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The Source and Emissions of CFCs in Refrigerator Sector

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Abstract

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are simple compounds formed by fluorine, chlorine and carbon’s items, which were synthesized first in 1930s. CFCs are very stable, non-toxic, non-corrosive and non-flammable compounds. Due to their excellent thermodynamic property, they were extensively employed in cooling installations, foam insulation and other industrial goods in certain countries. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which contains hydrogen, in addition to the ozone depleting chlorine atom. HCFCs are less harmful to the ozone layer as CFCs are. Most commonly used HCFCs are HCFC-141b and HCFC-22.Most utilized CFCs are the CFC-11 and CFC-12, having structure CCl3F and CCl2F2, respectively. CFC-11 and CFC-12 used as foaming agent and refrigerant in refrigeration system, respectively, which are released into the environment to cause ozone depletion and global warming. In this study, the sources and emissions of CFCs are identified in refrigeration sector. Emissions of CFCs during production, maintenance and disposal of refrigerators, are the major sources of CFCs in the atmosphere. The total amount of CFC-11 used in manufacturing process in Pakistan was about 600 g per unit for foam expansion, 40% of this amount released into atmosphere and can cause stratospheric ozone reduction and greenhouse effect. While the total amount of CFC-12 was about 250g per unit as a refrigerant, 5% of this amount can be leaked when CFC-12 was transported from large containers into smaller containers but their actual amounts depends on size of refrigerator. So, the annual release amount of both CFCs from 2005 to 2010 were calculated and the maximum value of global warming potential (GWP) and ozone depletion potential (ODP) weights in these six years were about 278902 and 55184, respectively. Similarly, during repairing and disposal of refrigerators, CFCs emissions were also determined. Thus, an investigation of 157 selected shops of repaired and wasted refrigerators in 21 union councils of Lahore District shows that the annual release of CFC-12 from repaired and wasted in 2013 in Lahore was about 1386 kg (80% leakage) and 226 kg (100% leakage) while CFC-11 emission during manual disposal was around 136 kg (40% leakage). A contribution ratio of one manufactured, repaired and wasted refrigerator to greenhouse effect has approximately 19.3%, 31.3% and 49.4%, respectively while their contribution to ozone depletion was about 30.7%, 23% and 46.3%, respectively and has high ODP and GWP weights. In addition, the annual release amounts of CFCs from out-dated units were also calculated from 2020 to 2025 which have GWP and ODP weightsof CFCs peaked at 940184 and 130, respectively.

Acronyms

AFEAS                       Alternate Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study

CFC                            Chlorofluorocarbon

EPA                            Environmental Protection Agency

EU                               European Union

GHG                           Green House Gas

GWP                           Global Warming Potential

HC                              Hydrocarbon

HCFC                         Hydro chlorofluorocarbon

HFC                            Hydro fluorocarbon

ISO                             International Standards Organization

Kg                               Kilogram

MLF                            Multi Lateral Fund

MT                              Metric Ton

MP                              Montreal Protocol

ODS                            Ozone Depleting Substance

ODP                            Ozone Depleting Potential

ODC                           Ozone Depleting Compound

PUR                            Polyurethane

PCB                            Polychlorinated Biphenyls

TEAP                          Technology and Economically Assessment Panel

Tg                                Teragram

UN                              United Nations

UNEP                         United Nations Environment Programme

UNIDO                       United Nations International Development Organization

UNDP                         United Nation Development Programme

USSR                          United States of Soviet Russia

USA                            United States of America

WMO                          World Meteorological Organization

Chapter#1: INTRODUCTION

1 Introduction

This chapter deals with the basic concepts of CFCs and their impacts on human health and environment and also discussed the Ozone Depletion Potential and Global Warming Potential. There have been described CFCs phase out schedule. There is discussed research question and a number of objectives and organization of thesis developed.

1.1 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Refrigeration Sector

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are simple compounds formed by fluorine, chlorine and carbons items which are summarized first into 1930s. In 1974, it is known that CFCs are those substances which deplete the ozone layer by large ODP and are into the atmospheric layer up to 100 years.[1] CFCs are very stable, non-toxic, non-corrosive and non-flammable compounds and due to their excellent thermodynamic properties,[2] that was extensively employed in cooling installations, foam insulation and other industrial goods in certain countries.[3] Their stability close to the lower atmosphere is partly to culpability for their distress of nature, as they diffuse into the stratosphere. Thus, the strong ultraviolet radiations present in the stratosphere (15-40 kilometers over the ground surface, upper atmosphere), causes these stable compounds (CFCs) to break and release reactive chlorine atom. The chlorine performs as a catalyst in the reaction-regeneration cycle, both obliterates an ozone molecule taking the third oxygen, and avoids the formation of a reaction with an oxygen atom. At the end of this process, the chlorine atom is ready to reproduce again and the cycle repeats. Since a chlorine atom in either of these reactions is consumed, an estimate can destroy 100,000 ozone molecules. It also means that there is a cumulative effect that more chlorine in the stratosphere from CFCs to add to what is already present effects. The atmospheric lifetime of CFCs varies 60-500 years, which means many CFCs released eventually find their way to the stratosphere. Chlorine from natural sources such as volcanoes never reaches the stratosphere due to its affinity for water. This affinity causes to solve it and eventually fall as rain. CFCs act as a Trojan Horse by allowing chlorine into the stratosphere before becoming active. [4] The chemical abbreviation for these reactions in the gas phase: [5]

Cl + O3 → ClO + O2

ClO + O3 → Cl + 2 O2

Proof up to potentially devastating effect of releasing CFCs into the atmosphere and increasing pressure from the public, between 1974 and 1978, resulted in a ban on the use of CFCs as refrigerants and foaming agents in refrigeration sector by the U.S. and some other governments. This resulted in the removal of one of the major sources of CFCs in the atmosphere. The problem remains that many countries still use CFCs in refrigeration, aerosol products and other applications. Annual worldwide production of CFCs was increasing by 3% in 1985. In 1986, 23% of all CFCs produced were used as refrigerants, 21% as solvents for cleaning applications, 28% as propellants and 26% for foam insulation blowing. The extensive use of CFCs led to the convention of Vienna in 1985, which asked participants to come from a plan of action to determine the CFC were dangers to the environment and the way of dealing with that menace. Unfortunately, a result of the lack of interest and ignorance of the atrocity of the problem reflected abundant at that time. In 1980, a team of British scientists released data showing that there was a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica was located. [6]

In 1985, the observation of an ozone hole in the Antarctic has provided evidence to a layer of ozone has been diminished. The Montreal Protocol was espoused in 1987 as a framework for international cooperation on CFC control based on the Convention in Vienna (VC) to shelter the layer of ozone. [7] Montreal Protocol (MP) was presented 50 percent solution, as this proposed diminution of emissions of CFCs. It was exclusively due to the gradual increase in concentration of chlorine in the stratosphere.

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Due to these discussions, in short term, the revisit into equilibrium obviously would have completely stopping the emissions of CFCs. In 1992, a decision was taken in Copenhagen. The Copenhagen Review Montreal Protocol brought the global elimination schedule in line with the U.S. in November 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of U.S. defines strategies, procedures or reclamation and CFCs recycling due to the emission of ozone-depleting compounds became illegitimate in the beginning of July 1992. Various companies are already publicity CFC Banks and recycling programs in anticipation of a CFC. Therefore, the effects of CFCs on the ozone layer recognized, unrivaled international action began to take place and a continuous removal with total CFC phase to end in 2000. [8]

In 1992, Pakistan has signed and ratified the Montreal Protocol. As a signatory of the Protocol, Pakistan has pledged the elimination the use of substances that deplete the ozone layer. Pakistan is not a country that exports or production of ODS, but imports of these compounds including carbon tetra chloride (CTC), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),methyl- bromide and other hydrocarbons etc. in favor of their household requirements of industry for foam insulation / cooling, cutlery industry, fire extinguishers, and the purposes of quarantine and preshipment. National Ozone Unit (Ozone Cell) has been created within the Ministry of Climate Change, Government of Pakistan into 1996 to oversee  and ensuring execution of the Montreal Protocol by several strategies and consistency with the assistance of Commerce Ministry, the Central Board of Revenue and other stakeholders. [9]

1.1.1    Application of CFCs Refrigerants

Typical applications of CFC are disclosed. For CFCs focus is on applications that are most likely to remain the use of CFCs. [10] Two of the most utilized CFCs are the CFC-11 and CFC-12 , having structure CCl3F and CCl2F2, respectively.

CFC-11

Currently, CFC-11 used in foam insulation, air conditioners and industrial chillers. [11] A reasonable amount of CFC-11 chillers continue to be active in the United Kingdom (UK). [12]

CFC-12

CFC-12 used in household and industrial refrigerators.[13] All household refrigerators and freezers manufactured prior to 1994 used CFC-12. Many of which are still in use today. Likewise, CFC-12 used for many other small enclosed systems such as retail storefronts, ice machines, etc. CFC-12 used in numerous systems of medium and large businesses in commercial and industrial refrigeration.

