Phobia means fear Islam is a religion, which is practiced by more than One billion Muslims around the world, who belong to different cultures and believe in the different interpretation of religion. When these two separate terms are fused together, they form a new word, which means dislike or prejudice against Muslims and their religion Islam on the political and theological basis. Contemporary academics have re-modified it slightly and in a modern context it is a prejudice and disgust against Islam or Muslims, especially political Islam.
The study, on this topic, has revealed two things; 1) Islamo-phobia is not a recent phenomenon, but rather an old phenomenon and 2) it has been exploited, by groups which have vested interests, for political, social and economic reasons.
In the United States, there had been various watersheds, after which this prejudice or hate, against Muslims or Muslim community, had augmented. One of the greatest and recent watersheds was the terrorist attack, in New York, which brought down Twin Towers (World Trade Center). In this paper, we will discuss, what contributed to the increase in Islamo-phobia? How state institutions reacted and How Muslims suffered because of this grown hate and prejudice against them. We will also add and discuss statistics, regarding hate-crimes against Muslims, which demonstrate growing Islamo-phobia.
What is Islamo-phobia and when does it start?
Before we discuss Islamo-phobia is the United States and West, it is imperative to know what is Islam and in which parts of the world, it is practiced by its followers, known as Muslims. Islam is a monotheist religion, which means that it professes that there is only One God, who Muslims know as Allah. When we study the theology of Islam, we find out that Islam does not claim to be a new religion, but rather a continuity of Abrahamic religious beliefs and practices. Scholars/theologians are to have acknowledged Islam as an Abrahamic religion, which has many similarities with Judaism and Christianity. As per some theologians, Islam has more in common with Judaism than Christianity.
History of Islam as Religion and as Empire
Islam as a religion started from Arabian Peninsula, some 1500 years ago. The prophet of Islam, Muhammad, introduced Islam, like religion, to the natives of Mecca, who were pagans. As the resistance, against this religion grew, Prophet Muhammad, had to leave Mecca and settled in Medina, where he was able to carve out a first Islamic state, where Islamic laws and principles were enacted. Muslims, especially Modern Muslims, consider it an exemplary state, which must be replicated or reproduced.
After the death of Prophet Muhammad, Islam as an empire expanded out of Arabian Peninsula. In the beginning, this empire was headed by Arabs; however, Turks took command and ruled on three continents. During this time, Islam, as an empire, interacted with European/Christian Empires and it was during this period, the perception, regarding Muslims developed. Catholic Church and Christian Kingdoms, which had engaged militarily with Muslim Empire(s), played their parts in shaping opinion about Muslims and Islam. Muslims were deemed as an enemy of Christ and Islam was recognized as a diabolic cult, which aimed to destroy Christian civilization and Christians, especially of Europe. Views and perceptions, of similar nature, also existed in Islamic empire; however, on a comparatively small scale, as Europe and Christianity were not a great concern of Muslims and also of Muslim Empire.
Historians have the consensus on this viewpoint that Crusades, which yielded new perceptions regarding Christianity, Islam, Christians and Muslims, were fought purely for strategic and vested interests and religion was exploited to justify crusades.
Apparent it is from the study of Islam as religion and empire that Islamo-phobia is not a recent phenomenon, but rather it is an old phenomenon, which influenced both European and Islamic civilizations. At the end, of the 11th century, empires devised instruments to scare population of an enemy, which desires to destroy Christianity and Christian way of living. Islamo-phobia, therefore, in the 11th century was disgust and prejudice against Islam both as religion and political force.
Contemporary Islamo-Phobia and Its Origin
The contemporary Islamo-phobia is a very complex phenomenon, as in different cultures it is defined differently. However, the general understanding is that it is a prejudice against both political and Islam, Islamic Culture, and Muslims. This disgust and prejudice against Islam started, in modern times, after the collapse of Soviet Union. During this period, Western civilization required another enemy, which they carved out of Muslims and Islam was discerned as a source of hatred against Western civilization and its way of life.
