Waste disposal is one of the most urgent and recurring problems in the world. Wastes if left untreated bring harmful effects to health of human beings animals and the environment. With this in mind the report discusses European and US waste management policies and whether there are gaps between the two frameworks that could be used to improve services. The method used in the study is observation by reviewing published literatures on the matter. Study also discusses magnitude of wastes generation and recovery process. Findings showed both countries do not differ much as to their wastes disposal priorities but Europe is more advanced in treatment because of experimentation and implementation of technologies. Landfills would remain a problem because of scarce resources and need for area developments. Outlook and trends of the waste industry is good as revenues of the players in the industry are encouraging.
Table of contents
- Scope of Work
- Findings and discussions
- Overview of the Urban Services and Waste Management Services
- Description of Waste Treatment facilities
- Top players in the industry
- Overview of waste management in Europe
- Overview of waste management in the United States
- Value chain activities
- Trends in the industry
- Overview of the Urban Services and Waste Management Services
- Overview of waste management and urban services in Europe and in United States
Waste disposal is one of the urgent environmental problems facing regions all over the world. The over consumption of resources and creation of non-biodegradable materials such as plastics, Styrofoam and chemicals are creating a mounting problem of waste disposal. People are gaining the notoriety of producing excessive wastes and dumping them as garbage on landfills and oceans. Garbage such as nuclear wastes, plastics, fast food wastes and electronic products are samples of harmful materials that can affect the health of man in particular and of the environment in general. This waste, however, became an opportunity for business and opened up avenues for new industries i.e. public infrastructure and waste treatment a fascinating topic for discussion.
This study intends to investigate the urban services and waste management activities in Europe and in U.S. Specifically study seeks to describe the practices done within the industry and identify the challenges and opportunities the industry face. This work would be of special concern to those who wanted to gain information on the economic opportunities of the waste disposal.
This research will use observational research method wherein the researcher will study a phenomenon without interfering. Observation method is used in behavioral studies social sciences and anthropology and is useful when ethics is a problem. Existing literature’s and researches on the subject will be used as secondary source since access to primary source is not possible.
Definition of Terms Often Referred to in Paper
What is Waste Management?
Web definition of waste management is the collection transportation and disposal of garbage sewage and other waste products. Waste management encompasses management of all processes and resources for proper handling of waste materials from maintenance of waste transport trucks and dumping facilities to compliance with health codes and environmental regulations.
What are Urban Services?
Urban services are public service services and public facilities provided in the cities. These services include sanitary sewerage system, storm drainage system, domestic water systems, street cleaning services, fire and police protection services and public transport services.
Scope of Work
Study examines the urban services, waste disposal and waste treatment industry and how it is done in Europe and in the United States. Study also analyzes the operations of top players in the industry veolia and Suez Environment in Europe, FCC, Urbaser, Valoriza in Spain, Remondis, and the U.S. Waste Management Inc. and a discussion on the future trends of industry focusing more on converting wastes to energy.
Findings and Discussions
Overview of Urban Services and Waste Management Service
This chapter describes waste facilities top players in the industry waste treatments in Europe and the United States. A value chain of activities for waste management is figured out and a future trend that describes market outlook of the wastes industry.
Description of Waste Facilities
Companies uses different methods of sorting technologies. Commonly used separation techniques in Europe are the Trommel separators drum screens, eddy current separator induction, sorting, infrared, sensors, x-ray technology, manual sorting, mobile sorting, compact sorting.