Other CFCs

Other CFCs are used for minor uses. CFC-13 and CFC-503 are used in cascade systems at very low temperature (e.g. below -70oC). CFC-114 and CFC-500 are sometimes used in larger water coolers. CFC-115 is seldom used by itself is one of the fluids used in the refrigerant mixture of CFC-502. [14]

1.1.2    Alternatives to CFCs

As substitutes for CFCs, another class of halogenated substances that is less damaging to the ozone layer, hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) was suggested as a temporary solution. HCFCs have an atmospheric residence time of 2-20 years in opposition to 60-500 years CFCs. However, it seems that both industry and government are moving to HCFCs derivation and use of alternatives to CFCs that do not effect on the ozone layer. This is demonstrated in the recent revision of Copenhagen to the Montreal Protocol. These revisions were implemented stringent restrictions on HCFC consumption cap from 1996 reported using at that time, more than 3% of the level of use of CFCs level. Complete removal is compulsory by 2030. Countries that do not comply will trade sanctions imposed on them. Prospects for elimination of CFCs is good, the global production of CFCs has declined as of 1,130,000 metric tons in the year 1986 and 680 thousand metric tons in 1991. Industry has already launched the compounds having no effect on the ozone layer and is to invest and focus on finding and use alternatives to CFCs.

The class of substitute substances that industry is emphasized on is HFCs because they have no chlorine atoms; these substances have no impact on the ozone layer. They have lots of similarities with the CFC, well as several other refrigerants differences. Other outside the family fluorocarbon were largely overlooked, it is argued the reason is the desire of the industry to sell the patented chemicals. Such an alternative is propane. The work in England and Germany in refrigerators using propane shows the possibility of using this alternative, the only problem is flammability. However, developers argued that the quantities used in a household refrigerator are so small (in the order of that which is present in two disposable lighters) to avoid the risk of explosion

1.1.3    Current Alternatives

CFC-12 (Dichlorodifluoromethane)

CFC-12, the refrigerant presently used in the household refrigerator. It has good thermodynamic and transport characteristics. It is non-toxic, non-flammable and chemically stable. However, it is a CFC, and among the most damaging to the ozone layer. It is one of the highest Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the coolants listed.

HFC-134a (Tetrafluoroethane)

HFC-134a is the most likely candidate to replace CFC-12. It has a similar (slightly lower) thermodynamic efficiency of CFC-12. It has zero ozone depletion potential and draw small potential to global warming. It is not flammable and highly stable. Toxicity tests are still in progress, but they suggest lows 5 or not. The main problem with HFC-134a was its incongruity with mineral oils used in refrigeration equipment in progress. HFC-134a having a poor solubility in mineral oils and therefore falls in the evaporator and the compressor results in a lack of oil. A replacement class of oils, polyalkylene glycols (PAG) having good miscibility with R-134a, fell out of favor because of its strong tendency to absorb moisture, its a little low electrical resistivity, and its tend to decompose at elevated temperatures (around 390• <F). Presently, polyesters appear to propose the solution. They are miscible with RI%, they have less hygroscopic than PAG, and decomposition at high temperatures in the existence of steel. R-1% appears to be about to replace CFC-12.

HFC-152a (Difluororethane)

HFC was used that one of the two components of the zoetrope-R 500. The research and use were encouraged both by the EPA, as it has a global warming potential (GWP) of less than HFC-134a. Its thermodynamic efficiency is somewhat better than HFC-134a and is consistent with mineral based lubricants. A main obstacle to the use of HFC-152a is its flammability. Its explosion limits in air are 5.1 to 17.1% by volume. [15]

1.2 The Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP)

A refrigerator’s initial participation for the destruction of ozone is due to CFCs and HCFCs. For refrigerants compare to their impact on the ozone layer, a numeric parameter was developed which comprises a molecule of the potential to contribute in the process of destruction of the ozone, its atmospheric residence time duration, and the time horizon regarded for future ozone reduction. This parameter, normalized to CFC-11, is called the Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) of a compound. [16] Ozone depletion potential is frequently computed by assumption of equilibrium conditions in continuous beam (substances which were eliminated through linear process, it corresponds to a pulse output of emission and integrate throughout entire decay compound), and do not depend on time. Time-dependent ODP can also be computed, which correspond to the multiple scales of time where the substance and the benchmark gas (CFC-11), bromine and chlorine released into stratosphere. Those substances having smaller (higher) lifetime in the atmosphere than CFC-11 has ODP which reduce (rise) by raising the time of integration. ODP under discussion is constant ODP, included amounts which is distinguished by every hydrocarbon class. [17]

A refrigerator’s second participation to global warming is caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) used as a refrigerants as hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are used as a foaming agent in the foam manufacturing. [18] HFCs do not deplete the ozone layer, but compared to CO2, they have a greater impact on the greenhouse effect. [19] Although emissions of CFC and HCFC are small compared with that of carbon dioxide, their chemical properties are orders of magnitude more efficiently absorb infrared radiation and therefore contributes to the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, CFCs absorbing infrared (IR) radiation in a wavelength range at which carbon dioxide and water not be absorbed, therefore exacerbating the problem. [20] Coolants comparable with respect to their greenhouse effect, a numeric parameter was developed, which is called the Global Warming Potential (GWP). GWP provides a simple and widely used method for estimating the heating effects of different long term greenhouse gases compared to each other. GWPs be expressed in terms of carbon dioxide emissions, the most frequent and most important greenhouse gases caused by humans because of its plenty and the capacity for absorbing energy as the form of infrared radiation that producing heat. GWPs are always computed over a certain time frame for measuring the impact of greenhouse gases. [21]

1.3 The Ozone Depletion Substances (ODS ) Phase-Out Schedule

Montreal Protocol (MP) has provided a schedule for ODS phase-out for industrial and non-industrial countries. In Pakistan, the CFCs in domestic refrigerators mostly include CFC-12 as refrigerant and CFC-11 as blowing agent. The CFCs should eliminate in the domestic refrigeration sector, from 2005, and the total elimination in 2010 in Pakistan. This schedule is given below:

Table 1:World phase-out calendar of ODS for  industrial and non-industrial countries. Source: Ozone Cell

Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) For Industrial Countries For Non-Industrial Countries
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Eliminated  late 1995 Total elimination until 2010
Halons Eliminated late 1993 Total elimination until 2010
Carbon- tetrachloride (CCl4) Eliminated late 1995 Total elimination until 2010
 Methyl-chloroform (CH3CCl3) Eliminated late 1995 Total elimination until 2015
Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Freezing from early 1996
Reduction of 35% in 2004
Reduction of 75% in 2010
Reduction of 90% in 2015
Total elimination until 2020
Freezing in 2013 on a basic level is computed  as
the mean for 2009 and 2010  levels of consumption
Reduction of 10% in 2015
Reduction of 35% in 2020
Reduction of 67.5% in  2025
Total elimination until 2030
Hydro-bromofluorocarbons (HBFCs) Eliminated late 1995 Eliminated late 1995
Methyl-bromide (CH3Br)
(horticultural uses)
Freezing in 1995 on 1991 basic level

Reduction of 25% in 1999
Reduction of 50% in 2001
Reduction of 70% in 2003
Total elimination until 2005

Freezing in 2002 a mean of  1995-1998 basic level
Reduction of 20% in 2005
Total elimination until 2015
Bromo-chloromethane (CH2BrCl) Elimination in 2002 Elimination in 2002

1.4 Impact of Ozone Depleting Substances on human health and environment

From an environmental point of view, there is significant to acknowledge as the household refrigerators laying serious threat on human health and environment as skin cancer, decreased crop performance,cataracts, and change in climate. Initially, household refrigerators used sulphur dioxide and ammonium as coolants that are very venomous and volatile compounds resulting lots of fatalities. [22]

1.5 Research Question

  1. How much contribution of manufactured, repaired and wasted refrigerators in Ozone Depletion and Greenhouse Effect?

1.6 Research Objectives

This research has some objectives:

  • To identify the sources of CFCs in refrigeration sector
  • To find out the quantity of manufactured, repaired and wasted refrigerators
  • To determine the potential release of CFCs from manufactured, repaired and wasted refrigerators and their associated environmental impacts
  • To explore the current waste management system of refrigerators and related CFCs emissions
  • To calculate the Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP) and their rate of contribution of Ozone Depletion and Greenhouse Effect

1.7  Thesis Organization

The thesis is divided into six chapters. The first chapter is Introduction which includes an overview of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), ozone depletion potential (ODP), global warming potential (GWP) and their impacts on environment and human health. The Literature Review and Relevant Concepts is the second chapter of this study. There is production and emissions of CFCs in various countries of the world are discussed. Moreover in this chapter, Pakistan CFCs import and phase-out plans have been described. The third chapter consists of Sources and Emissions of CFCs in Refrigeration Sector. Here, the main sources of CFCs in refrigeration are recognized and their emissions during assemble stage, operation stage and disposal stage are explained. Materials and Methods is the fourth one. This chapter contain different tools, methods,  software’s and equations which are used for final outcomes. Results and discussions is the fifth chapter of this research. In this chapter, identification of sources of CFCs are discussed. In addition, quantity of refrigerators in Pakistan, CFCs emissions during production, use and disposal in Lahore, Pakistan and their participation to ozone reduction and greenhouse effect are calculated. Also ozone depletion potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP) of CFCs from manufactured, repaired and wasted refrigerators have been computed. Here, future measurements of CFCs emissions in Pakistan also described. The final six chapter is on Conclusions and Recommendations for future.

Chapter 2: Literature Review and Relevant Concepts

1 Literature Review and Relevant Concepts

In this chapter, CFCs relevant concepts and their associated environmental impacts are discussed. There is production of CFCs and emissions described in different regions of Globe. Moreover, Import of CFCs and CFCs phase out project plans in Pakistan have been discussed. In addition, Emissions of other hazardous materials from refrigerators at disposal has been described.

