The Relationship Between Love of Learning, Perseverance and Academic Stress in Young Students
Academic stress is one of the main stresses. A type of distress academic mean taking different exams writing different text and assignments. In short academic measure what a person learns. A college students face different kind of stressors like professional pursuits academic deadlines exams paper and projects financial and school loan budgeting money life style behavior friendship intimate relationship (seaward, 2006).
Love of Learning is a positive thing which makes life healthy and free of stress. There are rare researches on love of learning perseverance and academic stress. Love of learning determines one’s ability to accomplish what is needed to interact effectively with people and institutions. Love of Learning is about interest of obtaining knowledge about person, things, and world. Hard work in college to learn, to improve skills and to pursue interesting things, application of this learning, possible ways to learning challenges, and trying to obtain more knowledge rather than stay fixed on previous knowledge (Richard, 2007).
The purpose of this study is to find out relationship between love of learning, perseverance and academic stress in young students.Love of learning, perseverance and academic stress are interrelated with each other because love of learning and perseverance are necessary to overcome the academic stress. This chapter will present definitions of love of learning, perseverance and academic stress and theoretical perspective will also presented. It will then provide a theoretical rationale for the relationship between variables. Stressful events of every level among children and adolescents are significantly related to the emotional and behavioral problems of youngsters(Ash, 2011). However level of problems are different for different individuals because experiences of stress are different. This difference is due to available resources and coping strategies for stressful events by adolescents (Ginsberg, 2011).
1.1 Academic Stress
The word stress means different effects to diverse people and expects from new scientist, no one has really to define it, although it has become part of our daily vocabulary. According to Seyle (1983) it is effort, fatigue, pain, fear, the need for concentration, the humiliation of censure, loss of blood pressure, or even an unexpected success that requires complete regulation of one’s life.
Stress has also been defined as a pattern of disruptive physiological and psychological reaction to event that threatens a person’s ability to cope (Adler, 1992).
Stress is not suitable term it can be defined in terms of external and internal conditions that create stressful occasion and the symptoms experienced by the people in stressful situation.In working place stress is a reaction of persons to novel or aggressive factors in their work surroundings.The reactions to stressful situations are different for different individuals and can effect in affecting, perceptual, behavioural, and physiological changes. Stress is a demonstration of opinion about the expectations (Andrew, 2004).
Stress is induced by the expectations about the future and anxieties about present and future. Good stress and bad stress are similar. Both are induced by thinking about future. Stress itself is not essentially terrible.The expression stress can be measured impartial with the words distress and eustress, distress is bad stress and eustress is good stress which motivates some persons. Stress is not forever pessimistic. It may be best for a person in different times with respect to different situations. It motivate or inspire individuals to find out modern and smarter way of doing things.This helpful aspect of stress is called as eustress, the term stress has a pessimistic suggestion, and this unenthusiastic feature of stress is termed as distress (Blai, 1972).
Stress is a reaction which may be psychological or physical to a long duration internal or external conditions in which an individual’s capabilities to cope with situation are extended more than normal situation. It is an adaptive reaction to a mindful or unconscious risk. It is a consequence of a apparent hazard, andit is not necessary that these situations are related to actual conditions. The quantity of stress that is created by a certain condition depends upon one’s observation of the position, not the circumstances itself. It is a relativistic experience (Williams & Huber, 1986).
Stress results from the dealings of an character and his/her surroundings, as well the relationships that are formed between self and the environment. It can manifest in behavioral, cognitive, and emotional ways. The effects may diminish with a decrease in the level of stress. When stress is prolonged, it can lead to psychological breakdown, social problems, physical ill health, and poor performance at work (Sowygh, 2013).
Albrecht (1979) classified the stress into four categories: first is instance stress, it is forever shaped by a genuine or fantasy goal, second is defensive stress, it is formed when a individual perceives that an future issue will be terrible. Third is situational stress, it can happen when a person is in an disagreeable situation, and they concern about what will occur subsequently, and fourth is encounter stress, it is created by get in touch with other people.
Academic stress along with students have inclusive been researched on, and researchers found and showed in their researches that as too much home work, there is a competition with other fellows, workload and too much lectures in educational setting cause academic stress (Fairbrother& Warn, 2003).