|Trommel separators||waste is separated according to size. Wastes is dumped into a rotating drum with holes of a particular size then smaller materials than the holes are dropped and only larger materials are retained.|
|Eddy current separators||Eddy current separator is used for separation of metals. It is an electromagnetic way of separating ferrous and non-ferrous metals.|
|Induction sorting||Induction sorting is sending materials along a conveyor belt with sensors underneath. The sensors locate the different types of metal which are then separated by another system linked to the sensors.|
|Infra-red sorting||When materials are illuminated they mostly reflect light in the near infrared wave length spectrum. The NIR sensor can differentiate between different materials based on how light is reflected.|
|X-ray technology||Used to distinguish between different types of wastes according to density.|
|Manual sorting||One of the oldest method used in the world. Shredders are used to make it easier for manual job workers.|
|SOURCE||Claudine Capel Waste Management World.com|
Waste to Energy Plant
Waste to energy plant is the sum of the processes that produce electric energy from controlled waste incineration. The Plant is composed of a furnace an afterburning chamber a heat recovery steam generator and the emission control equipment. Processes involved are combustion post combustion energy recovery flue gas treatment and remnants. Remnants are collected and sent to landfills.
Anaerobic digestion is described as a natural process wherein plants and materials biomass are broken down by microorganism in the absence of air.
When biomass is placed in a sealed tank or digester the process begins. Then as the micro-organism digests the bio-mass a renewable heat is generated thereby cutting fossil fuel and reduce greenhouse and gas emissions and the remaining materials called digestates are used as fertilizers.
Recycling plant is a place for recycling of waste materials. It may be attached to a landfill to simplify the waste management process or in some cases an independent facility. Goods handled by the recycling plant are varied that depends on the capacity of the plant and the wastes of the region. Melting shredding and crushing are some practices used to prepare wastes for recycling. Once materials are broken down it can be shipped to facilities that make things from recycled goods e.g glass paper and aluminum for reshaping.
Layout of a landfill is shown below. Landfill is an area or site used to dump wastes either on the ground or underground.
Seeing that the ordinary waste treatments are not sufficient to accommodate the large amount of landfills generated by household and businesses, advanced technologies have to be resorted to in EU. Some of them are cited below.
Advanced Thermal Treatment
Advanced thermal treatment has been described as a process of raw waste using prognosis or gamification chemically altering it in low or no oxygen environments to convert it to gaseous fuel that can be combusted for energy or used as a chemical feed stock. Although burning for fuel is not a new thing as it has been done years ago, but building and operating facilities to store energy is new. Advanced thermal treatment is small and modular in scale so it can be wildly used. In 2012, there are 756 advanced thermal treatment plants that together eliminated 75 million tons of trash going to landfills. Development of the system is slow because of financing difficulty.
Advanced Photo Oxidation Process (APOP)
APOP is a non- waste matter concept from waste water plant that disinfects waste water, remove endocrine disruptors, and hazardous components. Advantages in this system are its low capital and operation costs, use of AUV lamps with high energy intensity, excellent bathing quality of water, and no risks for environment and eco-system. Process of the system is the ultra-violet lights destroy micro-organisms and endoctrine disruptors and remove waste chemicals substances with use of oxidants like chloride ozide. Operation cost for wastewater disinfectant is 1.5 cent per m3. First APOP system was installed in Denmark.
Top Players in the waste Disposal Industry
Top players in the waste disposal industry are Veoila Environmrnt, Suez environment FCC,Urbaser ,and Valoriza and Remondis in Europe and Waste Management Inc in US.
Veolia Environment is a world leader in environmental services encompassing water and wastewater energy environment and transportation. Number of employees today is 330,000. Company’s clients are a range of public authorities, industrial and commercial services, and individuals worldwide. The company operates in three complimentary divisions water and wastewater services and technologies, waste management and energy management. Its Veolia Water Division specializes in outsourcing for water in municipal authorities, industry and services, industry and wastewater services. Veolia Water provides drinking water to over 103 million people worldwide. Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies is the specialist for was and waste water treatment. It offers broad range of technologies services designs and capabilities to municipalities and industry worldwide. Its third subsidiary the Veolia Environmental management services offer solid waste management to municipal and households technical solutions to hazardous elements industrial maintenance and cleaning and waste to energy solutions. Its fourth division the Veolia Energy provides sustainable energy services facility operations and management solutions. This division provides everything from diagnostic analyses procurement to conversion and human resource engineering.