1.1 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and their associated Environmental Impacts:

The chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) include unstable methane and ethane derivatives combined by halogen such as the chlorides and fluorides [23].  In 1930s, these are developed. CFCs have been widely used both on domestic and industrial appliances due to their sole characteristics (e.g., non-toxic, small or no combustion, small vapor thermal conductivity, good chemical stability, small corrosively being used, affordable price etc.) [24].To the fact that the CFCs use would result in the atmospheric ozone destruction has been forecasted in 1974 [25].CFCs chemical stability can progressivelyspread and are transferred from the troposphere (lower atmosphere) into the stratosphere. Photolysis liberates its chlorine atoms that take part a number of reactions, a catalytically series ClOx that results catalytically obliteration of ozone. In general, those series reactions have been recognized to have a key role in the decomposition of ozone into stratosphere [26]. In such reactions, the chlorine atom may obliterate thousands molecules of ozone in the stratosphere [27].In addition to its part in ozone depletion, the CFCs emission is also another vital consequences of the world environment because of its impacts on uptake the infrared radiation from the ground[28]. Itself, its contribution to the greenhouse effect by man caused estimated at around 20%, whereas those ordinary GHGs (CH4, CO2 ,N2O and ozone in troposphere) are expected at 5%,50%, 15% and 7%, respectively.[29]

Using these CFCs is varied and includes cooling and foam blowing agents, propellants and solvents. Historically, the CFC-11 used in the aerosol propellant blends, even though the functions are progressively replaced by another 1990 [30]. While the CFC-12 has been developed as a coolant in the 1930s, also commonly used as a propellant in aerosol[31]. Furthermore, other CFCs such as CFC-13, CFC-114, and CFC-115 are frequently used intosolvents, propellants and refrigerants, respectively [32]. The use of CFC-11 refrigerant preferable to CFC-115 as CFC-11/CFC-12 propellants over CFC-114 is preferred.

While preferences vary among alike goods, the majority of such gases could be diverse requirements of industries and consumers. Besides the above mainCFCs, CCl4, one more powerful hepatoxins are widely used in cleaning fluid, fire extinguishers, and disinfectant as in the beginning of 1900s. Over time, aspects of their applications have been extended to numerous industrial processes such as CFCs production, for example, CFC-11 and CFC-12 [33]. However, their production has rapidly decreased in the 1980s with declining demand for CFCs. Simmonds in 1998 expected that,in 1989-1990; atmospheric concentrations of CCl4 peaked of 104.4 parts per thousand and since then declining to a rate of 0.7 parts per thousandper year.

An attempt to decrease environmental issues related tochlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), temporary substitutions, better identified as hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs, natural compounds that are H, C, Cl and F) andhydro fluorocarbons (HFCs, natural compounds that are H, C, and F) is fed [34]. Thesesubstitutions are hydrogenadditional in structure in order to prevent CFCs or minimizing transportation chlorine holding compoundsin the layer of stratosphere [35]. These substitutes may share similar to those of CFC physicochemical properties [36]. Since all halogenated hydrocarbons absorbing large wave radiation transmitted by ground surface, may devote towards change in climate through radiation forcing. Besides the chlorofluorocarbon and itstemporary substitution elements, a significance of methyl-chloroform (CH3CCl3) and halogenated hydrocarbons must be taken into account. The first acts as a HCFCs (for example, HCFC-140) by a life span from 5 to 6 years [37].

A mass of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) into atmosphere has quickly increased over four decagons as they were introduced at 1930s. However, increasing concentrations of chlorine in the atmosphere due to emissions of CFCs was identified as major source of ozone “hole” in Antarctic in the 1970 and the ozone reduction across the portions of the Northern Hemisphere [38]. In lots of countries subsequently acceded the Montreal Protocol that assist monitor and stop CFC manufacturing [39]. According to the requirements of the Montreal Protocol, different schedules for the elimination were established for the CFCs production such as CFC-11,CFC-12,CFC-113,CFC-114 and CFC-115 and relating to halogenated compounds.

In the developed countries, the elimination of CFCs was commissioned to 1st January 1996, whereas the developing countries can stay productive (and import) CFCs (to 2010) [40]. In 1987, the Montreal Protocol signed, been the first international accord for protection of ozone in the stratospherefrom ozone depletion compounds (ODC). Since then, Montreal Protocol was strengthened several times both for controls of additional ODS and shorten their elimination dates.

For the protection of ozone layer, entirety 24 countries being signatory to the Montreal Protocol for ozone depletion compounds (ODC) , an international agreement is formed for protection of ozone through eliminating manufacture of certain compounds considered accountable to ozone reduction. An agreement has been founded at 16 Sep., 1987 and which entered into force at 1 Jan 1989 monitored through an initial session held in May 1989,Helsinki. Until now, 191 total countries being signatory tothe Montreal Protocol. Under the MP (Montreal Protocol), the CFCs shall be limited in manufacture and utilization and mustremove by certain times [41]. In developed countries, the Montreal Protocol audited simplyCFCs as ozone depleting substances (ODS). Moreover, it is also necessary to begin phase out of CFCs in 1993 and attain a decrease of 50 % in 199 compared to utilization levels of 1986. Even though CFC was merely audit objective into initial Protocol and CCl4, CH3CCl3and haloes have been additional into revision of London (1990). After that, CH3Br and HCFC presented as ozone depleting substances (ODS) in Copenhagen Amendment in 1992 and the Montreal Amendment in 1997, respectively. In 1999, the recent review of the Beijing revision incorporated tighter monitoring at manufacturing and HCFCs trading and Halon-1011 (bromochlorumethane). Their elimination dates constantly shortened by each revision. In 1991, China authorized the Montreal Protocol and established the Chinese National Program to eliminate ODSs in 1992 [42].

In 1992, Pakistan has signed and authorized the Montreal Protocol.Pakistan has agreed to the elimination of the exploitation of Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODC). National Ozone Unit created within the Climate Change Ministry, Government of Pakistan into 1996 to oversee and ensuring Montreal Protocol executions.The Ozone Cell using local industry based ODS for alteration in Ozone technology by executive authorities (UNEP, UNIDO, UNDP and the World Bank) as a financial support of Multilateral Fund (MLF) for implementing the Montreal Protocol. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is also responsible for the institutional strengthening of the Montreal Protocol Project (Ozone Cell), whereas the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is expanding support for capacity building and awareness raising activities. [43]

  • The Global Warming Potential and the Effect of CFCs and their alternative products to ozone depletion

The substitution of CFCs has attempted for solving the problem of ozone destruction yet its substitutes suffering their poss1ess disadvantages. Even though the reaction of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals with HCFC may be provided by one or more CH bonds, Motion can transport smaller amounts of reactive chlorine into the stratosphere [44]. Since HCFCs yet produce chlorine, which may devote to depleting the ozone layer into stratosphere by non-zero ODP [45]. Emissions of HCFC are therefore to be withdrawn in the next three decades in 2030 [46].

HFCs are so favored with new substitutes for CFCs along with almost zero ODP [47]. Though, because of their participation in global warming, HFCs havealso been cited amongst legally enforceable targets by the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change for decreasing the emissions of global greenhouse gases [48]. Though the CFCs emissions were effectively abolished with the laws, masses of lots of halogenated hydrocarbons substitutes were constantly increased into atmosphere [49].

Consequently, such as the case of HCFCs, HFCs emissions are capable of being placed in the near future under the administrative supervision [50]. Such as CO2 and water vapor, the ozone is a significant greenhouse gas. The ozone is omnipresent into both atmospheric layers of the Earth’s troposphere and stratosphere [51]. Tropospheric Ozone is considered negative because of its harmful effects on the environment and human health. Moreover, theyare present essentially into stratosphere (a) absorbing destructive ultra violet radiation (less than 290 nm) and (b) supply of ozone in the troposphere by clean downstream transport. The ozone effectively takes up and releases infrared rays thermally and heat retention at the ground surface. Ozone concentration in an area is kept for a photo chemically manufactureequilibrium and transportation loss (net loss of regional production) [52]. Though naturally occurring large amounts of ozone into stratosphere, its molecules are being depleted through synthetic processes associated with ODS transportation [53].

To evaluate the virtual role of different ozone depleting substances into stratosphere, an ODP idea is very helpful [54]. The later ODPs are either same or decreased in scope compared to the old one, exception of few compounds such as CFC-113, HCFC-141b, andHCFC-142b.  Many policies suggested that all sections of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is: (a) better control of materials (b) a decreased rate of materials in the apparatus (c) the recovery and destruction of the materials at the end of life (d) greater use of substitute compounds with reduction in global warming potential (e) technologywithout nature [55]. Whether such sorts of strategies established to reducing CFC and its substitutes (HFCs and HCFCs) have been made, the issue of greenhouse gas emission could fall having 10-30% reduction by 2015 in refrigeration sector (by replacement of CFC with HCFC-22) [56]. In addition, the use of mixtures of hydrocarbons and HFCs(to smaller equipment’s) like substitutes for HCFC-22 to assist to eliminate the emissions of GHGs for evidentiaryand profitable air conditioners and warming in industrial countries. Eventually, HFC-134a substitution by HFC-152a in sprays wipers technology may be useful decision to further reduce the global warming potentials [57]. In this regards, the HFC-23 having greater global warming potential while the HCFC-123 has low GWP. The indirect GWP resulting from ozone depletion by CFCs and their substitutes turned outby -83 to -3790 [58].