During the Arab-Israeli conflict, we have witnessed the rise of Islamo-phobia, for which different instruments were used. The Palestine-Israel conflict was a bloody conflict, in which people died. Parties to the conflict sometimes used brutal military tactics, as it is natural or expected during a prolonged conflict. Western media mischievously presented this conflict as a religious conflict, as Israel had a very weak political case. This methodical and intentional effort played a part in yielding Islamo-phobia. When we study this in detail, we learn that it was not only Western media, which contributed to Islamo-phobia; Art/Entertainment/Film-Industry was also used for the propagation of views against Islam and Muslims.
There have been different water-sheds, after which Islamo-phobia radically increased in West in general and in the United States in particular. The most recent were the 9/11, the attack on Twin Towers in New York, after which the perception of Muslims changed radically. It allowed conservative and neo-conservative groups to propagate their agenda, which was on hate, division on the religious and cultural basis.
During this period, different groups, in West (including the United States), devised a narrative, which asserted that Muslims are irrational in their approach and behavior, who desire to dismantle Western/Christian civilization through terrorism, to realize the objective of global dominance of Islam. By using different mediums, the view point was repeated to the extent that a considerable portion of Western Society became apprehensive of Muslims. Consequently, because of Islamo-phobia, all other sorts of challenges emerged in society. In the context of United States, Muslim community faced various kinds of problems, and we witnessed an evident increase in physical attacks against Muslims.
Since the emergence of Islamic State, in Iraq and Levant, the suspicion and hate against Muslims have increased. Statistics have revealed that because of the actions of the terror group, Islamic State, the fear regarding Islam has grown. We also learn that groups in the US, political and other, which have special or vested interests, used these terrorist acts to endorse their viewpoint. Through media outlets and other such mediums, these groups have scared the Western/American public. The recent attacks, in Europe and in the Untied States, which responsibility has been accepted by Islamic State increased anger and hate.
The problem has been aggravated as there is no counter-narrative, which clarifies that such terror groups are the product of perpetual war in these regions and they believe in Ultra-conservatisms and according to them, Muslims, who do not believe their view of Islam are heretics. In fact, most of the times (around 90%) the targets and victims, of these terror groups and their terrorist acts are fellow Muslims.
In this first part of the paper, we have in detail discussed not only term Islamo-phobia but also its history and modern origin. We have also discussed the factors, which have contributed to Islamo-phobia and how this phenomenon has affected a large religious community, which exists in different parts of the world. It must also be acknowledged that Islam is the second largest religion in the world, and followers of Islam believe in different interpretations of it. However, when an entire community would be viewed and treated inferiorly, and they would be discriminated against, it would create different kinds of social, political and also economic problems.
Islamo-phobia before and after Trump
In the first section, of the paper, we have discussed in great detail the term Islamo-Phobia and its historical origin. In this section, of the paper, we will discuss how Islamo-Phobia has evolved, as a phenomenon, over the years and how conservative parties, such as Republicans, contributed to Islamo-phobia and later exploited it to win elections. Another emphasis would be on statistics, regarding the incidents of hate crimes and targets on Muslim communities, not only in the United States, but also in other European countries.
Islamo-phobia, which existed in Western and American societies for quite some time, grew and evolved after 9/11. It was during this time, the neo-conservatives started a brand new campaign against Islam and Muslims, with the sole objective to scare American public for electoral tilt. During the time of Bush, especial during his second campaign, the Republican party and administration started to use terms such crusade, which subtly suggested that so-called American War Against Terror was not only campaign against terrorists but also against the source of Ideology, which was identified as Islam. However, the Bush administration and Republican Party was quite conscious of not using this narrative so audaciously.
President George. W Bush was succeeded by Barrack Hussein Obama, after which the narrative against Islam and Muslims gained more potency. It was during this time the hate against Muslims grew, and Republican Party subtly suggested that Barrack Hussein Obama was Muslim. Ultra-right political groups propagated during this time that Barrack Obama had hidden agenda, which was against American values and civilization norms.