Sumalatha (2013) conducted a study and found academic stress is very harmful for the students, in the form of assignments, pressure from study, workload, exams anxiety, irritation, frustration and so on. As people aware of the educational terms feel great academic stress and anxiety. Those parents who have lack of children and ignore the abilities of their children produce much stress in their children than other.
Those students who observe huge knowledge and have a lack of time, and time management it is also caused academic stress (Carveth, 1996).
Students explain interpretation and experiencing educational pressure at conservative stage all semester with the most sources of learning anxiety significant from beautiful and studying for test, papers, position struggle, and the vast amount of pleased to master in a little measure of instance (Abouserie, 1994).
1.1.1.Predictors of Academic Stress.
In current study love of learning and perseverance are a predictors of academic stress that predict the academic stress.
- 188.8.131.52. Love of learning: Passion of learning and feel affection for of knowledge is indicated by the common mastering new skills, topics, and bodies of knowledge, learning on one’s own or through a proper procedure of training connected to the power of interest, but goes further to explain the tendency to methodically put in to what one knows, in feel with one’s greatest time, position, and method of knowledge excited to contribute to what is being educated from others. When students have love of learning than they have also stress In their educational level, the students who eager to learn more have more academic stress that is why love of learning is a predictor of academic stress (Park & Peterson, 2004).
- 184.108.40.206. Perseverance: Those people who are consisted in their tasks that are called finishers, they move forward through obstacles, they are flexible and optimistic, to be determined is to carry on and to be seriousness. Perseverance and determination is also a predictor of academic stress. When students are more persistence in their tasks than they feel more academic stress so perseverance also predicts academic stress (Park & Peterson, 2004).
There are some researches on the other predictors of academic stress that predict academic stress in different ways.
The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship and analytical assessment between the educational stress and its symptoms in the university students of different universities and also with the relationship of age and gender. In this research they collected data from the students. The main purpose of this study to find out the predictors of the stress and the symptoms of stress. The results revealed that the high level of stress due to pressure of work, assignments and too much work predict high level of academic stress. The results also revealed that female are more feel stress than males. We terminate that precise recognition of stressors could assist to appreciate pressure and its injurious possessions on college students (Asten, 1985).
In another study experienced the predictors of academic stress in college students. In which also described the coping skills, learning styles, parental support, relationship with parents, exams anxiety, social relationship are also examined. There are many students that take part in this study. Results revealed that lot of work in universities, assignments, anxiety about exams all that are experienced by the students caused stress in students are the best predictors of academic stress. Those students who feel much stress in their academic level they are less motivated and have poor performance, and those students who have more motivated and have great performance in academic level they experienced less stress (Kimberly, 2007).
1.1.2. Theoretical Framework.
A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and accessible theories that are used for your particular learning.
- 220.127.116.11 Stress Theories. Following are the theories of stress. That describes the theoretical framework of stress.
- 18.104.22.168. Hansseyle’s views about stress. In seyle formulation he pointed to stressor as being stimuli, which because of their great magnitude lead to the reaction he termed to the General Adaptation Syndrome conversely a person who manifested this syndrome is presumed to be in a state of stress.
- 22.214.171.124. Lazarus views about stress. Lazarus and Folkman (1984) defined stress as a particular association between the individual and the surroundings that is appreciated by the individual as demanding or greater than his or her possessions and endangering his or her well-being.
1.1.3. Factors of Academic stress.
Cheng, (2009) elaborate the factors of educational stress. Stress is a necessary experience in every part of the life of person life. It is usually an affecting difference which may be due to many reasons such as tests, assignments, competition in class, financial problems, future problems, job problems, and many other factors caused academic stress.
- 126.96.36.199. Passionate. It was observed that those students who studying in colleges are more eager to learn something new and are more passionate than those who studying in school and other institutes. Those students who studying in colleges have particular goals that they want to achieve they have proper pathway and need proper awareness in every step of life, but due to stress they also feel anxiety in their lives.
- 188.8.131.52. Adjustment problem. Another factor that causes academic stress in student that is adjustment problem. Most of the students face many problems in the academic life like learning problem, educational problems, occupational problems, financial problems that is why they cannot adjust in anywhere. report suggests that teenagers always face problems in adjusting with various stresses. Due to adjustment problem people are becoming dependent and students are starting to shift their needs and desires to other and have less passion about education.