  • Global CFCs Production and Emissions

As a comparative share of organic resources (for example, demonstrative activity) was not sufficiently important to impact overall funding for chlorofluorocarbons, this is fair for conclusion whenCFCs are about exclusively manufactured from man-made sources [59] . The production information, sale and air emissions of the main CFCs were compiled on the Alternative Fluorocarbons EnvironmentalAcceptabilityStudy (AFEAS), a company comprising eleven prominent producers in the world unstable fluorine substances [60].The study aims to provide the research community to forecasts by fluorocarbons release into the atmosphere. From early in 1976, where the chemical industry initial voluntary reports became about production and fluorocarbons sales via survey conducted by independent accountants[61], these forecasts were available until 2004 (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114 and CFC-115) and 2006 (HCFC-22, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125 and HFC143a).

CFCs production has increased quickly in the 1930s peaking between the 1970s and the beginning of 1980s. For example, if short, the annually manufacture of both CFC-11 andCFC-12 has increased on 0.1 Gg in 1931 and 583.3 Gg in 1980. Over period of 20 years (1975-1995), worldwide manufacturing of such substances for industrial purposes has been approximately at 5.3 and 6.4 Tg, respectively [62]. Though, their production has declined sharply as the late 1980s, together by the requirements of 1987 Montreal Protocol. A 1987 initial treaty establishing a strategy to stop manufacturing of CFC for coming years in levels of 1986 and steadily reduce its 50% production in the 1990s [63]. The production of CFCs by this regulation has been dominated for CFC-11 and CFC-12 covering approximately total 84% world manufacture of CFC by 2003 [64]. The similar estimation are also accessible of their relative contribution, for example, around 88% up to 1994 [65]. It is surprising to observe that over 90% CFC-11 and CFC-12 have been manufactured and distributed in the North [66]. On the basis of production analysis and records of sales [67], the quantities of CFC-12 used for cooling systems was reduced following the Montreal Protocol entered keen on force. But, just a partial amount of the diminution may be declareddue to temporary replacement (for example, HFC-143a and HCFC-22), because of enhanced coolant technology (for low cost and low seepage)[68]. Atmospheric CFCs have been released fast in the years 1970s and 1980s and for covering 87.2% of CFC-11, 95% of CFC-12, and 99% of CFC-113 of cumulative production amounts in 1995 [69]. The majority of CFC-11 that was not released, is identified to stay in product closed cell foam, whereas its equivalent to CFC-12 is not hermetically sealed cooling(Qin, 2008). On the basis of database of AFEAS 2006, the associations in between world manufacturing and emissions of CFC (its substitutes) may be approximated.

In 1978, global manufacture of halocarbons substances had 800 thousand tons that was four times the factor limit. Taxes chlorine atom in the stratosphere is 1.2 ppb which is double amount before industrial period; theyare yet far under the level where occurrence associated with varioussynthetic procedures occur. In USA, the initial evaluation of the status of ozone layer have been posted by the National Science Academy, had quite alarming about reducing ozone, although mild compared to its possible impacts on man health and the ecosystem. However, many nations have agreed for offerreducing the use of CFC in aerosol products. By this time, these uses have accounted approximately 50% U.S.A. manufacturing. During the period 1986 to 2000, CFC-12 element has increased 53% to 66%.

Production of CFCs in Russia and the former USSR was important, but indistinct scale. The production was evidently started in USSR prior to 1968 and its ability was up to 80,000 tons per year in the beginning of 1980s [70]. Though, in accordanceAlperowicz and Cox 1987,an initial two factories for CFC-11 and CFC-12 have been ordered at 1980 and 1983 in Volgograd and Yavan, respectively. The two may be as 30,000 tons per year of CFC-11/CFC-12 blends but have been pursued by operational issues in 1984, have been submitted to work on 25% capacity only. Where the declaration of Alperowicz and Cox was in fact referring on imported technology and replaced older technology, locally produced technology, then the two views on the Russian history of CFC production can be atoned. Since 1986, Russia has the production of CFCs reported to database of the Montreal Protocol (if the total ODP tons), moreover, the sites of production and capacity of production were declared attracting funds for closure assisted [71].

  • Pakistan’s ODS Import Quantity

Pakistan is not a country that exports or production of ozone depleting substances but imports these ODS like Chloroflurocarbons (CFC), Carbon Tetra Chloride (CTC), Halons and Methyl Bromide etc. for their domestic requirments in the foam/refrigeration industry, cutlery/surgical industry,fire extinguishers and for pre shipment and quarantine purposes. Pakistan were imported certain ODS in the year 2007 namely CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-22 and HCFC-141b. The amount of CFC-11 and CFC-12 wereimported for all uses at 18.37 and 150.90 metric tons, respectively. Similarly, HCFC-22 and HCFC-141b amount was 2113.80 and 613 metric tons, respectively [72].

  • Global CFCs Database for Use in Refrigeration

The slower emission categories including industrial and commercial refrigeration and the categories where emissions occur for many years, like hermetic refrigeration, air conditioning and closed cell foams. The amount used in each class has been supposed to be globally applicable and further production has been circulated in the same manner. Before 1990, where the Montreal Protocol entered into force, the obligation of CFC-12 increased in a linear rate of almost 11,000 tons per year that had led to a demand of 435 mg in 2000. But the impact of the Montreal Protocol on the use of CFC-12 is clear in 2000; it dropped from 80% to the previous trend. The rate of linear growth of HCFCin long term is 7,400 tons per year, with a variance coefficient (R2) 0.97 from 1971-2000. If the elimination of CFC demand for HCFChas hit it would be a considerable alteration in rate of growth rate expected during the beginning of 1990s. The sturdy linear long-term trend states contrary and it might be concluded that replacement of CFC-12 with HCFC-22 was inappropriate. Clearly, there is some replacement with HFC-134a but it represents around 25% of the demand that have been expected to CFC-12 in 2000. It is too much early to make conclusion from the leveling of requirement in the year 2000. [73]

  • Global emission of CFCs (Refrigerants) during use

The sales information notified to AFEAS into this brief category include use in an industrial and commercial refrigeration applications and air conditioning applications and portable air conditioners. In such systems, lifetime of the coolant is about usually distribution with a median of 4 to 5 years. The output function is essentially skewed a little towards faster emission to reflect losses which occur at the initial filling of the system. The mean feature is an considerable cooperation. Generally, portable air conditioners and site built commercial frameworks have coolant lives which is below the mean, practices fail prematurely (accidentally loss is especially a problem with portable air conditioners), integrity of lower intrinsic practice and maintenance systems that lead to losses larger than standard would all lead to faster issue. Moreover, the state is evolving, along with lower system costs and less loss rates having today’s engineering characteristics. Major industrial refrigerators (e.g. cold storage systems) can cause fluid lives which are above the median but a single fault system may release many tons of coolant.

Tightly sealed units, usually household refrigerators, include greatest number of systems but only containing 10% of CFC-12 used in cooling system. They merely express some hundred grams of liquid and seepage, when it happens, it is because of damage and decay. It is not economical for repairing the refrigerator and discarded in developed countries. Though, the majority of the emissions take place at disposal of appliances that typically occurs prior to  mechanically failed. It consists of entire emission in 20 years, having asymmetric distribution about 12.5 year. CFC-12, most emissions from this zone are historical, which took place prior to 1990s, suchthat liquidrecovery in the provision has not had amajor impact. In addition, the recovery is distant from being complete [74]. However, restoration of disposal must be considerably decrease possible emissions in the future and should be taken into account in future releases functions. [75]

  • CFCs and Other hazardous materials leakage from refrigerators at the end of life

CFCs at the end of life has been greater emissions into the atmosphere and their impacts on both environment and human health which cause skin cancer, retrieved plant growth and climate change etc. Venomous and dangerous goods such as oil and PCB containing capacitors to be used in refrigerators. The oil can seep in the groundwater and main rivers and contaminate the sources of drinking water. Furthermore used oil, units can hold venomouschemicals and heavy metals such as capacitors containing PCBs and mercury out of thermostatic switches. The PCBs are governed under the EPA as toxic materials that can cause cancer and damage to the liver and may have negative effects on the neurological child development, reproductive human system, immune system and endocrine system. Mercury is noxious and causes many effects on health including tremors, headaches, tremors, failure of respiratory and  reproductive system , developmental anomalies and cancers. An attempt was accomplished by industry to determine safe alternatives. [76]

Chapter 3: SOURCES AND EMISSIONS OF CFCs IN REFRIGERATION SECTOR

1      Sources and Emissions of CFCs in Refrigeration Sector

This chapter’s main objective is to identify sources and emissions of CFCs in refrigeration sector. There has examined the three main sources and emissions are given below:

  • Emissions of CFCs during the manufacturing process of refrigerators
  • Emissions of CFCs during the use of refrigerators
  • Emissions of CFCs from refrigerators at end of life.