Contracts of their services, particularly in public authorities are long range from 10 to 20 years and even extends to 50 years. Environmental services of the company includes wastes collection, recycling and processing, and handling of wastes in all forms and decomposition service of waste materials electric and electronic materials fluorescent lamps at their treating centers. Company also provide urban cleaning service to cities using mechanized sweeping as well as building façade treatment services. In transportation, company operates a number of bus networks, suburban trains, and tramways and metros. It offers a well-rounded approach of services that provides service and maintenance drivers and personnel needed in a bus operation Revenue in 2014 in millions of Euro is €11,231.50.
Suez Environment is a French based utility company whose business concerns are in water management recycling and recovery of wastes and urban development. Over 70% of its operations is in Europe 6 % each in North America, Africa and Middle East, 7% in Oceania and 4% in Asia.
Water management services of the company include collection and distribution of water, production of drinking water wastewater and reuse management of water cycle in industry public-private water partnerships and water regulations. Recycling and recovery of wastes services consist of collection and logistics, sorting and dismantling, recovery and treatment sanitation maintenance and cleaning decontamination of sites and soils delegated waste management and wastes regulations. In urban development, company supports clients in planning and design of their infrastructures, assists in project management studies technical support and training all of which are carried out by its 800 engineers and 120 experts in projects all over the World. Suez Environment has pioneered with operational oceanography since 2008. This activity provides information in real time about ocean conditions for a variety of clients from all over the globe that include oil companies wind-farm operators ferry or marine companies. Revenues of the company in 2014 in € million amounted to €14,324.
FCC, Urbaser and Valoriza
FCC Urbaser and Valoriza are companies doing business in Spain. FCC-Urbaser are doing the housekeeping in Melila while Valoriza is in charge for water management. These companies, together with 35 others were collectively fined 98.2 million by the National Commission of Markets and Competition for sharing the market for waste management and urban sanitation. The Commission believed that these companies violated some provisions in their contracts and bids Note that not much has been said about these companies.
Remondis is one of the biggest recycling, service and water companies in the world. The company operates in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. The company is located in 500 sites in 34 countries business map not downloadable. It offers a range of activities to provide sustainable supply of water and raw materials. Through its recycling services, company is able to provide 25 million tons of raw materials every year. Its business provides a €36.8 billion euros in a year, employs 30,500 employees and has a logistic support of 7,000 vehicles. Services include keep towns clean and tidy, tapping new sources of water process it into drinking water, and supply water to households and companies. Company also provide wastewater treatment to return them to economic use.
U.S. Waste Management Inc
The US WM is provider of waste management services, incorporated in 1998. It is a company operating business through subsidiaries that are located in North America. It offers a range of services of comprehensive waste management and environmental services for households. The company’s solid waste management in municipal territories provides collection of wastes transfer recycling and resource recovery and disposal services. Company has subsidiaries that develops and owns waste to-energy and landfill gas to energy landfill facilities in the US. Company operates a network of 367 landfills and 300 transfer stations that consolidate compact transport wastes efficiently.
Duration of Collection Contract with commercial services and residential collection lasts for three years to six years. Household collection contracts are usually authorized by the municipality. Taxes are collected by the municipality yearly to cover for its costs.
The WM business ‘ development involves the recycling of construction waste such as building waste and household waste, the Bagster initiative, the sale of plasma gasification plants, the operation of landfill gas-to-liquid natural gas plants, solar-powered waste compactors, and the conversion of organic waste-to-fuel technology. It also offers other services, such as curbside pick-up, online dumpster rental tool, recycle by mail, recycle services, bagster bag service, medical wastes , portable storage and other services. Revenue of WM management IN 2013 amounted to US $13.893 million dollars.
Overview of Waste Management in Europe
The quantity of wastes produced people living in EU is quite alarming because on the average, the combined wastes thrown away by 500 million people living in EU manufacturing and construction, water and energy supplies produces up to 3 billion tons a year.