Democratic Party only focused on mitigating this perception or propaganda and never argued that Muslims are equal citizens and constitutionally a Muslim could become President. In fact, it was Colin Powel, who took a bold stance and said that he had no issue if President Obama was Muslim or Jew. Democratic party had the opportunity to present a counter-narrative and tell Americans that Muslims were peaceful citizens of the United States, who had equal opportunities.
When Barrack Hussein Obama was contesting, for the position of President (2nd time), he got so petrified of the propaganda that he distanced himself from Muslim community. As a result, ultra-right groups became more emboldened, and their propaganda became more effective.
However, it was 2016 American Presidential Election, during which we saw a drastic increase in Islamo-phobia. Republican campaign was more vicious and insensitive than before. During the camping, Trump and other Republican candidates very openly accused Muslims and brought-forth various types of mechanisms, Muslim specific, which would restrict movement of Muslims and consequently, United States would become a safer place. This political disposition implies that Muslims are responsible for the aggravated security situation, of Untied States and it is because of Muslims United States is suffering.
This extremely dangerous narrative emboldened people, who had a prejudice against Muslims, because of the perpetual propaganda. Many academics and historians fear that this position and this sort of propaganda could give birth to similar conditions, in which Nazi Party rose to the power in Germany. If we look closely, we find that there is a tremendous similarity between the campaigns, which was run by Adolf Hitler and Donald J Trump. Both exploited dismal economic conditions and accused particular religious/ethnic group of the economic-political turmoil.
For the better and more credible analysis, of change/increase in Islamo-phobia, we will study statistics regarding Islamo-phobia. We will gather data, regarding hate crime, before and after Trump presidency. Hate-crime, against Muslims, in many ways, reveal the intensity and rise of Islamo-phobia; therefore, we will retrieve data regarding hate crimes and not just of Untied States, but also of European countries, which would help us understand and measure the rise of Ultra-nationalist or ultra-right groups.
From the available statistics, we know that hate crimes have increased evidently. As per Independent, a UK based credible news outlet, in 24 hours, after the dramatic and to some extent shocking victory of Donald J Trump, hate crimes against Muslims increased. The most common feature, of hate crime, was threats. Many Muslims reported that after Trump’s unexpected victory, many Muslims were threatened by fellow Americans and in some cases, they were also physically assaulted.
Threats, in such tense elections, especially when they based on the exploitation of racial, religious and cultural rifts, are common. However, experts are of the view that these threats were more potent. Physical assaults, it has been observed, of serious nature and lives, of the people who were assaulted, were in real danger.
Gradually, this trend or hate crimes have increased, as Trump administration has not taken any bold step regarding these types of crimes. In fact, Trump administration is hell-bent that these incidents are made up by the press only to put his administration under pressure. This dismissive attitude, of Trump Administration, has complicated matters further and it has given space to the violent groups, who have a prejudice against Muslims/minorities, to operate more freely. In addition, Trump Administration has put ban of the issue of visas for Iran, Sudan, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Libya and Somalia.
Ban on Muslims
Trump administration has put a ban on Muslims, belonging to seven Muslim-majority countries. The justification, of this ban given by Trump Administration, is that because of political and military chaos in Middle-East, especially in Syria and Iraq, for a temporary period visas will not be issued to people of these countries, unless they are member of minority groups, such as Christian or Yazd. This is evidently a policy based on discrimination and generalization, which is why it is being debated and criticized by different segments of society and media. We also learn that administration has adopted a strange attitude towards complex and complicated issues such as hate speech or freedom of expression, which is further complicated already complex situation.
Paradoxes such as Hate Speech fueling Islamo-phobia
Freedom of Expression is one of the fundamental rights, which has been acknowledged by the democratic states. It is used to express opinions and hold governments accountable; however, it can also be used for sinister purposes. This is because there is a very fine borderline between Freedom of Expression and Hate Speech. Sometimes, it becomes very difficult even for the experts to distinguish hate speech from freedom of expression; such is the paradox of Hate speech.