Sources and Emissions of CFCs

The chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFCs)chemicals are synthesized. [77] Naturally, they do not happen. They are always produced. They are most often used in refrigeration and cleaning agents. Ever sincetheir impact on the protective ozone layer of the atmosphere has been established, it has marginalized them out of production and replaced with harmless chemicals for newer ozone. The most probable source of these chemicals is now old refrigeration and air conditioning equipment’s, including cars manufactured before 1996. [78]

The average service life of household refrigerators signifies that products made of CFC-12 refrigerant even account for about half of the drives on the installed base. This has considerably reduced the pace of decline of demand for CFC-12 in the maintenance sector. Finer design and implementing excellent practices of production and amenities reduces coolant emissions, but particular consideration should be paid for leaving the many units having CFC-12. Characterized by a 20 year lifetime, refrigerator departure and removal at the end of his life running around 5% the installed base per year. It signifies that about 75 million refrigerators having 100 grams each or 7,500 total tons of coolant are discarded each year. [79]

1.1.1    Emissions of CFCs during manufacturing process

CFC-12 Refrigerant Leaks

For mass production of fridge, direct emissions are generally very small. It may be that, in the case of field systems mounted, during setup emissions can be greater but not considerable. The main problem related to the loading and refilling refrigeration systems is mostly due to the emissions of CFC-12 coolant treatment. CFC-12 coolant over treatment includes most of the shoe production process of the fridge. It is to be incorporated:

  • The division of the major CFC-12 coolant in huge containers into smaller quantities coolant.
  • Losses associated with the connection of small amounts of coolant teamsand the ability chop.

The Source And Emissions Of CFCs In Refrigerator Sector

Figure 1: Refrigerator manufacturing plant

CFC-11 as Blowing Agents in Insulating Foams

Production of refrigerators necessitates the utilizing approximately 400 grams to 600 grams for halocarbon blowing (frequently five times the quantity in refrigeration system), that used for urge and protecting plastics foam agent. The majority of refrigerators use the  polyurethane (PUR), since this insulation type has large R value (where the resistance to heat) as compared to other insulation types. CFC-11, ancillary blowing agent was once common sets of foam, stiff cells are formed within the efficiently capture enclosed CFC-11 gas. That gas is twice the air’s R value that has a higher resistance to flow of heat and thus providing greater R value. On the average, the foam of polyurethane formed by 10 to 15 percent CFC-11.

During the machining and drying process, the drawback of polyurethane foam is that approximately 40 % to CFC-11 has been used escapes in the environment. As soon as the foam drying and curing, a process known as thermal drift happens, where the foam’s R value  reduces as CFC-11 leaks and is slowly superseded by air atmosphere. Generally, foam stabilizers take place two years after production. Task Force on the EOL delivers foam, some Technology and Economically Assessment Panel (TEAP) of Montreal Protocol (MP) stipulates that on a certain moment, thousands ofmillions of refrigerators being used represents about 500 thousand tons to CFC-11 in banks or another halogenated hydrocarbons. [80]

The Source And Emissions Of CFCs In Refrigerator Sector

Figure 2: Refrigerator foaming plant

  • CFCs Emissions during the use of refrigerator

Leakage during the use of the refrigerator is application dependent, for example, household refrigerators having very low emissions during their life span. By contrast, numerous commercial central refrigerator and transport fridge systems are very emissivity. The emission projections should be based on field data and field data obtained from each country will vastly enhance several worldwide assumptions. Broadlycommercial installationsor industrial processes, the most accurate method of determining emissions are the collecting bills of coolants which is used for system servicing and recharging. [81]

These units contain around 150g to 250 g of CFCs as a coolant. During their life, these compounds can leak out of the device. Typically, the seepage through the holes which are developed within the hermetically sealed system coolant and grease. These gaps may be a result of mechanical damage or defects which can be seen in the last years using device. In some situations, holes could exist before the device shipped out of factory and that may appear in six years. In most instances the unit can continue to operate even when coolant leaks. Furthermore, the use of special equipment to detect leaks is the only way to detect if  an greasy odor acre, which coolant is substituted by ordinary air if a compressor continues to run. The odor of ore oil, that is not designed for an oxygen loaded environment of high temperature. [82]

The Source And Emissions Of CFCs In Refrigerator Sector

Figure 3: Refrigerator during use/lifetime

The ability chops are the major loss for CFC-12 coolant treatment. They are composed of the steam within the container which cannot be removed by pressure equalization (heel steam) and the remaining liquid phase coolant volume (liquid bead). On the basis of the retrieval policy of major coolant distributor in France, it may be inferred that these chops are between 5 and 10% of the total volume of CFC-12 coolant sale, including the cost of new apparatus and recharging all navies of refrigeration. [83]

  • CFCs Emissions from refrigerator at end of life

Emissions of CFCs from fridges at disposal depend upon policies for the regulation of various countries and the efficiency of recovery. For the method of determining inventory, it is vital to have proper life span of the fridge, and annual data on market for past years equal to the life span of the fridge. That point is vital for approximately all applications because:

  • Rapidly changing refrigerant types with respect to changes in regulations of the Montreal Protocol and especially in terms of highest regional or national regulations.
  • The rapid growth of the market for a certain type of equipment, for example, cooling system over recent years.
  • The change in the rules of recycling strategies to deal with equipment at its disposal. [84]

The Source And Emissions Of CFCs In Refrigerator Sector

Figure 4: Refrigerator at disposal

Table 2: Emissions of CFCs in different countries of the world [84]

Year Country CFC-11

(ton yr-1)

CFC-12

Ton yr-1

1995 Europe 8600 15,100
1996 Europe 8400 13,300
1997 Europe 8600 12,200
1998 Europe 8200 11,100
2001 Asia 30,100 39,400
2001 Russia 1200 64,000
2003 Japan 1600 2000

Chapter 4:Materials And Methods

1      Materials and Methods

The aim of this chapter is to describe the study approach and used methods for this research. This chapter includes different tools, softwares , equations and some field survey to fulfill the requirements of this study. In the field survey, some union councils of Lahore District are covered to determine the CFCs emissions from repaired and wasted refrigerators. Data was collected to fill the questionnaires from different shops of repaired and wasted refrigerators. In addition, some data collection of manufactured refrigerators in Pakistan have been done from Ozone Cell and Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS).On the basis of these methods, final results are calculated.

  • Study Area

The study area is Lahore District, Pakistan. This area will cover the different Towns of Lahore District. Its mainly focus on manufactured repaired and wasted refrigerators and includes survey of these shops in Lahore District.

The Source And Emissions Of CFCs In Refrigerator Sector

Figure 5: Location map of Lahore

  • Data Preparation /Development and Acquisition

This research study was included industry survey, interviews, field survey and observations, and document review. This study has been used to investigate the potential release of residual CFCs from manufactured, repaired and wasted refrigerators in the District of Lahore, Pakistan and assess their associated environmental impacts, including their contributions to ozone depletion and greenhouse effect.

  • Study Approach

The Source And Emissions Of CFCs In Refrigerator Sector

Figure 6: Building Blocks of the Study

This study was described in five basic steps revealed in Figure 2 i.e. Review of literature on relevant previous studies and the methods espoused to achieve the target. The sites surveys of refrigerator’s repairing/wasted shops and also their geographical distribution have been analyzed in the different Towns of District of Lahore using handheld GPS receiver, then data were collected by questionnaire and tables, and also included the annual production data of refrigerators and phase-out percentage of CFCs of large scale manufacturing industries in Pakistan from Pakistan Bureau of Statistics and Ozone Cell, collected data were analyzed after roundtable discussions with stockholders and technical supervisors for  rectifying deficiencies in the data, results were inducted based on the analysis so the impact of emitted CFCs into the environment can be estimated for developing future recommendations and implementation.

  • Data Used
  • Refrigerators production data from Pakistan Bureau of Statistics
  • CFCs phase-out percentage and schedule from Ozone Cell
  • Refrigerators data related to materials from industry
  • Repaired and wasted refrigerator’s data in the form of questionnaires from shops
  • Topographic maps to digitize the study area boundaries
  • Geographic coordinates of shops
    • Tools Used

A number of software’s and tools have been used to process the data depending upon the nature of task.Some numerical equations were used to calculate the annual quantity of refrigerators using annual production data, refrigerator’s lifetime, and the phase-out percentage of CFCs, A list of equations, software and hardware products involved in this study are given below.

  • Equations

The following equations will be used to calculate the annual quantity of refrigerators and annual release of CFCs.

On = Pn × (1 – ὼ)                     (1)

En+L = Pn × (1-ὼ) × C × r         (2)

  • Software Products
  • ArcGIS Desktop 10 (for mapping support)
  • Microsoft Office Word Document 2007 (for documentation and presentations)
  • Garmin Map Source (GPS data processing)
  • Microsoft Office Excel Worksheet 2007 (for data analysis and displaying)
    • Hardware Used

Positioning and Survey
  • GPS Receiver (Garmin GPS)
  • Scale and other stationary
  • Paper notebooks
  • Mobile phones (For field communication)
Processing
  • Computer Hardware (Desktop and Mobile)
  • Data storage devices
  • Printer
    • Methods

The following methods have been used to satisfy these research purposes:

  • Literature and document review
  • PEL refrigerator industry tour
  • Survey of some selected Union Councils in Lahore District
  • Used refrigerators site tours
  • Data collection from Ozone Cell and Pakistan Bureau of Statistics
  • Questionnaires
  • Data Analysis
  • Formulation of Conditions
  • Roundtable discussions
  • Results and Conclusion
  • Identifying failures and recommendations for future

Some field observations, surveys and interviews were conducted in the following tours:

  • Manufactured refrigerators

These refrigerators are discussed that were manufactured from 2005 to 2010 in Pakistan, containing CFCs. In addition, there has been reported the current refrigerators production data as in 2012 that counted CFCs emissions in recent years.