Waste management is an important sector in Europe, such that legislation’s and directives are done to correct practices on wastes disposals. Implemented under “The Waste Framework Directive” in 2008, it incorporated rules on hazardous wastes and hazardous oils. Thereafter other EU regulations issued concerned disposal and recovery of hazardous wastes.
EU has been challenged by wastes problems for many years such that its wastes policy has evolved over the last 30 years. In recent year, it has come up with the EU’s Sixth Environment Action Program (2002-2012) that recognized waste prevention and management as one of four top priorities. Objective of the program is to ensure that economic growth does not lead to more and more waste. This led to the development of a long term strategy on waste, best described in a waste hierarchy.
Fig. 1 Waste Hierarchy
FIG. 1 Waste Hierarchy, EU
The five-step waste hierarchy suggests prevention is first priority followed by re-use recycling and other forms of recovery with disposal use of landfill as the last option.
It will be recalled that landfill is the oldest form of waste disposal all over the world. It is the most undesirable options because of its unfavorable effects. Landfills produce biodegradable wastes that in turn create methane a dangerous greenhouse gas. Benefits of landfills aside from being a compost and bio-degeneration site is the methane gas produced that if used and collected could be converted to electricity for household use. However despite of regulations, disposals thru landfills continued to be used in EU. Euro stat the European Statistical Agency reported that 37% of the average 503 kg. of waste each European generates goes to landfills 25% is recycled, 15% is composted and 23 % is burned for energy. Following EC directives on waste management landfills are divided into three classifications landfills for hazardous wastes, landfills for non-hazardous wastes and landfills for inert wastes. Wastes that are not accepted in EU landfills are liquid wastes flammables and explosive wastes clinical and hospital wastes, tires and others in accordance to wastes directives. Land filling falls under the least preferred alternative because of its negative effects to environment.
Overview of Waste Management in the United States
The U.S. like any other country is facing difficult problems in waste management. Its history tells that the thinking before in the age of Industrial revolution is to dilute and disperse wherein the rivers and streams was a dumping site. However as urban dwellings and civilization increased the dilute and disperse way of thinking was no longer appropriate as rivers began to suffer degradation. This led to the dumping of wastes in open soil, but this practice has to be given up because it was unsightly, stinking, and contaminating to surroundings and health. This gave way to landfills in the U.S. In 1980, the U.S. began an integrated approach in waste management that focuses on the three Rs criteria of Integrated Waste Management the recycling reuse and resource reduction that led to the decline in the use of landfills. Most landfills in the U.S. are within 5 Urban areas lack landfills because of hesitant of affluent neighborhoods and the not in my backyard mentality.
The number of landfills in the US has declined from 7379 in 1980 to 1754 in 2007. The largest landfill in U.S. and in the world, the Kills Landfill in Staten Island was closed in 2001. This landfill is able to accept 12,000 tons of trash each day from 50% of 8.36 million people of the city.
The U.S. through its implementing agency the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) has established a waste hierarchy as a strategy to be applied in their solid waste management.
Strategies from 1 to 3 are almost self-regulating and most preferred while strategy 4 requires national regulations and the least preferred. For hazardous wastes waste minimization recycling and disposal are some measures done. Some industrial wastes are hazardous and have toxic elements. Disposal options are landfills injection wells incineration and bio-remediation. Problem in landfills is the possible leak and contamination of the surrounding groundwater. Incineration is an effective way of disposal but the problem is the high cost involved and the problem of ash disposal that may still contain hazardous elements. Bio-remediation requires long treatment process and may have an effect to plants and environment.
