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Tourism and Hospitality

Tourism and hospitality have got positive consequences on the global economy. It contributes to the growing world GDP that has seen many families enjoy from reduced costs of living (Zhang & Jensen, 2007). Tourism and HospitalityThis is because several households are in a position to have the income to meet their day-to-day needs. Tourism has offered an extensive market for both goods and services at the global level. Some of the products and services include entertainment, accommodation, beverages, and food as well as retail opportunities (Zhang & Jensen, 2007). When people offer the goods and services, they get income for survival and so do not have to depend on others. Increased market for products and services creates several job opportunities to the people making them lead quality lives. Different parts of the world have been able to increase the amount of wealth that they have due to hospitality and tourism (Chok, Macbeth, & Warren, 2007). Furthermore, it is important to take note that tourism and hospitality industries have led to the restoring and rebuilding of historic sites as well as revitalizing cultures. This is promising to the global economy as countries will keep on generating foreign exchange from the historic sites. Environmental protection that arises from tourism gives surety that the world economy is headed for development. This is because it is not realistic to talk about global development without necessarily putting in place measures to conserve the environment. Tourism and hospitality have promoted infrastructural development all over the world, and this has improved the ease of movement of goods, people and services (Chok, Macbeth, & Warren, 2007). It is also important to note that the development of infrastructures like roads, electricity, human-made plants and many others have opened up remote areas for the economic development. Also, many people have been able to secure jobs due to the development of infrastructure. Tourism and hospitality have diversified employment opportunities by making use of the existing resources in different communities(Archer, Cooper & Ruhanen, 2005). Capitalizing on hospitality and tourism is a sure way to which community incomes increase and spread to various parts. The infrastructure developed as s result of tourism stimulates the economy in different parts of the world at the local level. This, in turn, contributes to the development of the global economy. Tourism has made it possible to manufacture more goods locally in different countries as there is a ready market for them to expand (Chok, Macbeth, & Warren, 2007). This has increased real global development.

Tourism and hospitality have promoted foreign exchange throughout the world. Countries have used the foreign exchange to developing their economies, thereby offering better services to the citizens. This has uplifted the living standards of the people globally. Besides, it has helped in the fight against poverty which is a significant threat to economic growth, prosperity, and development (Zhang &Jensen, 2007). The foreign exchange from tourism can also be used to stimulate investments in different sectors of the economy so that funds can be generated to grow other areas of the economy. Some of the countries of the world have got fixed amount of foreign exchange that visitors are supposed to pay on a daily basis. It spurs economic growth and development of the countries, and at a macro level the economy of the globe. Tourism is regarded as one of the leading foreign exchange earners for countries and has directly resulted in economic growth of the world by dealing with economic problems in different countries (Archer, Cooper& Ruhanen, 2005). Governments have generated a lot of revenue from tourism. Taxing incomes from tourism businesses and employments, levies on goods and services has proven imperative in generating the developmental revenue. The rapid development of tourism at the international level has created several employment opportunities for the people (Chok, Macbeth, & Warren, 2007). Many people have been employed in the hotel industry, transport, souvenir sales, and selling goods and services that the tourists are in need of. Only some individuals in employment are employed in the tourism industry. This is a real indication that tourism indeed is playing an important role in reducing the unemployment problem that is a global challenge (Archer, Cooper& Ruhanen, 2005). Through tourism, many countries have concentrated on developing infrastructure which has not only promoted business but has also improved the standards of living than promoting tourism activities (Zhang &Jensen, 2007). Most of the times funds generated by tourism just circulates within that particular place leading to its growth. For instance, tourism has created opportunities to people regarding informal guides, street vendors as well as rickshaw drivers. Money earned by the individuals mentioned above does not go to other areas but is used in purchasing goods and services. This being the case, there is a significant multiplier effect associated with the income from tourism (Archer, Cooper& Ruhanen, 2005). Earnings from foreign exchange, government revenues, infrastructure investment, employment generation and developing local economies are areas, whereby tourism has played a major role in global economy. Different countries all over the world have benefited from the various areas mentioned above. In the long run, the economies of countries are developing due to tourism (Chok, Macbeth, & Warren, 2007). The assurance of the development of the economies in countries because of tourism results to the development of the global economy in the long run at a macro level.

