Go through the Culture Project and understand different aspects of culture and elements of culture.
Definition of Culture:
The term culture refers to the totality of way of life of people.
IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF CULTURE Project
- Promotes uniformity in Behavior: Both consciously or unconsciously same patterns of learned behavior are seen among all the members of the society
- Patterns the Behavior: One’s behavior is not haphazardly arranged but is interrelated and interconnected. Like behavior of children depends on their parents, wife’s depends on husband
- Culture is Transmitted: Generation to generation from forefathers. Transmission continues with slight modifications as progress counts for a past history
- Culture is not Static: It keeps on changing with the passage of time through new innovations , inventions and new ideas. (Comparative studies strengthen this phenomenon)
People try to get accustomed of new innovations to survive within the society. For example use of computers, electronic mail systems etc.
ELEMENTS OF CULTURE
- Material Culture: Refers to the physical objects, including homes, neighborhoods, cities, schools, churches, temples, mosques, offices, factories and plants, tools, means of production, goods and products, stores, and so forth. Technology is a vital example of material culture.
- Non material Culture: Refers to the nonphysical ideas including beliefs, values, rules, norms, morals, language etc. ( Religion set of ideas about ALLAH)
- Cultural object: Refers to any aspect of the culture which a person perceives external to himself and not a part of his personality (a custom, an idea ,values)
- Cultural theme: Refers to the major pattern of values that become the basis of belief system and standards of human behavior
- Cultural Determinism: Refers to the fact that human personality and behavior are determined by cultural factors. They keep on existing after the life of the individual.
- Cultural Pluralism: Refers to cultural heterogeneity in which ethnic and other minority groups maintain their cultural identity within a society. They live in harmony without getting into conflict with the majority culture of the society.
- Cultural Monism: It is the opposite of cultural pluralism and it advocates the assimilation of ethnic minorities into the dominant culture of the society to promote integration and eliminate possibility of internal conflict between ethnic groups.
VARIABILITY IN CULTURES
- VARIABILITY IN MARRIAGE INSTITUTION:
- Monogamy: One legal mate at a time. Remarriage can be done after death or divorce. Trend found in Christians , Hindus
- Polygamy: Male allowed to have multiple wives at a time. Trend found in Muslims
- Polyandry: A woman with multiple husbands.
- Group Marriages: A group of men married to a group of women. Rare in occurrence.
But patterns of choosing mate may differ across the world like arrange marriage system in Pakistan
- VARIABILITY IN THE FAMILY INSTITUTION :
- Patriarchal Structure: Male is the head of the family the decision maker enjoys all powers
- Matriarchal Structure : Female is the main authority in family
- Patrilocal Structure : Wife moves to husband’s or in-law’s home after getting married
- Matrilocal Structure : Husband moves to wife’s place after marriage
- Patrilineal Structure : Line of origin traced from male’s parents and grand parents
- Matrilineal Structure : Line of origin traced from female’s parents and grand parents
- Variability in Geography: With the change in geographical situations eating habits differ, Eskimos eat raw fish remains, also fashion also changes due to changes in climatic conditions though heaters and air conditioners are used to control them , similarly use of cow differs with boundary
- Variability in Economic Organization: Involves capitalism, communism systems and way of trades like barter system
- Variability among Political system: Government systems like presidential , parliamentary, dictatorship, kingship all differ across societies
- Variability among Religion: Ways of worship and beliefs differ
- Variability among Languages: Medium of communication both spoken and written differs from society to society. A given society can be multilingual
UNIFORMITY IN CULTURES
- Distinctions of roles: Regarding gender and age like there is similarity in roles of children among all societies, men being bread earners
- Religious beliefs: Almost every society believes in any supernatural being to be worshiped
- Economic system: Every society has some economic mechanism of production and distribution of goods
- Family and marriage system: Family and marriage exists as a universal system though differ in form
- Language: Basic medium of communication
- Art: Every society has some literature, dances, paintings, songs etc
- Recreational activities: Trend of relaxation and amusement found among all societies.
Culture Project CONCLUSION
Hence, common institutions exist in almost all cultures of various societies, but there can be variability within these institutions making one society different from the other.