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Plant Breeding by Marker-Assisted Selection and Genomic Selection

Accelerate Plant Breeding by MAS and GS

The haploid inducer line cannot just be used to shorten the process of breeding but can also be used to increase the genetic gain. The marker-assisted selection (MAS) may significantly increase the efficacy and the efficiency of breeding when equated to other conventional breeding. The accessibility of inexpensive and profuse molecular markers effectively allows the breeders to apply marker-assisted selection and the GS in the development of crops (Bekele et al., 2019). The marker-assisted selection allows a breeder to reject a significant number of plants that are having the most unwanted mixture of genes, pyramid valuable genes in succeeding generations, minimize field testing and reducing the number of generations.

Plant Breeding by Marker-Assisted Selection and Genomic Selection

The genomic selection (GS), is by now have a beneficial effect on the crop return development, primarily in the private sector where there are elevated data foundations that let breeders to effectively hold the large number of molecular data facts that are virtually required to deploy the genomic selection (GS). The effective combination of the marker-assisted selection and the double haploids are presenting new technologies that can increase the genetic gain and probably shorten the duration required to cultivar breeding. The marker-assisted technology and the double haploid have been effectively applied to speed up the resistance breeding in most cereal crops (Crossa et al., 2017). Two scientists, Botes and Wessel effectively developed a succession of double haploid wheat lines that contained rust resistance genes. The marker-assisted selection was then applied for proper selection of the resistance genes, and the doubled haploid technology was applied for the generation of the homozygous line. It was then discovered that the combination of marker-assisted selection and the doubled haploid technology into the conservative breeding process is likely to increase the rate of cultivar development.

 In comparing to marker-assisted selection (MAS), genomic selection (GS) employs genome-wide markers to forecast genomic estimated breeding values effectively. Genomic selection (GS), require a guidance population to approximate genomic estimated breeding value (GEBVs) basing on the genotypic and the phenotypic data. In a breeding cycle, the approximated marker effects in the training population can be effectively applied for the genomic estimated breeding values GEBVs prediction with no phenotyping (Bekele et al., 2019). Genomic estimated breeding values GEBVs can necessarily be projected before or with no phenotypic characterization, this effectively enables the breeders to formulate early selection decisions, which are likely to enhance the genetic gains and cut down the breeding cycles. One advantage of using the marker-assisted selection is that the overall amount of lines that require testing can be condensed. As several lines can be unnecessary after marker-assisted selection at an initial generation, this, therefore, allows an additional valuable breeding strategy (Bhat et al., 2016). The marker-assisted selection (MAS) has some fundamental advantages compared to conventional phenotypic selection. Some of these benefits are, the MAS is modest when equated to the phenotypic screening, and the selection can always be passed out at the seedling point. There is also a high possibility of selecting single plants having high reliability.

Finally, the real exploitation of the marker-assisted selection in enhancing crop plant performance will significantly depend on on a very close combination between the molecular methods and other conservative breeding. Besides,  the selection of MAS built on the DNA markers is extra reliable owing to the weight of environmental influences on the field trials, and most cases the application of DNA are likely to be cheap than the target trait selection.

References
  • Bekele, D., Tesfaye, K., & Fikre, A. (2019). Recent Developments in Genomic Selection for Minor Gene Quantitative Disease Resistance Plant Breeding. Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology10(478), 1-8.
  • Crossa, J., Pérez-Rodríguez, P., Cuevas, J., Montesinos-López, O., Jarquín, D., de los Campos, G., … & Dreisigacker, S. (2017). Genomic selection in plant breeding: methods, models, and perspectives. Trends in plant science22(11), 961-975.
  • Bhat, J. A., Ali, S., Salgotra, R. K., Mir, Z. A., Dutta, S., Jadon, V., … & Singh, G. P. (2016). Genomic selection in the era of next-generation sequencing for complex traits in plant breeding. Frontiers in genetics7, 221.

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