Negative Effects of Tourism on the Ecosystem

Tourism is significantly beneficial to the economy of the globe. However, it has negative consequences on the ecosystem that if not checked and the trends reversed, the world will not be a good place to stay in. Tourism can pile pressure in a particular area leading to increased pollution, soil erosion, loss of natural habitat, disposals in water bodies, endangering species and increase of forest fires. Communities often compete for the existing resources just because of tourism. Tourism piles pressure on resources like food, raw materials, and energy that are in short supply (Zhang & Jensen, 2007). Extracting and overexploitation of the resources is dangerous for the environment. Furthermore, it degrades land because valuable resources like fertile soil, wildlife, wetland, forest, fossil fuels, and minerals are destroyed in the process of putting up infrastructure leading to an imbalance of the ecosystem. Recreational and tourism facilities have the effect of increasing pressure on the above resources further worsening the balance of the ecosystem (Burkett, 2007). Forests are affected by tourism as they are destroyed through land clearing and wood collection. Deforestation is a threat to the ecosystem. Pollution from tourism is not different from other industries. Solid, noise, air emissions, chemicals, littering and sewage wastes destroy the environment and can lead to the death of plants and animals (Archer, Cooper& Ruhanen, 2005). Tourism has increased transport by rail, road, and air leading to increased rates of emissions that pollute the environment threatening the lives of plants and animals (Burkett, 2007). The emissions cause acid rain, photochemical pollution, and global warming that are not friendly to the ecosystem. Noise pollution from cars and planes apart from causing stress and annoyance, leads to distress on wildlife more so those that stay in sensitive places. Noise from snowmobiles interferes with the natural activities of the animals, and this has deleterious consequences on the ecosystem.

Regions that have got a lot of tourist activities and several natural attractions are affected by waste disposal as the wastes spoil the natural environment(Archer, Cooper& Ruhanen, 2005). Roadsides, scenic areas, and rivers are much affected, and because they are relevant sections of the ecosystem, the ecosystem is affectedequally. The wastes change how the water appears and have often caused deaths of marine animals. In the mountain regions, tourists who trek have generated a lot of waste. This garbage is a nuisance to the ecosystem made up of plants and animals. Hotel construction and recreational facilities cause sewage pollution. Waste water is known to pollute lakes and seas that are close to tourist attractions (Archer, Cooper& Ruhanen, 2005). This has caused a lot of damage to plants and animals. Sewage runoffs damage coral reefs as it promotes algae growth. Algae growth covers up filter feeding corals making it hard for them to survive. Changes in siltation and salinity have negative consequences on coastal surroundings. The health of human beings, as well as animals, is threatened by sewage pollution (Burkett, 2007). If this is the case, the ecosystem is destabilized. In many cases, there are no proper plans that can guide the construction of tourism facilities. This has caused sprawling of structures along valleys, scenic routes and coastlines, thereby destroying the ecosystem that is supposed to be protected.

Tourism affects attractive sites like riversides, lakes, sandy beaches, slopes and mountain tops that are known as transitional zones which have several species (Zhang & Jensen, 2007). These features above are threatened by tourism that degrades the essential aspects of the ecosystem. Continuous tourism activities affect the ecosystem by changing ecologies and local economies (Johnston, 2006). Infrastructure development and tourism activities, for example, water supplies, accommodation and restaurants, sand mining, extensive paving amongst others degrade land and result to loss of habitats by living organisms. Furthermore, sceneries are deteriorated. Tourism leads to increased number of facilities such as roads with the aim of meeting the needs of the growing number of tourists. These activities have led to pollution and loss of habitats that is a serious problem to the tourist attraction centers (Burkett, 2007). Species within and around the parks have severely been affected by construction activities and pollution. The unsustainable use of land and deforestation due to the creation of space for development result to erosion and severe disturbance of the ecosystem (Archer, Cooper& Ruhanen, 2005). The activities can even lead to the destruction of the ecosystem in the long run. Marina development and breakwaters lead to alteration of coastlines and currents. This has a direct bearing or impact on the ecosystem. If sand is extracted with the aim of putting up infrastructural facilities for tourism, hinterland forests, mangroves and coral reefs are affected. This causes erosion and habitat destruction. The extraction of coral reefs for construction purposes has depleted the fishing industry. The locals who depend on fishing for survival have severely been affected, and this is a big blow to their livelihoods (Johnston, 2006). It is important to know that tourism cannot be successful when individual animals and plants species are destroyed. At the same time, it is tourism that destroys the ecosystem that it directly benefits from. Paving of shorelines and overbuilding destroy habitats as well as disrupt the connections between sea and land (Burkett, 2007). Many coral reefs all over the globe more so marine ecosystems that are fragile are affected by the developments in tourism. Studies conducted have pointed out that there are negative consequences of coral reefs emanating from the development of shoreline (Archer, Cooper& Ruhanen, 2005). Sedimentation in rivers has increased, many divers and tourists have trampled on plants and small animals, ships have grounded, there is overfishing, sewage pollution is increasing and using explosives and poisons for fishing have increased. The activities have severely damaged the coral reefs habitats, and this is not good for the ecosystem as it causes an imbalance in the ecosystem.