  • Used Refrigerators Site Tours

Some Union Councils across Lahore were selected to be a good representation of field visits in order to gather visual information, discuss policies, and to know regional trends to be repaired and wasted refrigerators. These Union Councils are situated at different Towns/Tehsils of Lahore District. Each Tehsil of Lahore was covered in this survey and collected data from selected 21 Union Councils. This collected data were related to repaired and wasted refrigerators shops and during these field survey identified that proper refilling process and disposal strategies for repaired and wasted refrigerators were not developed in Lahore District, respectively. Since the destruction of refrigerators was manual (i.e. refrigerant and foam were removed manually) and durable materials were sent for recycling or resale to different companies. So a kind of organizations or departments should be developed for the safe removal. Table shows the list of selected 21 Union Councils in Lahore District.

Table 3: List of Selected 21 Union Councils in each Tehsil of Lahore (2013)

Sr.No. Lahore Union Councils Lahore Tehsils Sr. No. Lahore Union Councils Lahore Tehsils
1 Kahna Nau Nishtar Town 12 Sabzazar Scheme Iqbal Town
2 Gajju Mata 13 Shahdara Ravi Town
3 Islam Pura 14 Jia Mousa
4 Green Town 15 Kashmir Block Samanabad Town
5 Mughalpura Aziz Bhatti Town 16 Samanabad
6 Taj Bhag 17 Rehmanpura
7 Darogha Wala Wagha Town 18 Mozang Data Gunj Baksh Town
8 Salamat Pura 19 Cantonment Cantonment
9 Bhagbanpura Shalimar Town 20 Al-Hamra Gulberg Town
10 Angori Bhag 21 Model Town
11 Johar Town Iqbal Town

 

The Source And Emissions Of CFCs In Refrigerator Sector

Figure 7: Union Council Map of Lahore District

  • Roundtable Discussions

Many roundtable discussions were organized to study the manufacture, repairand waste methods with the direction of the refrigerator and technical support for the viability of CFCs emissions. Modifications in procedures for manufacturing, operation and recycling refrigerators and CFCs were the order of key of these discussions and how to improve this system was also discussed at these meetings.

  • Questionnaires

A questionnaire, particularly related to site visits in stores has been developed to fill the gaps in the field notes, to be discussed during the site visits. The questions focused on the emissions of CFCs during manufacturing, repairing and wasted and number of the wasted and repaired refrigerators per year in Lahore so that emitted CFCs estimated amount can be calculated.

  • Literature and Document Review

A literature and document review provided information essential background to familiarize the research and acknowledged the results of previous research studies on the basic concept of CFCs, global CFCs production and emissions from refrigerators.

  • Data Analysis

The data were analyzed using documents, questionnaires and feedback from graphical representation of data review. This information was supported to make recommendations for future emissions from manufactured, repaired and wasted refrigerators in Lahore, Pakistan.

Chapter 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONs

1 Results and Discussions

This chapter includes identification of sources of CFCs, annual quantity of refrigerators that are still in use contained CFCs, and calculations of CFCs emissions during assemble stage, operation stage and disposal stage in Pakistan and Lahore District. In addition, their Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Potentials have been computed and also determined their contribution ratio to greenhouse effect and ozone depletion. Furthermore, the potential release of CFCs, their GWP and ODP from obsolete refrigerators in Pakistan were calculated for next 6 years and their associated environmental impacts included contribution ratio to ozone depletion and greenhouse effect for coming 6 years.

  • Identification of sources of CFCs

The main source of CFCs is now old refrigeration. Most common emitters of CFCs are refrigerants and blowing agents in foam insulation. When these coolants and blowing agent are not properly handled during production, servicing and disposal then leaks into the atmosphere as a result of ozone depletion and global warming.

  • Quantity of Refrigerators

The annual manufactured refrigerators and phase-out percentage of CFCs in Pakistan from 2005 to 2010 are given in Table 4.

Table 4: The annual production data of household refrigerators and phase-out percentage of CFCs of large scale manufacturing Industries in Pakistan. Source: Ozone Cell and PBS, Pakistan.

Year Annual Production (Pn) of refrigerators Phase-out Percentage of CFCs
2005 874,221 75%
2006 937,587 85%
2007 1,010,765 80%
2008 939,465 95%
2009 1,066,678 95%
2010 986,941 95%

As estimated the National Ozone Unit (Ozone Cell) in Pakistan, 75%CFCs phased out in 2005 that were used in manufactured refrigerators, 85% in 2006, and 95% in 2010. It means that the out-dated refrigerators that are still in use contained 25% of CFCs in 2005, 15% in 2006 and 5 % in 2010 which was not phase-out.

In this study, an equation was used to calculate the annual quantity of refrigerators which are still in use contained CFCs using annual production data and the phase-out percentage of CFCs, as shown in Eq (1).

O n=Pn × (1 – ὼ)             (1)

     Here, O is the annual quantity of units that are still in use contained CFCs, Pn is the annual production (given in Table 4), ὼ is the annual phase-out percentage of CFCs (given in Table 4)and n is the year of the computation. [85]

Using Eq.1, the annual quantity of refrigeratorswhich are still in use contained CFCs in Pakistan were calculated from 2005 to 2010 that is given in Table 5.

Table 5: Annual quantity of units

Year Annual Quantity of Units
2005 218555
2006 140638
2007 202153
2008 46937
2009 53333
2010 49347
  • The release of CFCs into the atmosphere during manufacturing

The amount of refrigerant and blowing agent in PU foam insulation during assemble stage depend on the size of refrigerator. Small size refrigerators contained small amount of coolant and blowing agent and vice versa. If amount of CFC-12 refrigerant was estimated at 250 g per unit on average, then 5 % of this amount is released into the atmosphere during production as CFC-12 distribution of large containers to small containers.[86] It means that estimated 12.5 g CFC-12 released into atmosphere and remaining 237.5 g, about 238 g of CFC-12 as refrigerant introduced. In Pakistan, total number of manufactured refrigerators from 2005 to 2010 is illustrated in Table 6 which were used CFC-12 as refrigerant in refrigerators.

Table 6: Number of manufactured refrigerators from 2005 to 2010

Year No of Refrigerators Refrigerant used Total amount of CFC-12 (kg) used in these refrigerators during production Released amount of CFC-12 (kg) into atmosphere during production Remaining amount of CFC-12 (kg) presented as refrigerant in refrigerators
2005 218,555 CFC-12 54638.8 2731.94 51906.86
2006 140,638 CFC-12 35159.5 1757.98 33401.52
2007 202,153 CFC-12 50538.3 2526.92 48011.38
2008 46,973 CFC-12 11743.3 587.17 11156.13
2009 53,333 CFC-12 13333.3 666.67 12666.63
2010 49,347 CFC-12 12336.8 616.84 11719.96

As shown in above Table, the total amount of CFC-12 released into the atmosphere during production from 2005 to 2010 was 8,887.52 kg. Thus, the lifetime of CFC-12 is 100 year (WMO, 2006). [87]It shows that CFC-12 will remain in the atmosphere up to 2105 -2110 and will contribute to ozone depletion and global warming.

Also, the amount of CFC-11 is used for expanding foam was estimated on average 600 g per unit and then 40 % of this amount was released into atmosphere during manufacturing.[88] Therefore, about 240 g of CFC-11 has escaped into the atmosphere and the remaining 360 g of CFC-11 is presented in PU foam insulation. As mentioned above, total production of refrigerators from 2005 to 2010 is shown in Table 6 where CFC-11 used as blowing agent. Table 7:

Table 7: Total production of refrigerators from 2005 to 2010 in which CFC-11 were used as blowing agent

Year No. of Refrigerators Blowing agent  used Total amount of CFC-11 (kg) used in these refrigerators during production Released amount of CFC-11 (kg) into atmosphere during production Remaining amount of CFC-11 (kg) presented as foam insulation in refrigerators
2005 218,555 CFC-11 131133 52453.2 78679.8
2006 140,638 CFC-11 84382.8 33753.12 50629.68
2007 202,153 CFC-11 121291.8 48516.72 72775.08
2008 46,973 CFC-11 28183.8 11273.52 16910.28
2009 53,333 CFC-11 31999.8 12799.92 19199.88
2010 49,347 CFC-11 29608.2 11843.28 17764.92

As seen in above table, the total amount of CFC-11 is releasedduring production of 2005 to 2010 was 170,639.76 kg. The lifetime of CFC-11 is 45 year. [89] Thus, the CFC-11 blowing agent will remain into environment until 2050-2055 and will continuously contribute to ozone depletion and global warming.

The Source And Emissions Of CFCs In Refrigerator Sector

Figure 8: Emissions of CFC-11 and CFC-12 during manufacturing

As in figure 8, the emissions of CFC-11 were much greater than CFC-12 during manufacturing process due to large amount of CFC-11 used in manufacturing.

  • Global Warming and Ozone Depletion Potentials of CFCs for manufactured refrigerators

Present measurements of GWP of CFC-12 and CFC-11were 10,890 and 4750, respectively, and ODP weights of both CFC-12 and CFC-11 were 1. With these measurements, along with the total amount of CFCs released during manufacturing, the annual GWP and ODP weights for manufactured refrigerators can be deduced which are presented in Table 8 and Table 9, respectively.