- 184.108.40.206. Pressure of high grades. University students are often feel stress in their class due to competition in class, they also want to get good position and higher marks in their class it also caused academic stress in students.
- 220.127.116.11. Interpersonal Problems. It was observed that those students who studying in colleges are more eager to learn something new and are more passionate than those who studying in school and other institutes. Those students who studying in colleges have particular goals that they want to achieve they have proper pathway and need proper awareness in every step of life, but due to stress they also feel anxiety in their lives. Students have some interpersonal problems that also caused academic stress in students.
- 18.104.22.168. Excessive Homework. Another information suggests that only obtaining higher grades are not the single source of stress but also too much homework, assignments, workload, pressure of study also the factor of academic stress.
- 22.214.171.124. Financial Problems. Having many reasons of stress a one big reason is financial problem in student those who are not able to pay their dues regularly, they feel embraced and this is a big factor of stress in students
- 126.96.36.199. Problem with faculty. Some other factors relationship with the faculty members are also a big factor that cause pressure and anxiety in students.
- 188.8.131.52. Relation with Family. Some other factors relationship with the family members are also a big factor that cause pressure and anxiety in students, change in appetite and sleep patterns and feel loneliness in gathering caused stress.
- 184.108.40.206. Influence of gender. The level of stress is different in different people like boys and girls in university students. So the pressure of gender is also a reason of stress in university students in educational settings.
1.2. Character Strength
Personality strengths are those aspects of character that are ethically appreciated. As Baum rind (1998) noted, It takes virtuous character to will the good, and competence to do good well. Many higher education and social programs today focus on helping young people acquire academic skills and abilities such as thinking critically. These help young people achieve their life goals, and of course are important. Nonetheless, without good character, individuals may lack the desire to do the right thing.
We have found that students’ academic achievement is influenced by a set of character strengths. Among middle-school students, the character strengths of perseverance, love, gratitude, hope, and perspective predict academic achievement. Similar results are found as well among college students. Learning occurs not just within people but among them, and character strengths can facilitate the process (Park & Peterson, 2004).
Strengths-based models embody a student-centered form of education with the primary goal of transforming students into confident, efficacious, lifelong learners whose work is infused with a sense of purpose (Anderson, 2000). As noted previously, a foundational assumption of strengths-based education is that potential exists in all students and that educators do well to discover and implement the kinds of learning experiences that can help their students realize this potential.
1.3 Love of Learning
Learning is a enduring change of behavior and its potential as a result of experience and it cannot be caused by the change in body state like illness, fatigue (Bresseler, 2007).
Grip and perfection of new skills, topics and new knowledge either by self-attempt or by any other institutional source; it depends on interest and thirst of knowledge to assimilate new knowledge in the previous learning (Park& Peterson, 2008).
Love of learning is about passionately learning new skills, topics, and new phenomenon. The people with passion of learning deals with hurdles and problems during the procedure of learning, either formal learning or informal learning(Park& Peterson, 2008).
Learning is about to manage critical situations that is learn through experience. Learning gives us skills to extract meaning out of situation, people’s reactions and what’s going in our mind. As children we learn that every action has a reaction by adults as we grow older, we learn to analyze these reactions and manage our behavior. A wide social environment helps people to learn these skills because they insist individuals to reevaluate the signals they get from their environment (Black, 1976).
The process of learning to focus on social cues read social cues and give reaction according to the situation is to being socialized into a society. While the learning process start from home environment for children, it is difficult for young people to develop these skills in a broad social setting and to engage in these skills. Among different cultures differently taught about situation and management of situation to the children, but this learning process going on with the passage of time and with respect of age. While no one is a true learner or skilled person to manage the impressions and reactions because the teenage years are the time of developing these skills with the help of experiences (Deborah, 2001).
1.3.1. Components of Love of Learning.
Richard, 2007 has describe the components of love of learning Youth who demonstrate intrinsic motivation, persist in spite of challenges, and have a growth mindset the three main components of Love of Learning are much more likely to achieve goals that are important to them.