In the United States, ultra-right groups have used hate-speech, in the guise of freedom of expression, to propagate their highly offensive and controversial narrative. This narrative, which is being propagated in the name of freedom of expression, has increased apathy against Muslims. The increased apathy has various manifestations. One of the most common manifestations is threats, which are a form of a hate crime when they are directed against particular ethnic or religious group. Most of the times, these threats translate into physical assaults.
Experts, of this issue, assert that when states do not take actions, regarding such instances and dismiss them as an exaggeration or false incidents, the number, of such instances, swell, which eventually destroys the social fabric of a country. This has been witnessed in Nazi Germany, where state deliberately allowed state institutions and groups to terrorize and persecute religious and ethnic minorities.
Statistics and Accounts
Many incidents have been reported, in which not only threats were made against Muslims, but also they were physically assaulted. One such case occurred with the n Diego State University student, who was threatened, regarding new Muslim policy, before stealing her purse, rucksack, and car. Investigators, of this incident, suggested that girl was targeted because of the Muslim faith. Investigators have further concluded that initially, the plan was only to threaten her; however, a later group of two decided to rob her too.
One type of assault, on Muslim women, in the United States, is pulling of Hijab. Many Muslim women, who wear Hijab, out of devotion in the United States despite that fact that it would single them out in a crowd when ethnic/religious tensions are so high, reported that their Hijabs had been pulled by racists and Trump supporters.
Maha Abdul Gawad, an American Muslim, was shopping in a local market when her Hijab was pulled. This incident took place in a Wal-Mart. In this incident, another woman approached Maha and tried to pull her Hijab. While she was pulling off her Hijab, this woman/aggressor said, this is not allowed anymore, so go hang yourself with it around your neck, not on your head.” This reveals that victory of Trump has a positive correlation with the increase in the hate crime. This is quite apparent from the incident, which has been quoted above.
In the state of Michigan, another Muslim student, of the University of Pennsylvania, was threatened by a man, who asked her to remove her Hijab or she would be torched (Reilly, 2016).
These were the incidents, which were reported within 24 hours of the election result, according to which, Donald J Trump became President of United States. However, after the election, these racist slurs, threats and physical assaults have become more systemic and methodical. Rights groups have claimed that hate crimes have increased since Donald J Trump has been elected to the office of President. These hate crimes are of various types and usual targets, of such crimes, are Muslims and Immigrants.
According to the statistics, of Southern Poverty Law Center, there has been a visible increase in some hate crime incidents. The agency has revealed that more than 1, 000 reports, of hate incidents, have been collected and in most cases, it is minority groups and immigrants, who are the target.
Reported Hate Crimes that were directed towards Muslims or Muslim community were around 400. These figures have been provided by Council on American-Islamic Relations. In the year 2017, 175 cases have been reported so far, which is a huge number, as there have only been two months into the year 2017. As per projections, if the Trump administration did not take any concrete steps and allowed such incidents to occur, there would be an increase in hate-related incidents.
The report, which has been published by American-Islamic Relations, also reveals that most common kind of hate crime is bullying and travel-related hate incidents Most of the bullying incidences are occurring in University, where Muslims students are exposed to bullying of different kinds. Investigators have identified two common types of hate crimes; 1) direct and 2) indirect.
In indirect hate crimes, perpetrators use offensive graffiti and such other tools to hurt sentiments of a group. In direct cases, targets are identified and approached by the perpetrators. For instance, on university walls and in a diverse neighborhood, offensive graffiti is written, and symbols are made.
According to Mozzafur, a Muslim and mother of three children, “Our community is suffering, and it’s not age specific,” She has further said that her children have started to question their identity and they no more feel secure in the country of their birth. The impact, of these hate crimes, is large and dark that her child, in kindergarten has started to ask her very complicated questions regarding their identity and country. She further said that after 9/11 hate increased; however, after Trump’s victory these crimes hate crimes have not only increased, but they have also become sterner, causing more paid to minorities, which are living in the Untied States.
Another kind of discrimination, which yielded out of Islamo-phobia, is work discrimination. As per Mozzafur, because of the increased Islamo-phobia, Muslim adults are finding difficult to find a job and the work discrimination, against them, have augmented. These realities, as per Mozza for, are shaping, against Muslim community in the United States, which is isolating Muslim community.