Table 8: Annual amount of GWP of CFC-11 and CFC-12

Year GWP weights of CFC-11 for manufactured refrigerators GWP weights of CFC-12  for manufactured refrigerators
2005 249152.7 29750.8
2006 160327.3 19144.4
2007 230454.4 27518.1
2008 53549.2 6394.3
2009 60799.6 7260
2010 56255.6 6717.4

 

Table 9: Annual amount of ODP of CFC-11 and CFC-12

Year ODP weights of CFC-11 for manufactured refrigerators ODP  weights of CFC-12 for manufactured refrigerators
2005 52453.2 2731.94
2006 33753.12 1757.98
2007 48516.72 2526.92
2008 11273.52 587.17
2009 12799.92 666.67
2010 11843.28 616.84

The Source And Emissions Of CFCs In Refrigerator Sector

Figure 9: GWP weights of CFC-11 and CFC-12 during production

As seen in figure, the amount of GWP of CFC-11 and CFC-12 were reached its maximum value in 2005 to 249,152 and 29,750 metric tons, respectively and after that year deceasing in GWP. This figure also shows that GWP of CFC-11 was more than GWP of CFC-12 for production because of released amount of CFC-11 during production was higher than the amount released from CFC-12.

The Source And Emissions Of CFCs In Refrigerator Sector

Figure 10: ODP weights of CFC-11 and CFC-12 during production

Also, in above figure, ODP weights of CFC-11 was larger than CFC-12 because the emissions of CFC-11 was greater than the emissions of CFC-12 to assemble stage. So in 2005, the amount of ODP of CFC-11 and CFC-12 was peaked at 52,453 and 2,731 metric tons, respectively.

  • The Refrigerator Disposal Estimates

A bid to determine precisely the number of refrigerators discarded annually in Lahore was never happened. Retailers are hardly ever record number of units received for disposal and servicing and is demonstrated in the study of conservation where no one organization commented to the issue of estimated number of units received annually which requires recovery of CFCs or repaired with CFCs.

Considering the total number of refrigerators for inputting the operation stage and waste stream is not set, the estimation of these quantities should occur. The results vary all over the District and will depend on factors such as size of city, the income level of residents, climatic conditions in the area, etc. The results have been established based on data collected from different shops and dealers dealing with the repaired and wasted refrigerators in the District. Since it mentioned above, these shopkeepers rarely recorded wasted and repaired refrigerators thus some organizations or departments should be developed to save the most precise and accurate data for more validation studies on the CFCs or other ozone depletion substances will be implemented at the future. A map shows that geographical location of 157 selected shops in Lahore District.

Figure 11: Geographical location of repaired and wasted refrigerator’s shops

  • The release of CFCs into atmosphere during use/life of refrigerator

CFC-12refrigerant has estimated average annual leakage of 80% from repaired refrigerators thatwas addressed during investigation. Consequently, residual rate of CFC-12 refrigerant in repaired refrigerators was20%. It means that total amount of CFC-12 coolant was estimated on average 238 g per unit due to different sizes and weight of refrigerators. Thus estimated released amount of CFC-12 for use by the appliance was 190.4 g per unit and remaining amount of CFC-12 was 47.6 g per unit. For refilling, 100% of the CFC-12 has been removed from refrigerators and CFC-12 would reach the atmosphere. Table 10 that show only the number of repaired refrigerators in Lahore District of Pakistan which was determined during the investigation because the entire Pakistan survey of repaired refrigerators was not possible because of the time factor limit.

Table 10: number of repaired refrigerators

Appliance Type Seasonally Number of Repaired

Refrigerators

 

Total amount of CFC-12 (kg)

 

Estimated

released amount of CFC-12 (kg) during  use

Remaining amount of CFC-12 (kg) during use of refrigerator
Refrigerators

(small ,medium, large)

Annual 5824  1386.11 1108.89 277.22
Summer 3758 894.40 715.52 178.88
Winter 2066 491.71 393.37 98.34

As seen in Table, the estimated annual number of repaired refrigerators in Lahore was 5824. Therefore, during summer and winter months, the estimated amount for repaired refrigerators was 3758 and 2066, respectively. This estimate shows that the summer season is the peak season for repaired refrigerators. However, an amount of about CFCs emitted was calculated based on this estimate.

Global Warming and Ozone Depletion Potentials of CFCs for repaired refrigerators

According to above method of GWP and ODP weights of CFCs were computed GWP and ODP of CFC-12 for repaired refrigerators. The total annual GWP and ODP weights of CFC-12 were 12075.8 and 1108.9 metric tons, respectively. Moreover, during summer and winter season, the GWPweights of CFC-12 were 7791.8 and 4283.8 metric tons, respectively. The ODP weight of CFC-12 in summer and winter has been calculated on 715.5 and 393.4 metric tons, respectively.

  • The release of CFCs into atmosphere during disposal stage

The amount of CFC-11 (blowing agent) contained in PU foam before disposal was estimated to 360 g on average. Thus, the loss of CFC-11 to air during manual foam stripping of carcasses (cabinet plus door) was estimated at 30 % (108 g) of the original CFC content of the foam and CFC-11 held in foam residues (plastic and metal) was estimated 10 % (36 g) with respect to the original amount of CFC-11 is present. This means that estimated total loss of CFC-11 was 40% of original amount per carcass with an average value 144 g.[90] Table 11 shown that only the number of wasted refrigerators in Lahore District of Pakistan, which was determined during investigation because the entire Pakistan survey of wasted refrigerators was not possible due to time limit factor.

Table 11: Number of wasted refrigerators

Appliance Type Seasonally Number of Wasted

Refrigerators

 

 

Total amount of CFC-11 (kg) in foam

Presented prior to disposal

CFC-11 loss  to air during foam stripping (kg)

 

CFC-11 retained in foam residues

(kg)

CFC-11 losses from manual foam stripping plus CFC-11 retained in foam residues (kg)
Refrigerators

(small ,medium, large)

Annual 950 342 102.6 34.2 136.8
Summer 590 212.4 63.72 21.24 84.96
Winter 360 129.6 38.88 12.96 51.84

As shown in Table 11, the total annual loss of CFC-11 per carcass during manual disposal with an average value was 136.8 kg. Moreover, during summer and winter, the loss of CFC-11 was 84.96 and 51.84, respectively.

The average amount of CFC-12 was 238 g and 100% of this amount is released into environment during manual disposal was discussed during investigation. This means that the estimated CFC-12 air loss was 238 g per unit in wasted refrigerator. Table 12:

Table 12: Amount of CFC-12 loss to air

Appliance Type Seasonally Number of Wasted

Refrigerators

 

 

Total amount of CFC-12 (kg) used as refrigerant

Presented prior to disposal

CFC-12 loss to air during manual disposal of refrigerator

(kg)

 

Refrigerators

(small ,medium, large)

Annual 950 226.1 kg 226.1
Summer 590 140.42 140.42
Winter 360 85.68 85.68
  • Global Warming Potential and Ozone Depletion Potential of CFCs at disposal stage

GWP and ODP weights at disposal stage can be calculated as above mentioned method. However, the annual GWP weights of CFC-11 and CFC-12 has been calculated at 649.8 and 2462.2 metric tons, in summer these values of CFC-11 and CFC-12 were 403.6 and 1529.2 metric tons, but in winter, these measurements of global warming potential to CFC-11 and CFC-12 were 246.2 and 933.1 metric tons, respectively. Similarly the annual ODP of CFC-11 and CFC-12 were 136.8 and 226.1 metric tons, in summer these ODP values for CFC-11 and CFC-12 were derived at 84.9 and 140.4 metric tons as in winter ODP weights for CFC-11 and CFC-12 has been deduced on 51.8 and 85.7 metric tons, respectively. These measurements of global warming and ozone depletion potentials informed that the GWP and ODP weights of CFC-12 were larger than CFC-11 at disposal stage because the CFC-12 emissions was greater than CFC-11 emissions. It means that the ODP and GWP values depend on emission rates.

  • Global Warming Potential and Ozone Depletion Potential of CFCs at disposal stage

    Contribution of CFCs to Greenhouse Effect

By comparing the annual GWP weights of CFCs from one manufactured, repaired and wasted refrigerator, the contribution ratio to greenhouse effect can be obtained. As seen in figure 12, the contribution ratio of CFCs for one refrigerator was approximately 19.3%, 31.3% and 49.4%, respectively. This shows that the contribution of wasted unit was maximum as compared to repaired and manufactured units, because the amount of GWP of CFCs from wasted unit was greater than repaired and manufactured units. This contribution ratio will vary throughout the country or district.

Figure 12: A comparison of CFCs emissions from one manufactured repaired and wasted unit to greenhouse effect

  • Contribution of CFCs to Ozone Depletion

Similarly, by comparing ODP weights of CFCs from one manufactured, repaired and wasted refrigerator, the contribution ratio to ozone depletion can be deduced. As shown in figure 13, the contribution ratio of CFCs to ozone depletion was about 30.7%, 23% and 46.3%, respectively. It shows that the contribution ratio of wasted unitwas highest as compared to repaired and manufactured refrigerators. As seen in figure 13, contribution ratio of repaired unit to ozone depletion was minimum as compared to others because the release of CFCs from repaired unit was less than wasted and manufactured units.