The generation, recycling, and composting and disposal of municipal solid waste in the U.S. have reached its peak in 2000, while the lowest 4.38 pounds per person per day was in 1980. Recycling rate has increased from less than 10 percent of MSW generated in 1980 to over 34 percent in 2012. On a national scale Americans were able to recover 87 million tons of MSW that provided benefit of more than 168 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions reduced comparable to the annual GHG emissions from over 33 million vehicles. The recycling and composting of the 87 million tons of MSW saved more than 1.1 quadrillion Btu of energy that is the same amount of energy consumed by almost 10 million U.S. households in a year.
Regulatory practices in U.S. places the responsibility to the municipal government for local services that include among others, refuse collection. Income from which comes from tax collections.
Value Chain Activities
Value chain is a process of activities wherein businesses add value to the raw materials through various methods then sell finished products to customers process of which is shown in a diagram below.
The chain of activities starts with the disposal of the waste items and collections, then goes to sorting, following the waste hierarchy policy of the region. Waste material has to undergo several processes and ownership before it goes to a final reuse. Items that cannot be recycled are sent to composting, such as organic items. Those that are obtainable for other uses are sent to recycling for production of new items. Each successive processes and ownership are driven by the motive of minimizing waste disposal and maximizing profit in the recycling.
Some samples of value chain practices are observed in several regions.
National Industrial Symbiosis Program UK
The National Symbiosis program in the United Kingdom is an independent facilitator that was started in 2005. Its main purpose is bring together and help businesses in various sectors small or big, to find uses for unwanted materials and to redirect waste loads from landfills to produce new commercial opportunities and by sharing assets resources logistics and expertise. Since its operation results showed.
Table 2. NISP Results
|5.2 millions + tons of wastes have been diverted from landfills|
|357,000 tons of hazardous wastes eliminated|
|7.9 million tons of raw materials usage prevented|
|9.4 mil. Tons of industrial water usage prevented|
|£131 million member cost savings delivered|
|£151 million in new sales for members generated|
Source: “Waste Prevention Best Practices”. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/prevention/pdf/NISP_Factsheet.
Eco-point Initiative Italy
This initiative done in Italy introduced a new way of shopping for consumers. The Eco-point initiative started in 2005 encouraged supermarkets to offer sale of bulk products with a minimal packaging for dry food. This strategy requires dry food to be sold through dispensers at Italian supermarkets. Method reduces packaging and allows customers to buy only the amount they want. Cost savings are realized by consumers as they save about 10 to 70% on the price compared to packaged goods. The system since it was instituted, prevented usage of 1 million tons of packaging materials a year this is not only good for the environment, but also saves consumers cash 10 to 70% relative to packaged goods rates. The 30 Eco-points in Italy and Switzerland prevent the use of an estimated 1 million packages a year.
Vienna Waste Prevention Program Austria
The Waste Prevention Program in Vienna, Austria, calls for green procurement promoting the reuse and repair of goods, raising awareness and supporting cultural services and helping small businesses to become environmentally efficient. The approach allowed consumers to buy and sell used appliances through on line flea market. Since adoption of program, 100,000 tons of wastes are prevented estimated 400 tons of appliances are repaired annually at local service repair centers while co-efficiency advice saved businesses around €34 million.
Menu Dose Certa Portugal
This initiative in Portugal raises public awareness on food wastes by promoting balanced meals in reasonable quantities. The Menu-Dose Certa means Right Sized Menu intends to reduce food wastes in restaurants by 48.5 kilos per year by 2011 and by attempting to change consumer attitude on food wastes. In partnership with the government restaurants and nutritionists get together to generate menu and practices that generate less food wastes. Method encouraged restaurants to serve cut portion sizes and better balanced meals.
This is a type of initiative that is directed to give households on information about waste prevention techniques in France that started in 2004. Household receive an average of 15 kg of junk mail each year adding up to almost a million tons of waste in France. Junk mails consist of Leaflets catalogs and free classified advertisements, market of which amounts to 2.6 Euros per year. As part of the government’s waste reduction program operation stop pub produced stickers expressing the desire that the resident will not accept junk mail in his residence. The stickers could be downloaded from the government websites available in local town councils and department stores. In 2004, over 2.6 million sticker requests were received and reduced junk mails received in households.