- 220.127.116.11 Greater academic success. Researchers found that youth study due to some reason like they enjoy studying, they have interest in deeper learning, richer, and longer lasting. They are also more determined, more artistic and more prone to accept challenging work.
- 18.104.22.168 Better emotional health. Youth who want to learn how to relax them than the students who face threats and hurdles while achieving more knowledge than previous. Youth with a love of learning may also have lower levels of depression because they develop skills to overcome obstacles, rather than ruminate over problems and setbacks.
- 22.214.171.124 Increase Feelings of Competence. Nothing motivates youth more than a feeling of competence. Feelings of competence do not merely come from achieving success, but rather, from achieving success at challenging tasks. These are tasks that require youth to develop new skills, but are not so difficult that they discourage them. Conversely, if the task is too easy, youth are less likely to exert effort or find rewards in accomplishment.
- 126.96.36.199 Allow Autonomy and Choice. Youth, like adults, are more highly motivated by activities that they choose rather than activities they are told to do. To build youth motivation: Ask youth what they want to do rather than dictating what they should do. Give youth control over their learning processes while providing the appropriate amount of structure. Provide the minimum level of monitoring and rules required, as such limitations can undermine their feelings of control and decrease motivation.
- 188.8.131.52 Set Learning Goals. Studies have demonstrated repeatedly that youth with learning goals both learn better and enjoy it more. Learning goals encourage youth to focus on mastery and learning, which are more under the youth’s control, rather than focusing on getting a high score, which is out of the youth’s control. The latter can cause wasteful perfectionism and shallow learning. Adults can encourage motivation through learning goals by, emphasizing the value of learning and deemphasizing external evaluation of performance. Giving substantive feedback that shows students where they were successful, why they improved, and how they can improve further.
- 184.108.40.206 Avoid Extrinsic Rewards. Extrinsic rewards can undermine a youth’s intrinsic motivation. If used incorrectly, young people can become addicted to extrinsic rewards, and they may only perform tasks when there is a reward, even for those who were previously intrinsically motivated. Adults avoid this by Using tangible extrinsic rewards as little as possible, using the most modest of rewards, and ending the offer of rewards as soon as possible. Making rewards contingent upon the quality of work or improvement on a challenging task, not simply on engaging in an activity. Giving rewards some of the time (partial reinforcement), rather than continuously.
- 220.127.116.11 Encourage Persistence. Self-disciplined children are more likely to work hard and persist for long-term rewards. Adults can promote persistent behavior by: Sharing role models of people who experienced initial difficulty followed by gradual success to demonstrate that persistent effort can help overcome difficulties. Reinforce the belief that success is possible. Promoting the feeling of belonging among minority students, especially in the face of adversity.
- 18.104.22.168 Develop a Sense of Purpose. Research by Quigley Institute for Student Aspirations shows that when students see a purpose to their learning, they are more motivated to succeed. Help youth reflect on how what they’re learning, whether a topic, skill or strategy, is relevant, and how the effort serves a greater purpose.
1.3.2. Theories of Learning.
Following are the theories of learning that describe the theoretical framework of learning. Richard describes these theories of learning.
- 22.214.171.124 Plato theory of Learning. Plato was the first major rationalist and the first natives. He proposed a reminiscence theory of knowledge where knowing was explained as remembering the pure knowledge that the soul had experienced before entering the body.
- 126.96.36.199 Aristotle theory of learning. He believed sensory experience to be the basis of all knowledge; he was the first major empiric. He also proposed the law of similarity, contrast, contiguity, and frequency to explain how ideas become associated with other ideas.
- 188.8.131.52 Berkeley, George theory of learning. He said we can have no direct knowledge of the external world; we experience only the ideas that is causes us to have. His belief that nothing exist unless it is perceived led to his famous dictum to be is to be perceived (Berkeley, 1685).
- 184.108.40.206. Ebbinghaus, Hermann theory of learning. He was the first to study learning and memory experimentally. Demonstrating how the law of frequency worked in the forming of new associations, he invented nonsense material to control for previous experience in a learning situation.
- 220.127.116.11. Hobbes, Thomas theory of learning. He reasserted Aristotle’s doctrine of associations and also suggested that experiences of pleasure and pain influence how associations are formed.