When we Study hate-related crimes and the frequency of their occurrence, we learn that it is not Muslims, which are suffering because of the environment created by Islamo-phobia, but other minorities also feel unsafe in the United States now. For instance, reports, regarding hate crimes against minorities, reveal that Jewish and Black community is also suffering because of the intense and harsh environment. For instance, Jewish Community is on high alert, because of the grown hate related incidences against the community. In one such incidence, property, which belonged to Jewish students, of Illinois campuses, has been vandalized. In one such similar incidence, Jewish cemetery has been desecrated and partially demolished (Eltagouri, 2017).
According to some reports, which have been published in reputed news outlets, academics have found a positive correlation between hate-related incidences in Europe and Trump’s victory. The data related it is little apocryphal; however, numerous studies have found that there is a correlation between the increase in hate crimes and Trump’s victory.
How does that affect the Muslim lives in the State and outside the state?
Most of the Muslims, who live in the United States, are immigrants and they come from developing Muslim countries of Africa and Asia. In some cases, these Muslim immigrants have escaped brutal authoritarian rule to live a better life in the United States. The perception, of these Muslims, who left their countries for better social and economic opportunities, was that the United States is a democracy, where state institutions are fully developed and to the extent that they do not allow the violation of rights, which is guaranteed by American constitution. Another perception was that American society was an open and responsible society, where people are not discriminated against. However, since 9/11, this perception has diluted and gradually eroded.
American Muslims consider 9/11 a watershed, which changed their lives forever. After the tragic incident of 9/11, in which CIA-trained terrorist attacked the United States for political and personal reasons, American Muslims became alien and enemy in their country. The suspicion, regarding Islamic faith and their patriotism, grew to the extent that it was discussed in electronic and print media. Also, social media was also used by certain individuals and groups to malign Muslims and to raise suspicion regarding their agenda in the United States.
In numerous studies, about American Muslims, Muslim men and women of Untied States have shown their concern and revealed that they have become more insecure. There are different kinds of challenges, which are faced by Muslims in the modern day and age, in the wake of augmented Islamo-phobia.
One of the most common complains, of Muslim men and women, who live in the United States, is regarding the discrimination they face in their lives. School, college, and university going Muslim students lament that in education institution fellow students sometimes discriminate against them, because of their culture and religion. This method of discrimination is very subtle, and it can only be felt. Therefore, it is not reported very often. Unlike other sorts of social challenges, which now are faced by Muslim Americans in the Untied States, discrimination is a perpetual or continuing challenge. For instance, Americans Muslims, who face discrimination, in educational institutions and work places, they have to cope up with this challenge or deal with this ugly situation every day.
This constant struggle, with undesired reality, has psychological cost. Most of the American Muslims have gone into a state of depression, since 9/11, as not only they are discriminated against at academic institutions and work places, but also in media too, bias reporting against Muslim community, has further isolated them.
Some experts are of the view that the discrimination, which is now being practiced against Muslim community, will isolate community and would adversely impact the young generation of this community. In such state of depression and depression, Muslim youth, of America, is vulnerable to propaganda, of Terror outfits, which exploit insecurity, hate, and anger in individuals for their benefit.
It is true that American government has enacted laws, which aim not only to reduce discrimination related incidences in society but also punish those, who discriminate against others. However, as we have explained earlier that most of the cases are not reported because discrimination is very subtle and person, who is being discriminated against, is also in doubt. Studies reveal that only most apparent form of discrimination reported and that too is not reported very often. This is because, in the court of law, it is very difficult to prove discrimination case, as space for the deniability of charge is large. Therefore, people do not report discrimination, unless it is very apparent. In most of the incidences, of reported discrimination cases, the plaintiff has provided strong evidence, in which accuse using derogatory terms, which discloses his/her motive of a particular act.