Tourists making use of a single trail several times destroy vegetation together with the soil in which they grow. The damage results in several impacts not forgetting about the adverse impact on biodiversity. If visitors decide to explore other paths apart from existing trails, the damages are even more severe (Johnston, 2006). The balance between plants and animals is so much affected thereby changing the ecosystem in the end or the long run. Trampling on plants cause breaking of stems of plants and loss of humus that plants rely on for survival. Besides, it causes reduction of the vigor of plants. Some other effects of trampling include reducing the porosity of the soil, reduction of regeneration and decrease in water and air permeability (Burkett, 2007). These negatively affect plants that have grown in the ground, and with time some may end up dying thereby affecting the ecosystem. When tourists step on the soil continually, they destroy plants thus leaving the land bare. If the ground is bare, the rate of soil erosion is high, and in the long run, it becomes hard to for plants to survive because soil erosion takes away the nutrients that the soil needs (Archer, Cooper& Ruhanen, 2005). The rates of runoff are very high in instances whereby vegetation has been trampled on by human beings who are tourists. Trampling on plants that grow in the soil alter the composition of species in that particular area. That results in an imbalance in the ecosystem, and if it is not checked, the ecosystem can pose a lot of problems. Whenever the tourists go very close to where the animals are, they are stressed up. This can change the natural behavior of animals. The leisure activities of the tourists are also known to cause degradation of the environment, and this is why tourism is said to have negative consequences on the ecosystem (Zhang & Jensen, 2007). Watching wildlife activities and safaris are known to degrade the habitat. This is because of the commotion and noise that come along with the activities. Wild animals do not want the noise, and so they run away to areas that are silent and calm. Some may end up not going to the areas that they had come from. This means that the ecosystem of such zones will be severely affected. Tourism activities lead to a lot of disturbance on the animals (Johnston, 2006). The disturbances are not very good on the lives of the animals and can complicate their existence. Some animals have ended up failing to mate just because they are disturbed by the environment. If they do not mate, there are higher chances that they can become extinct which is a big blow to the ecosystem that needs diversity. Each and every animal has got its role to play in the ecosystem, and without it, the ecosystem can never be the same again. In some cases, noisy and polluted environments have made some animals to abandon their young ones. When this kind of trend is encouraged to continue, the ecosystem will no longer be stable (Archer, Cooper& Ruhanen, 2005). The death of some animals could cause the wiping out of other species especially if the other species relied on the dying species. This kills the ecosystem and cannot be allowed to continue.

In conclusion, tourism is very beneficial to the world economy as it earns foreign exchange, generates revenues and creates several employment opportunities. It also creates a market for goods and services, develops local economies and promotes infrastructural development. Tourism is one of the greatest pillars of economic growth and development and without it; the economy of the world would have been very backward. However, despite the positive consequences of tourism on the economy of the globe, it has had a lot of adverse effects on the ecosystem. Pollution and over-exploitation of natural resources for construction purposes has had grave consequences on the environment and have even altered the ecosystem. Many plants and animals have died because of tourism activities as tourists are known to step on plants (Zhang & Jensen, 2007). In addition, the noise from tourism activities is not safe for animals with some even failing to mate thereby reducing in numbers. The clearing of forests to put up tourism facilities is not advantageous to the ecosystem. It is also important to understand that tourism alters the behavior of animals and this can cause an imbalance in the ecosystem. Tourism is not good for the ecosystem while good for the economy.

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Strategic Role of HRM in Tourism and Hospitality Industry

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