Figure 13: A comparison of CFCs emissions from one manufactured, repaired and wasted unit to ozone depletion

  • Future Measurements

    • CFCs phase-out deadlines in Pakistan

In Pakistan, CFCs were initially started to eliminate in 2005 until 2010 and now several alternatives of CFCs in refrigeration sector were used. The CFC-11 used as blowing agent in refrigerator, its alternatives are HCFC-141b and Cyclopentane and CFC-12 used as refrigerant having HFC-134a and HFC-152a alternatives. The CFCs phase-out period and their alternatives are shown in Table 13.[91]

Table 13: CFCs and their alternatives used in household refrigerators in Pakistan. Source: Ozone Cell

Compounds Use ODP GWP Phase-out Periods
CFC-11 Blowing agent 1 4750 2010
CFC-12 Refrigerant 1 10890 2010
HCFC-141b

Cyclopentane

Blowing agent Alternatives 0.12

0

725

0

2030

Long-term

HFC-134a

HFC-152a

Refrigerant Alternatives 0

0

1300

140

Long-term

Long-term

  • The potential release of CFCs into atmosphere from out-dated refrigerators

As mentioned above, refrigerants and blowing agents used in refrigerators during manufacturing process have an estimated average annual leakage rates of 5% and 40%, respectively. The resulting remaining refrigerants and blowing agents in out-dated refrigerators were 95% and 60%, respectively Consequently, there have been used the average amount of refrigerant and blowing agent in every out-dated refrigerator that is approximated at 250g (0.25 kg) and 600 g (0.6 kg), respectively, resulting from their differences in the size and weight, the amount of refrigerant and foaming agent have within them also vary. Here, HCFC-141b and HFC-134a are regarded which are alternatives to CFC-11 and CFC-12, respectively. Thus, the annual release amount of remaining CFCs from out-dated refrigerators for coming years can be computed by Eq. (2):

E n+L = Pn × (1-ὼ) × C × r              (2)

Where E is the annual release amount of remaining CFCs (kg), Pn is the annual production, ὼ is the annual phase-out percentage of CFCs, C is the average amount of CFCs refrigerants and blowing agents used in every out-dated refrigerator (kg unit-1), r is the remaining amount of CFCs refrigerants and blowing agents (%), L is the expected lifetime (15 years), n is the year for the computation. [92]

Using Eq.2, the annual remaining amount of CFCs released from out-dated refrigerators in Pakistan was calculated for the coming 6 years which are shown in Table 14.

Table 14: The annual release amounts of residual CFCs

Year Annual release amount of CFC-12 (kg) Annual release amount of CFC-11 (kg)
2020 52016.1 78679.8
2021 33471.8 50629.7
2022 48112.4 72775.1
2023 11179.6 16910.3
2024 12693.3 19199.9
2025 11744.6 17764.9

As shown in Fig. 14, the annual emission rate of CFC-12 and CFC- 11 in 2020 will extend their peaks at 52,016.1 and 78,679.8, respectively. With all of these figures, the emission rate of CFCs will reach zero as the number of out-dated refrigerators starts to decrease. But, the annual release of HCFC-141b and HFC-134a will continue to increase at greater rates during the next six years.

Figure 14: Annual release of CFC-12 and CFC-11 from outdated units

  • Ozone-depleting and global-warming potentials of CFCs from Out-dated Refrigerators

Present measurements of GWP of CFC-12 and CFC-11were 10,890 and 4750, respectively, and ODP weights of both CFC-12 and CFC-11 were 1. With these measurements, together with the annual released amount of residual/remaining CFCs, the annual GWP and ODP weights of out-dated refrigerators can be deduced which are presented in Table 15 and Table 16, respectively.

Table 15: Annual GWP of  remaining CFCs

Year Annual GWP of CFC-12

(MT)

Annual GWP of CFC-11 (MT)
2020 566455.3 373729.1
2021 364507.9 240491.1
2022 523944 345681.7
2023 121745.8 80323.9
2024 138230 91199.5
2025 127898.7 84383.3

 

Table 16: Annual ODP of remaining CFCs

Year Annual ODP weights of CFC-12(MT) Annual ODP weights of CFC-11(MT)
2020 52.02 78.68
2021 33.47 50.63
2022 48.11 72.78
2023 11.18 16.91
2024 12.69 19.19
2025 11.74 17.76

As in Fig. 15, the annual GWP weights of CFC-12 and CFC-11 in 2020 to reach its maximum value at 566,455.3 metric tons and 373,729.1 metric tons, respectively, and then decrease.

Figure 15: Annual GWP weights of CFC-12 and CFC-11 from out-dated units

Similarly in Fig. 16, the annual ODP weights of CFC-12 and CFC-11 in 2020 peaked at 52.02 metric tons and 78.68 metric tons, respectively and then decrease.

Figure 16: Annual ODP weights of CFC-12 and CFC-11 from outdated

  • Contribution Ratio to Ozone Depletion from outdated refrigerators

`When comparing the annual ODP weights of CFC-11 and CFC-12 from out-dated refrigerators in Pakistan, the contribution ratio of CFC-11 and CFC-12 to ozone depletion can be derived. Thus, the contribution ratio of CFC-11 and CFC-12 was 60.2% and 39.8%, respectively. This shows that CFC-11 had much to contribute to ozone depletion compared to CFC-12.

Figure 17: Contribution Ratio of CFC-11 and CFC-12 to ozone depletion from out-dated refrigerators

  • Contribution to the Greenhouse Effect from out-dated refrigerators

Similarly, comparing the GWP weights of residual CFC-11 and CFC-12 from out-dated refrigerators, the contribution ratio of CFC-11 and CFC-12 to greenhouse effect can be computed. Hence, the contribution ratio of CFC-11 and CFC-12 was about 39.8% and 60.2%, respectively. Therefore, the contribution ratio of CFC-12 to greenhouse effect was greater than CFC-11.

Figure 18: Contribution Ratio of CFC-11 and CFC-12 to greenhouse effect from out-dated refrigerators

  • Final Discussions and Out comes

On the basis of above results and discussions, it is identified that during the manufacturing, servicing and disposal of refrigerators, do not use a proper method to prevent the emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the atmosphere in Pakistan (developing country). There is no capturing recovery plant for refrigerants and blowing agents. Thus, these emissions can have an impact on environment resulting ozone depletion and global warming and they possess high ODP and GWP.

Furthermore, the investigation of repaired and wasted refrigerators shops in Lahore District informed that the majority of refrigerators are second-hand. Most people used second- hand units and preferable to repair the refrigerators instead of wasting units, because it is cheaper to reuse the second-hand units despite the new purchase.

Chapter 6: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

1      Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Conclusions

In this study, the identification of sources and emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were explored in refrigeration sector. The annual release of CFCs into the atmosphere on assemble stage, operation stage and disposal stage of refrigerators in Lahore District and Pakistan and their participation in ozone depletion and global warming. The following conclusions can be:

The main source of chlorofluorocarbons is now old refrigeration systems. The CFC-11 and CFC-12 used as foaming agent and refrigerant in refrigerators, respectively. If these substances were not properly handled during production, servicing and disposal then CFCs released into the atmosphere have an impact on environment and human health. The quantity of refrigerators has been determined using annual production amount of refrigerators from 2005 to 2010 in Pakistan, there was evaluated the number of refrigerators that contained residual CFCs which were not phase-out.  In production, the total amount of CFC-11 and CFC-12 used 600 g and 250 g, respectively. The emission of CFCs during manufacturing of refrigerators occurred in two ways. First the refrigerant CFC-12 can leak when coolants were transported from larger container into smaller container, thus 5 % of the total amount is escaped into atmosphere. While the foaming agent CFC-11 was released 40% of the total amount used for foam expansion. Consequently, the CFCs emissions caused ozone depletion and global warming and have higher ODP and GWP.

The release of CFC-12 into the atmosphere during use or life of refrigerator was also computed for the year 2013. For this purpose, a field survey of 157 selected shops of repaired and wasted units in union councils of Lahore District have been done. During this investigation, the estimated annual number of refrigerators in Lahore in the year 2013 was 5824. During the use of refrigerator, 80% of the CFC-12 has been released in the atmosphere from repaired refrigerators and before refilling, 100% of CFC-12 were released into environment which has the great impact on ozone layer and global warming. Similarly, the estimated quantity of wasted refrigerators was 950 and their CFC-11 emissions were 40% of total amount presented in unit. At disposal stage, CFC-12 emission was 100 % into atmosphere. Thus GWP of CFC-11 and CFC-12 were estimated 649.8 and 2462.2 metric tons, and their ODP has been calculates at 136.8 and 226.1 MT, respectively. It means that the CFC-12 has high contribution to ozone depletion and greenhouse effect in both repaired and wasted units.

A comparison between one manufactured, repaired and wasted unit was conducted. This shows that wasted units has 49.4% contribution in greenhouse effect while repaired and manufactured have been estimated 31.3% and 19.3%, respectively and their contribution to ozone depletion were estimated at 30.7%, 23% and 46.3%, respectively.

The future measurements of CFCs emissions have also been calculated from 2020 to 2025 on the basis of refrigerator’s lifetime. As a result of these emissions, the GWP of CFC-12 was higher than CFC-11 while the ODP of CFC-11 was greater than CFC-12.

1.2   Recommendations

This research has some recommendations for future which are as follows:

  1. To protect the ozone layer and prevent the global warming, CFCs emissions during production, maintenance and at the time of disposal should be reduce. In refrigeration production sector, there must be capturing equipment’s for refrigerants and blowing agents to minimize the harmful environmental impacts.
  2. To avoid the improper leakage and disposal of refrigerators, it is necessary for the government to develop the some organization or departments for proper recovery or recycling of ozone depleting substances.
  3. For requiring more precise and accurate data relative to repaired and wasted refrigerators, it is needed to develop the some organization for more confirmation on CFCs data and some departments or teams must be executed in the future.
  4. The Ministry of Climate Change should be developed phase-out plans of ODS in the coming years to save the environment and implementation of their alternatives.
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