For instance, in Wall-mart, a person adopted a discriminatory attitude towards an immigrant from El Salvador, who is a cashier at Wall-mart. He first demanded to be served by a White American, and after sometime, he used racial slurs against that cashier. Such kind of discrimination/bias is not hard to prove in a court of law, and for courts too it is easy to pass judgments on such incidences. However, in most cases, matters are far more complex and subtle. Also, also accused usually do not have such convincing evidence, which requires less interpretation in a court of law.
Attacks on Mosques
Since the increase, in Islamo-phobia, America has witnessed an increase in attacks on Mosques (place of worship). The available evidence, which we have scrutinized regarding the attacks on mosques, tells that since 9/11, attacks on Mosques, in Untied States increased dramatically. This was because perpetrators believed that Islam was responsible for attacks in the United States and Islam intends to destroy Western/American civilization. The alleged link, these perpetrators establish between Islam and terrorism, resulted in attacks on Mosques, all over the United States.
For instance, Texas Mosque, which burned to the ground, under suspicious conditions, soon after Donald J Trump became President of Untied States, is believed to be the target of hate crime. Though the Texas community has collected over $600, 000 for the rebuilding of the mosque, a strong and positive gesture, though still Muslims remained uncertain and apprehensive of their status and future in American Society (Newton, 2017).
The anti-mosque activity became more strong and evident, after the attacks in Paris and San Bernardino. The ultra-right groups used this as an opportunity to create an enemy out of Muslims, which could be later exploited for political, social and financial purposes. The report also claims that not only existing mosque sits have been vandalized, but also proposed mosque sites have also been vandalized. The graph below depicts the increase in Anti-Islam hate crimes.
The map above, which has been retrieved from the site of American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), depicts the number of anti-mosque activities, since 2005. It is a quite detailed map, which helps us understand that in which state, of the United States, anti-mosque, and anti-Muslim activities are high. The map shows that only in nice states of United States such activities have not occurred. These states are Vermont, Alaska, Hawaii, Utah, New Mexico, Alabama, Delaware, South and North Dakota (ACLU, 2017). Because of these increased anti-mosque activities, Muslims no more feel safe to worship in Mosque, and they prefer to pray at home. These, attacks on mosques, curtails in many ways, the religious freedom, of Muslim community, which is against the constitution, of the United States and Article that guarantees religious freedom, which should be a concern of a state, especially that state asserts to be the chap ion of freedom and democracy.
Since strong conservative groups control Republican Party; therefore, the majority, of the Muslims only has once choice, which is Democratic Party. In a two party system, single political opportunity drastically reduces political choices and eventually political freedom. This is one of the challenges, which Muslims in the United States are facing. In Nazi Germany too, minorities felt and experienced gradual political isolation and reducing political opportunities. These settings gave rise to National Socialist Party (Nazi Part). This political isolation has not matured yet and therefore; it can be mitigated by taking positive steps, in a positive direction.
Social and Economic Disparity
Social and economic estimators and indicators reveal that Muslims are facing mild challenges when it comes to society and economy. The economic conditions, of Muslim community, are not dismal; however, because of the discrimination its members face, the economic disparity, on a communal level, could increase. Also, in a more fragmented society, which social fabric has been spoiled by discrimination and segregation, challenges for Muslims and the overall community can compound.
Role of media during the campaign: good or bad role in change Islamo-phobia states
Different studies have revealed that Media acts as a state agent to shape opinion and consent. Governments, which are authoritarian, more frequently and evidently use media as a tool to propagate their narrative. However, in democracies, this is done more subtlety and sophistication. For instance, before the Iraq war, only few news outlets questioned evidence, which was provided by Bush Administration. Similarly, during the Palestine/Israel conflict, media deliberately suppressed facts and endorsed Israeli narrative, regarding the conflict. To do so, it had to demonize Palestinian and their religion. In a very systematic manner, media suggested that Palestinians are barbaric; who does not believe in coexistence and radical ideology of Islam is responsible for that.
In similar fashion, media raised suspicion against Muslims and Islam, so that general public should not question he policies of the United States, which it has adopted in Muslim countries, especially oil-rich Muslim countries of Middle East. Therefore, we can say that Media exaggerated apprehensions, regarding Muslims and Muslim community, instead of mitigating these apprehensions. The result is Trump team exploited these fears for the White House and discrimination and hate against Muslims increased in the United States. Responsibility, of Media, is to ensure that rights, which are guaranteed, by the constitution, are not violated, and governments are kept on their toes so that they could perform better (Safdar, 2016).