Kringloop Re-use Centres Belgium
This initiative calls for promotion of re-use and repair of items. Implemented in 1992, Kringloop Re-use Centers provided means to extend the life of discarded clothes appliances and kitchenware, books, bicycle and kids toys. Centers also provide employment on the job training,and limited opportunity to buy low priced goods. In 2008, total collection of reusable goods reached 47,218 tons up by 10% from 2007.
1.5 Trends of the Industry
Market outlook of global industrial recycling and services is predicted to be strong while there will be increase in wastes. Report said that the industrial Waste and Recycling Services will grow by 10.5% over the period 2013-2018.
In U.S waste management and remediation revenues are set to rise by 4.4% yearly through 2015 due to stricter implementation of environmental regulations and recycling programs. Industry revenue amounted to US$55 million representing a 2% growth in 2011. Wastes handled in non-hazardous facilities grew from 621.5 million tons in 2011 up from 610.2 million tons in 2010. These wastes consist of MSW 429 million tons construction debris 117 million tons and industrial and special wastes 75 million tons.
Waste collection will remain a dominant service while its chain of recycling and remediation grows fastest. It represents the largest segment that generates US$34 billion business that accounts for 61 percent of industry revenues.
The rising costs of landfills and oil raises interest on new technologies such that the conversion of wastes to energy WTE has found its way to the global market. Outlook for this market is sound as it was valued at US$6.2 bn. in 2012 and is forecasted to increase by US$29.2 by 2022. A waste to energy is the use of modern combustion and biochemical energies to recover energy, usually in the form of electricity and steam, from urban wastes. These new technologies, accordingly, reduces original wastes by 90%.
Technologies used in WTE are the physical Process wastes to make it as fuel and thermal can yield heat, fuel, or oil from organic and inorganic wastes, and biological using bacterial fermentation to digest organic wastes to yield fuel While the outlook of this area of waste management is improving, challenges at hand are that the current management system is not capable of handling the growing amount of wastes. The assumption is based on the fast growing population of the world 9.5 billion by 2050, with 97% of the growth coming from Asia and Africa. As growth is expected, municipal wastes are also equated with an increase. With the coming of technologies and regulations, the composition of wastes will be changing and will be challenging the industry. It will create products that are more difficult to recycle.
In EU approach and solutions arrived at in waste recycling is by exporting its wastes to Asia. From 2000 to 2008, EU exports of plastic wastes amounted to 5.5 million tons annually 85% of which goes to China and Hong Kong. Likewise, the amount of non-hazardous elements exported to Asia between 1995 to 2007 increased by tenfold for paper eleven fold for plastics, and five-fold for metals. The amount of paper cardboard and packaging materials recycled has increased from 24 to 30 million tons while plastic packaging recycled increased from 10 to 14 million tons, same source said.
Exporting hazardous wastes to poorer countries has been a thriving international business because companies try to minimize on environmental tax laws or to dispose of them in a responsible way. More than million containers from EU and non-EU countries export these hazardous elements every year .
Same pattern of solid waste management has been observed in Europe and in the U.S. Both countries have derived a hierarchy of waste management and do not differ in activities. They consider source reduction as first priority for reducing wastes and disposal as last resort. In both countries, recycling and reuse became a source of income and livelihood. Managed by municipalities, waste disposals are carried on by contractors that have offered other services aside from garbage disposals. Taxes are also collected by the municipalities to recompense for its services in collection of municipal wastes. Most pressing problem encountered by these countries is the manner of disposal of hazardous wastes. Export of hazardous wastes to poor countries in exchange of fees is becoming a big business. Hazardous wastes are generated by big manufacturing companies, and they are told to recycle and reuse before disposal. Hazardous wastes cannot altogether be accommodated in landfill and incinerators and these wastes become a big problem that is expected to increase in the years to come because of population increase and advances of technology. Dumping the hazardous wastes to poorer countries in exchange of financial consideration does not equate to health and environmental problems it may cause to the poor country. Due to lack of data comparison on the number of landfills for both regions cannot be done.
