shall not be higher than the specified size 16cm x 16cm.

Any breaching of these guidelines will affect immediate disqualification from the game and ineligibility for the associated prizes.

Rules for Maze:

The maze is designed with a number of an 18cm x 18 cm square. The wall of the maze is 5cm height and 1.2 cm thickness, tolerance will be 5%, including internal tolerance area will be 16.8cm, total maze size is up to2.88cm square. The outside wall includes the entire maze.

The sides of the maze are white, the top of the walls are red, and the floor is black, the maze is made with wood, finished with non-glossy paint.

Warning: Don’t assume that walls are always white, top of the walls still red, the floor is black, fading may occur, don’t expect the floor will provide enough grip/friction. It is simply painted plywood and maybe quite slippery. There may be a joint between the two sheets on which any low hanging parts of a robot may holdup.

They can be started any one of the corners. The start square is compassed on 3-sides by walls. The start line is located between the squares. The robot starts from the corner square where the time starts. The target goal is the 4-cells in the middle of the maze. The target destination has only one entry.

Small zones, every single 1.2 cm x 1.2 cm, 4-corners of each section squares are named lattice points. The maze is included that at least one wall at each lattice point.

Multiple ways to the target square are allowed and are to be predicted. The endpoint square will be stationed so that robot will not be able to find it.

Contest Rules:

Each contesting is not allocated any time to access the maze before the first run. Ten minutes to complete the maze as many runs they want. Within 10 minutes, any time robot can be adjusted between run is included in 10 minutes. Each run from the start to the target point centre zone reached successfully given run time. The first prize goes to the first shortest time arrived, the second prize goes to the 2nd shortest time reached time and so on.

That 10 minute continues even between runs. Robots do not enter entre point will be ranked by the number of cells successively crossed without being touched. All robots have entered into to centre within 10 minutes allotment are ranked highest than those who do not enter the centre target point. If the robot is in the middle of the run within 10 minutes, time is elapsed, that attempt is complete and does not count. The jury is not required to give any ranking to robots who do not complete may declare no winners or lower than three winners at their prudence.

Two timers are used for each game, One for 10 minutes total time, one for each run within 10 minutes.

If a contestant touches the robot during the middle of the run, it is considered as an aborted, and the robot must remove from the maze. If the robot has already crossed the complete line, they can remove at any time without effecting run time. If the robot is placed for another run, a one-time penalty of thirty seconds will be added to the robot’s best time.          

Game Ambient Conditions:

Temperature (40 to 120 Degrees)

Humidity (0 to 95% non-condensing)

Light (Sunlight, fluorescent light, Incandescent light may be present at the contest site)

If the robot has not entered the target point, the last run is aborted new run will begin with the latest time that starts when the starting square is exited. A contestant may not feed info on the maze to the Micro-Mouse, contestants are allowed to change switch settings like change algorithms for turns when the robot is out of the maze.

How Micro-Mouse Functions:

The Basic functionality of a micro-mouse is travel from start square from the centre of square targeted destination reaching time call run time. The total time from the beginning enactment of the micro- mouse until the beginning of each run is estimated. This is called maze time if a mouse required manual help whenever during the challenge, it is considered of touched. By using these 3-parameters the soring scoring of the contest is designed to reward speed, the efficiency of maze solving, and self-reliance of the micro-mouse.

How Micro-Mouse Functions


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