While concluding the paper, it could be said that Muslims are facing mild challenges around the world as they are discriminated on religion basis, there is the increase in the Islamophobia or Muslimphobia because the term related to the dislike or fear towards the Islamic culture or the politics. Due to social, political and economical reasons Islamophobia took place in the societies, it is an old phenomenon, that increased with the time and lead Muslim nation to suffer problems, there are hate-crimes against the Muslims in the societies.
Islamophobia in various societies and the countries increased the bloody conflicts, as there were the issues of Palestine-Israel and the 9/11 attack, which lead towards the increase in physical attacks against. However, there hatred results in the attacks and the past attacks, the recent attacks increased the anger and hate in the communities. Muslims are the large religious community, therefore, Islamo-Phobia has evolved and the incidents of hate crimes targeted by the Muslim communities. The attacks take place in the European countries as well as in the United States.
The era of President George W Bush Muslims was given the equality, but due to the attacks from the Muslims, a community made the U.S politics to think against the Muslims. However, Barrack Hussein Obama was a Muslim, so he valued Muslims culture and, thus, at that time there were hidden agenda, which was against American values and disliked by the communities. Trump, recently gave the civilization norms to everyone and consider Muslims are equal citizens, however, prejudice against Muslims could be seen. In Trump, administration hatred against Muslims can be seen, as he put the ban on Muslims, of the different Islamic countries including Syria and Iraq. Political and military chaos is there in the Middle East, he banned the visas for the Muslim that represented the discrimination and generalization. However, the propaganda was created by the media; criticism was there by different segments of society and media. It promoted the hate speech or freedom of expression.
Muslims are facing challenges in the United States especially, Muslim women who wear Hijab, as many of them suffered pulling of Hijab. Other physical assaults are reported in the country, there were around 400 Reported Hate Crimes towards Muslims. In 2017, 175 cases have been reported, which is the bigger number in tow months. American Muslims, Muslim men, and women become more insecure in the society after Trump is elected; there is the constant struggle for the young generation of this community. Muslim youth is facing the tension and depression in the society. Islamophobia hatred leads the attacks on Mosques, Islam, terrorism is increasing, and the Muslims are facing mild challenges in the country, economic conditions. However, media elevate feelings of mistrust against Muslims and Islam, which contributed towards hatred speeches from the parties,
Moreover, the statistics had shown the clear discrimination among the Muslims, they are not treated equally as the young generation is suffering badly in U.S. Trump need to take steps and need to make laws and regulation in order to finish the hidden war of Islamophobia, so that Islamic culture stay protected in the country and there could be the better opportunities for the Muslims.
Young Muslim Women Wearing Hijab in America
- ACLU. (2017). Nationwide Anti-Mosque Activity. Retrieved March 4, 2017, from https://www.aclu.org/map/nationwide-anti-mosque-activity
- Eltagouri, M. (2017). Hate crime rising, report activists at Illinois attorney general’s summit. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from Chicago Tribune: https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/breaking/ct-madigan-immigration-hate-crimes-summit-20170223-story.html
- Newton, C. (2017). Americans raise $600,000 to rebuild burned Texas mosque. Retrieved March 4, 2017, from Al Jazeera News: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/01/americans-raise-600000-rebuild-burned-texas-mosque-170129205625913.html
- Reilly, K. (2016). Racist Incidents Are Up Since Donald Trump’s Election. These Are Just a Few of Them. Retrieved March 4, 2017, from Time: https://time.com/4569129/racist-anti-semitic-incidents-donald-trump/
- Safdar, A. (2016). UK: Poor reporting, media illiteracy fuel Islamo-phobia. Retrieved March 4, 2017, from Al Jazeera: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/03/uk-poor-reporting-media-illiteracy-fuel-Islamo-phobia-160329161759712.html