Value chain analysis showed economic opportunities could be derived from wastes management. Source reduction saves natural resources, energy, pollution, toxicity of wastes and money of consumers. Recycling produces another reusable items that could be a source of income while non-recyclable materials could be converted to heat and energy and methane gas from landfills can be collected as fuels to generate electricity. Examples of some European countries discussed here show how the value chain provided them with savings and income opportunities.
The revenue generated by the top players in the industry only shows the profitability of engaging in this business. Top players operate worldwide and offer wide area of specialized services.
Inasmuch as the density of population is predicted to increase in the future, corresponding wastes is also associated. Analysts predicted that by the way waste disposal is going, there will be demand for recycling and remediation, and the present situation is not enough to meet the urgency of the situation.
As observed hazardous wastes will play the most difficult situation in disposal first because of contamination it creates and harmful effects of waste trading to poorer countries. These countries will be most disadvantaged if dumping of wastes to their country continues. This situation needs urgency of planning and long term preparation since it will be very expensive. Technologists and engineers should cooperate in researching and coming up with an ideal solution such as those started in Europe. US claims incineration although effective way is costly, but the government could cover up for cost in one way or the other. Municipal wastes do not pose much of a problem as wastes management practices are given to contractors for disposal recycle and reuse. A continuing education and reminders to the public should be done. Fines and rewards would encourage people to adapt to the system. Fines could be charged to households that do not segregate their wastes, while reward system such as bonus is incentives for trying to reuse. Supermarkets can give coupons in exchange for return of used bottles, packaging, etc. the idea of repair and reuse could be copied, and the on-line sale of repaired items is encouraging. Use of landfills cannot be thoroughly eliminated, but should be properly regulated and managed thru improved technology.
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- Euractiv, Landfills continue to rule despite EU Recycling Target. https://www.euractiv.com/sustainability/landfills-continue-rule-despite-news-518229
- People.hws. People, Hobart and smith William Colleges.
- Landfills, where does our trash go? https://people.hws.edu/halfman/Data/PublicInterestArticles/Landfills.
- U..S. Environmental Protection Agency. Non-hazardous wastes policy. https://www.epa.gov/wastes/nonhaz/municipal/hierarchy.htm
- Hazardous wastes. https://www.pollutionissues.com/Fo-Hi/Hazardous-Waste.html
- US Environmental Protection Agency. Municipal Solid Wastes Generation, Recycling, and
- Disposal in the United States. Facts and Figures for 2012, https://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/2012_msw_fs.
- Graeme Hodge, 2007, Regulatory Framework for Urban Sevices, p. 17. https://www.oecd.org/gov/regulatory-policy/3921831
- National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (UK). Waste Prevention Best Practices Worksheet. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/prevention/pdf/NISP_Factsheet.pdf
- Ibid. Eco-point initiative in bulk sales, Italy.
- Ibid. Waste Prevention Program, Vienna.
- Ibid. Waste Prevention Program, Portugal
- Ibid. Waste Prevention Program, France
- Ibid. Waste Prevention Best Practices, Flanders.
- Reuters. 11 November, 2014. Research and markets: Global industrial wastes recycling and services market outlook 2018: Strong industry growth and increase in industrial wastes. Press release. https://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/11/research-and-markets-idUSnBw115909a+100+BSW20141111
- Waste Business Journal. Waste Market Overview and Outlook 2012. https://www.wastebusinessjournal.com/overview.htm
- Freedonia. Waste Management & Remediation Services to 2015 – Industry Market Research, Market Share, Market Size, Sales, Demand Forecast, Market Leaders, Company Profiles, Industry Trend https://www.freedoniagroup.com/Waste-Management-And-Remediation-Services.html