- 18.104.22.168. Romanes, George John theory of learning. An early comparative psychologist who’s evident for the continuity between nonhuman and human mental process was anecdotal and replete with anthropomorphizing.
- 22.214.171.124. Thorndike theory of learning. Thorndike observed that in the learning of also nation is a factor in addition to contiguity and the law of effect was often involved. If the element of an association somehow belonged together, the association between them was learned and retained more readily than if the element did not belong together.
According to Rossman, (1985) perseverance can be defined as the ability to stick with the same point of view as previous after negative influences, resistance, or discouragement. As young adolescents deals with challenges and hurdles that can be physical , social, academic, ethical, and moral, they will need to stick to their point of view to cope with this situation. It is necessary to be satisfied with this and coping with these challenges and hurdles before they experience them.
Physically, young adolescence bodies are growing; this may induce them feeling of self-conscious and uncontrolled. They need to introduce to school athletics that required this kind of temperament and stamina to deal with difficult situation. They must stick to this to accept such kind of changes and to build self-confident image. And it necessary to understand that it required practice and repetition to develop perseverance and to improve you to take participate athletic task to achieve their goals in physical competitions. Socially, students are starting and changing their views about social norms. Capability to maintain a positive self-image and confident among others that are going through the same procedure or change as you are, is often embarrassed and confusing (Beane, 1993).
Early stages of youth must persist in the center of changes among their peers. Academically, the strictness is growing and requiring more focus and responsibility in facilitating given tasks. Young students have fresh mind which continuously formulating and evaluating what they have been taught. They need respect from others but challenged. Heard, but helped. Morally, adolescents are more puzzled than ever and will require logical perspective approaches to analyze evaluate idea and judgments. They must stick to all of these changes (Beane, 1993).
However, to find stability in perseverance you need to be capable to cope all of these difficulties very politely and efficiently. Perseverance is when you are capable to deal with hurdles rationally rather than complaining. Instead of being irritated about any task you need to move further efficient. It may obtain some time before you understand this point, but when you do, you will have a skill to move further that could never end you no issue what (Beane, 1993).
A stable and continues performance of one’s work or duties even when it is painful or risky, loyalty, hard work, persistence and stamina is called perseverance (Park Peterson, 2007).
Working hard and long lasting is not only applied frequently but also a way of simple life. It is persistently power full. Without giving up and trying again it is a capability to deal with failure (Reiff, Gerber, & Ginsberg, 1992).
People have faith that they can create most wanted effects by their dealings, they are slightly motivated about their beliefs to influence aspirations and power of objective commitments, intensity of inspiration and insistence to deal with difficulties and setbacks, strictness to difficulty, worth of logical view, fundamental attributes for successes and failures, and exposure to pressure and sadness (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, &Pastorelli, 1996).
1.4. Theories of Perseverance.
Following are the theories of perseverance that describe the theoretical framework of perseverance.
- 126.96.36.199. Affect Perseverance Theory. Affect perseverance is a theory about our mental state. It is about affections and emotions towards a individual of love. Influence insistence is a situation of the mentality when expressive partiality for a particular someone or objective continues even though the unique feeling and consideration are unacceptable. In simple words, it is maintenance of care for somebody even after the thing or criteria which we liked in that person do not survive any longer (Ginsberg, 2011).
- 188.8.131.52. Belief Perseverance Theory. Belief perseverance theory argued that when cognitive changes occur idea is strongly associated to feeling, and may continue intact still. Even if he changes and becomes abusive, the feeling of love may persist. This theory is relevant for anybody who is engaged in motivating people, whether in business or in the classroom (Strup, 2011).
1.5. Love of learning and Perseverance
Love of learning has positive association with perseverance. Basically character strength are individual characteristics which indicate the inside emotional and psychological processes that identified and précised the different aspects of personality that are ethically valued. Our inborn strength talent, capabilities, power of skills, and potency of outside possessions and support are different from the important feature of our personality. While all of these aspects of strength are significant, character strengths provide a opportunity to build these areas (Park,2004).
