According to Ridler 2011, the battle of new war that took place on 8th January 1815 is among the unique war that took place in 1812. This war occurred after the end of 1812 war. According to Pickles 1993, the 1812 war was about any of the oft-trumpeted causes: Free trade and sailor’s rights’, or ‘the second war for American Independence. It was America that declared the 1812 war and it commenced after England had defeated Napoleon. After Napoleon had been defeated in Europe, Britain stopped fighting against revolutionary France and America. England then started consolidating its forces in North America to deliver critical blows from both sea and land to the American forces later in 1814.
Huber 1971 states that the battle of New Orleans and the American history had a profound effect upon the American history. It not only saved New Orleans from conquest by the British, and the Mississippi an American river, but it opened the way for westward expansion. Huber 1971 further explains that the war increased American’s prestige in the world, gave the young United States confidence in its military powers, and increased the national feeling of unity. The battle of New Orleans was the last major battle of the War of 1812. This war, according Huber 1971 which had been going on for nearly a year and a half without any decisive military action, suddenly became alive when the British, after defeating Napoleon in April, 1814. New Orleans was a strange place. The style of its buildings was a curious blend of French and Spanish influences with French predominating.
American Defenses at New Orleans
England had the intention of capturing New Orleans, Louisiana who had had great cotton and sugar stores, did not allow American to use Mississippi river to transport soldier and other products. According to Angle 1958, American mission was not clear. The New Orleans War broke early January 1815 when American soldiers confronted another military force few Miles from New Orleans. At the time America was entering the war, its economy was worsening and the communal support for war was declining. Although the war between the two nations, England and American had started off in early 1812, the war intensified after Napoleon that England unleashed its military’s full force to capture New Orleans. The main aim of capturing New Orleans by England as explained by Paul 1958 was to enable them control Mississippi river and other rivers essential as commercial routes to the Gulf of Mexico and other regions.
In 1814 England started accreting its invasion force. Alerted, American state sent a message to Andrew Jackson to at once go to New Orleans and devise a defense of city. According to Paul 1958, the war commenced in the dawn of 8th January 1815. Andrew Jackson had poor leadership, was confused in the field, the Swampy terrain and United States formed forces to create debacle for the England forces. The war ended after one hour when England forces surrendered. The war resulted to killing of 300 England forces with 1,200 wounded while United States had 13 killed and 52 wounded.
On the day of the War (1815), Andrew Jackson led a small group of army to a decisive American victory against 800 army members of England. The American force waiting to receive the attack was formidable indeed. It consisted of about 6,700 men, of who 4,000 manned the defense works of Line Jackson, which then had eight batteries (Pickles, 1993). More importantly, the guns were served by expert artillerymen, many from the navy, and of course the pirates, who affected a rudimentary uniform by wearing red shirts.
Pickles 1993 explains that the morning of 8th January was cold, with heavy mist that the sun had yet to burn off, when the American line saw the British signal rocket are skyward and burst, and heard the drums strike upon. The American artillery immediately answered by pending up all along the line. For a while nothing could be seen through the mist except the muzzle flashes of the supporting British artillery. Gradually, as the columns drew closer and the mist lifted slightly, a skirmish line of riflemen could be seen, and then two columns one marching down (Pickles, 1993).
The conflict that broke out in 1812 seemed born of an almost subconscious desire for a war complete the separation of America from England begun by the War of Independence. Pickles 1993 opine that the war when it came was bloody and hard fought. In one last attempt to break the deadlock the British sent major-General Sir Edward Pakenham to capture New Orleans. According to the author, Pickles 1993, the troops he commanded were elite, veteran regiments. Andrew Jackson leading the defenders commanded a mixed force including militia, free Negro battalions, Indians ad a group of local pirates. This title describes how this mixed force decisively defeated the British veterans in battle that has become part of American legend.
The battle brought out in Chalmette Plantation, south of Orleans. As a result of the war, Jan Lambert who was by the British General was murdered, directed the troop he was leading to withdraw form the war and from Louisiana. The British troops were preparing to take new fresh attempts at Ala but they finally withdrew after they were informed that the war had ended.
Even though the New Orleans War had little military importance, since the war took place after concluding the treaty, it served to boost the confidence of America. Since its occurrence to date, the Southern American continues to celebrate their victory over this war.
- Author: Jason Ridler. www.eighteentwelve.ca/?q=eng/Topic/59
- Pickles T., 1993. New Orleans 1815: Andrew Jackson Crushes the British. Publisher Osprey military campaign.
- Huber L., 1971. New Orleans: A Pictorial History. Publisher Pelican Publishing.
- Angle, Paul, M. 1958. “The Battle of New Orleans, 1815,” EyeWitness to History, eyewitnesstohistory.com (2006).
- GLASS A., 2014. Battle of New Orleans is fought, Jan. 8, 1815. U.S. Library Of Congress.
- Pickles T., 1993. New Orleans 1815: Andrew Jackson Crushes the British. Volume 28 of Campaign (Osprey Publishing). Publisher Osprey Publishing