Management for Community and Social Services (Financial Analysis of Not for Profits)
Management of community resources and services may at a point require financial accountability that will entirely rely on the use of financial tools to determine the position of firms that operate as Non-profit organizations. This requires a vast focus on financial analysis of the activities that are conducted with an aim of making the bet of the operation. In order to achieve this, it is crucial to use financial tools in the field of sociology during research and analysis of the outcome.
“Assessment of measurement tool for Reliability and validity”
Research studies have been used in many occasions to find out more about a scenario or a demanding question that a particular group of people are interested in knowing. This requires a model that will best explain each step that is used to gather such information used for analysis. In order to have these data gathered appropriately, a prior scan on the field is recommended. This is referred to as assessment of the field of study. Assessment there3fore has basic tools that must be employed to ensure the appropriateness and accuracy during and after the research study in the field.
There are two major aspects that most researchers must employ to ensure that their work is accurate. Reliability and validity of the information given to the end users of the research must reflect these two key aspects. In order to achieve this, there must be appropriate tools of measurement that can be used to justify the validity and reliability of a research work. These tools must be used in the filed of study and during the process of analyzing the data collected. In the study of sociology, therefore, there are various methods or tools of assessment that can be used to validate given information and to make it reliable to users.
People with disabilities form a large percentage of population in most parts of the world, and requires a research study to find out the main cause. When a research study is carried out, a tool of evaluation that would lead to validation and reliability is often required. In order to carry out a research on the disability in adults in a particular area of study, an assessment must be conducted. For an ideal assessment, a tool of measure meant will be required. Well-being will be appropriate when determining the extent of accuracy for validity and reliability. Most researchers use well-being tool of evaluation since it will provide variables that will form the basis of data collection in the field.
Reliability and validity can be based on several types depending on the variables that will be used in the data collection. Survival tactics, for instance, may be used as a way of validating the data. Also, movement and income generation means can also be relied on to determine the amount of well-being support required by the disabled people in the society.
“How support groups benefit the health and well-being of people with a rare genetic disorder”
Support groups provide first hand information that is required by researchers in the field. This makes it easier to know exactly what is required during assessment and how to deal with the situations on the ground. Support groups ad the researchers or social workers since they connect and report the requirements to the rele3vant persons who can attend to the disabled people in the field.
“Quantitative or qualitative research study”
There are often two approaches that are used in the field during a research study; these are either qualitative or quantitative approaches. These two approaches are ideal depending on the nature of the research work. Taking into consideration a sociology research perspective, it will be ideal to use quantitative approach. This approach will be ideal for studies of disorders in various people in the society since it allows for the one on one interaction with the target group. It will also employ the use of interviews as a means of collecting data from the respondents. Primary data collection is often considered ideal when dealing with a research study that focus on health conditions and issues among people.
The benefit of quantitative research is that it offers a large amount of related data on the same case under the study. This makes it ideal to analyze and come up with a information that can be validated and relied on by end users or other social workers. Similarly, qualitative research will rely on giving quality information that is gathered from a sampled research work from the field. This will make it ideal for social workers to identify quickly the areas that require their attention among the disabled people in the society.
However, quantitative research method, may present a large data that would be too difficult and time consuming to analyze. Qualitative research method may also have small margins or data sources compared to the population size hence invalidating the information gathered.
“Single-system research study”
In every research work, there must be a method of data collection and validation process. Single system research is a way in which methodology is applied in the research work. It denotes the approach that experts or researchers will use in the field to gather relevant information that is required for analysis about a scenario or the case study.
Single-system research method can be used by a research by going to the field and literally gathering primary data. A specific example of this method is the use of questionnaire in the field to collect raw data for analysis and validation. This process requires identification of sample, population, and target area of study. In the case of social works, questionnaire would be ideal since it allows respondents to give their views on various scenarios that are under study. Again, it offers the best approach to deal with respondents who do not corporate in the area of the study. Questionnaires are significant in primary data collection method since there is high accuracy and multiple choices of responses that can generate answers that are ideal for analysis of a specific situation in a given research study area.
The main advantage of a single research study approach is that it offers chance to collect multiple data and carry out repeated data analysis for purposes of validation and reliability. It also offers an alternative to another approach that may be considered unsystematic means of data collection. In addition, for a social worker, this method offers a chance to allow for easy assessment of variables that are used during the study.
There are often two variables that can be identified with kind of methodology, and these are dependent and independent variables. The chosen dependent variables are the frequency of disability occurrences and the independent variables are the affected victims in the society who require support from other social workers and people in their sane states.
Financial Cash Flow Determination Methods
Implications and applications of financial study require various approaches to determine particular aspects. Regarding economic evaluations and valuations of assets, there are a number of tools or approaches that practitioners must employ to obtain relevant information and statistics that can be used to gauge or determine the position of a firm among its competitors in the market platform.
Similarly, in finance time is a key factor that must be properly analyzed and evaluated to ensure that a positive result is achieved through management. This will require the use of software for data analysis that will enhance performance and timeliness in determination of such econometric values. STATA is therefore, the ideal software that can be used in analyzing technical data from various sources financial values. Time-series econometrics models are very necessary in dealing with financial accounting. This implies that the amount of output will be determined by time take to raise a single unit of a product or service based on its financial spending. Example of a stata code that can be used in the econometric analysis is scatter y x if x < 10.
Below is a data code that can be used in the STATA software to determine time series in the econometrics valuation.
STATA can be used in the determination of the following based on the time series provided.
(a) Return Relative= (Ending value of Investment)/ (Beginning value of Investment) = 111,619,295.48/73,441,529.02=1.5198
(b) Holding Period Return (HPR)= Return Relative-1=1.5198-1=0.5198
(c) AHPR= (Return Relative) ^(1/(324/52))-1=(1.5198)^(1/(324/52))-1=0.0695
The $5 million cash is invested in Macquarie Cash Trust (CMA) and the rate of return is 3.3% p.a. Ending cash value==$5,000,000*(1+0.033)^(324/52)=$6121048.97
(a) Return Relative= (Ending value of Portfolio)/(Beginning value of Portfolio)
(b) Holding Period Return (HPR) = Return Relative-1=1.6947975-1=0.6947915
(c) Portfolio Annualized holding period return (AHPR)=[(Return Relative)]^(1/(271/52))-1
S&P ASX200 Index Return
(a) Return Relative= (Ending value of S&P ASX200 Index)/(Beginning value of S&P ASX200 Index)= 5248/6389.4=0.8214
(b) Holding Period Return (HPR)= Return Relative-1=0.8214-1=-0.1786
(c) AHPR = [(Return Relative)]^(1/(271/52))-1=(0.8214)^(1/(324/52))-1=-0.0311
|Nike: Calculation of Free Cash Flow Using Reformulated Statements|
|Year ended May 31, 2010|
|C – I = OI – change in NOA|
|Operating income, 2010||1,814.4|
|Free cash flow||2,646.7|
|C – I = NFE + Change in NFA + d|
|Net dividend, 2010||740.4|
|Free cash flow||2,646.7|