For example, students’ academic capabilities like love about education was initiate to be considerable predictors of cognitive amendment in humanity, optimistic emotions and coping with pressure. Usually, purposive education abilities as calculated by aptitude tests have been straight associated with cognitive adjustment to school and grades of school. Interestingly, in this study, the logical strengths, which have been termed the power of the head Park and Peterson (2010), constituted by inspirational parts of knowledge such as inquisitiveness and passion for education, extrapolated to cognitive modification to middle school.
The pleasure religion, appreciation, anticipate, keenness, and interest are significantly correlated with character strength, those most correlated with the commitment means to joy are passion, inquisitiveness, trust, firmness, and feel affection for of education. Finally, those correlated with the enjoyment way to cheerfulness are humor, passion, hope, shared brain power, and care for of education In common, the Big pleasure Strengths those life satisfaction character strengths have significant association with love of learning and perseverance (Park & Peterson, 2010).
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a review of current literature related to love of learning, perseverance and academic stress.
2.1 Academic Stress
Educational stress along with students have comprehensive been researched on, and researchers found that as excessively assignments, competitions with other class fellows, failures and adverse dealings with other students or lecturers (Fair brother& Warn, 2003).
Students observation of huge knowledge that support compulsory and the awareness of an unsatisfactory time to build up it is called academic stress Carveth, (1996). Students describe observations and experiencing academic stress at convention al period each semester with the most sources of educational pressure consequential from attractive and studying for exams, position competition, and the huge quantity of satisfied to master in a small quantity of time (Abouserie, 1994).
Students observe and get experience when stress is supposed or perceives negatively or becomes unnecessary, through this psychological and physical destruction is experienced by the students. Effective time management, social maintenance, commitment in relaxation pursuits and positive reevaluation are the method that reduced the academic stress (Murphy & Archer, 1996).
Ragheb and McKinney (1993) the only logical study that purposely associated leisure time contentment to educational stress. They revealed that there is negative association between academic stress and leisure satisfaction. Overloaded speech halls, semester system, and insufficient assets to carry out educational tasks are the mainly stressors of educational and academic level (Awino & Agolla, 2008).
Ross, Niebling and Heckert (1999) carried out research to determine the major sources of stress among college and universities students. The student stress survey was used as an instrument. Student stress survey consisted of forty stressful situations. Results revealed that top five sources of stress caused academic stress, change in sleeping habits, vacations, change in eating habits, increased in workload, and new responsibilities.
Mishra, Mckean, West, and Russo (2000) found that academic stress among college students various across year in school and gender. Specifically, freshmen and sophomores had higher academic stress level than juniors and seniors, and females reported higher academic stress than males.
Many college students may find the academic experience very stressful. Macan and Amanda (1990) carried a research and found those students who manage their time according to their course work less stressed out and experience greater work and life satisfaction, less overloaded and less role ambiguity.
There are some negative factors that make the educational environment stressful like stress to achieve strong in the assessment or test and time allocated Erkutlu and Chafra, (2006). Academic stress badly effect our social terms both internally and externally or in educational setting and outside this setting which also effect individual personal life and promise to attain the goals (Fairbrother& Warn, 2003).
Altbach, (1970) conducted a study a found that we can and overcome the stressors that make stress and anxiety in our life after knowing the causes and factors of these stressors and also informed to the authority about the causes of these stressors that are responsible for pressure in students. Frequently, modify students recognize that power be appropriate huge power over their lives and feel that they live in a state of extensive helplessness.
Another source of stress is the difficulty of achieving social familiarity. It is difficult to find a companion or preserve affiliation with an nearby one. The study shows that lack of time and the chance to achieve the interpersonal interaction also create academic stress in students (Hartshorn, 1976). Someone who have fear to failure in exams and other academic tasks also cause stress and pressure in student’s life (Goodman, 1993).
Thus, stressors disturbing students can be categorized as educational, economic, instance or physical condition related, and self- compulsory (Goodman, 1993).
Academic stressors consist of the student’s awareness of the broad understanding base essential and the view of an insufficient occasion to increase it (Carveth, 1996). Student’s details experiencing academic stress at unsurprising period each semester with the maximum sources of academic stress consequential from attractive and studying for exams, position contest, and the large quantity of content to master in a small amount of time (Abouserie, 1994).
Agolla, (2009) conducted a research on academic stress in students and he conclude that Stress has become a significant topic in educational circles. Many scholars in the field of behavioral science have approved out broad study on stress and its results and concluded that the topic required more concentration to find out the stressors of academic stress in students.
Trumbull and appley (1967) described that stress is a thing in which person feel danger for himself and want to be protect every time. Stress effect the individual in any time or situation. Basically it is a pressure and change in individual and someone also want to protect and readjust in society.
In another research found out the stressors of the college stress that what kind of stress people feel in their academic life. Research proved that every individual feel different stressors in different ways. The perceiving and behaving style of each individual is different. Some time students like one thing but in a same way some students did not like the same thing but also project these things Verlander, Benedict, and Hanson (1999).
Erikson (1950) asserted that some individuals within the same situation have a better tendency to be anxious. This may direct to a inferior logic of individual characteristics, uncertainties about professional skills, and an failure to determine interior emotional responsibilities.
Stress can be of two kinds: Acute and Chronic. Severe stress is unexpected and powerful such as pressure owing to loss of an important person, normal tragedy, contravention of any affiliation; conflict etc. Persistent stress is comparatively gentle but extended permanent and has increasing consequence. Chronic or moderately enduring offensiveness can confirm traumatic (Holmes, 1967).
There are gender differences in perceiving stresses in male and female. A study found that there is dissatisfaction in perceiving of stress in male and female students of university. Females perceive more stress than men Hamilton and Fagot (1988). On the dissimilar, other findings proved that there is no gender differences between male and female students in perceiving stress, male and females perceive equal stress in any situation (Holmes &Rahe, 1967).
According to Luca (2001) coping refers to behavior that defend people from individual expressively injured by challenging community experiences, coping is a best thing to deal with any kind of stressors in life of students or any individuals.
Lee (1999) also conducted a research on the differences of male and female but found that there is no gender differences between male and female students both feel stressors equally.
Stress has both positive and negative consequences in educational institutions that were sometime not well manage. The symptoms, causes, and consequences of stress is different in different situations like educational institutes and non-educational setting. It is help for the nation that students overcome the stressors that pressurized students. It is essential to the people that students should be taught and gain the required awareness and skills that will in revolve make them donate surely to the progress of the general financial system of any country. For better learning it is necessary to well maintain the educational environment and academic system which only focus on students personals needs. Students have different potential, goals, and standards that they want to accomplish, which is only promising if the students’ opportunity, goals, and value are incorporated with that of the association(Goodman, 1993).
Oyerinde, (2004) conducted a research and found that stress is everywhere in humans life, it is a part of human life because human life full of stressors. Every individual despite of competition or educational setting,social and working position and even children also experience stress in their lives every time.
Schafer conducted a research in 1996 he found that when stress become excessive and difficulties occur in our daily life routine, these disturb our emotional patterns, and functioning of cognitive and physiological, it is a unsurprising part of challenges that quick mastery of new skills and behavior mold, determined stress is also related with the growth of physical sickness including such important reason of death. Two of such diseases are heart diseases and high blood pressure among many. The charge of stress in termsof human distress, social and occupational destruction and mental illness is enormous.
Selye (1983) defines stress can lead to change in physical, emotional, behavioral or in a mental state because it is the body’s broad reaction to environmental circumstances. Stress is the distracted reaction of the body to any require made upon it. It threatens the individual capabilities to cope with stressful situation because it is a biological reaction to the situation.
Orlendo, (2010) asserts that physiological pressure is any particular relationship between an individual and the situation that the person judges to be outside his or her possessions his or her happiness.Over the years, researchers found that the poor performance and lack of interest in academic tasks leads failure and severe stress in students in educational setting.
Rafique, (2010) conducted a study and describe the effect of stress on the students and their academic performance. She found in her research that students have many obstacles to reduce the stress and also achieve their goals in different stressful situations. These obstacles are stressors, such as economic problems or troubles, social events; time organization, affairs with faculty members, associations with family, friends, dietetic routines, being alone. Others are resting patterns, social activities, problems with boyfriends or girlfriend, poor class attendance and part time jobs. Having children also cause their own risk to a student’s educational routine.
Anna (2013) concluded that the academic achievement of college students is negatively influenced by stress. Biology subject has to face greatest influence. Therefore, to be successful in this subject required attentive, disciplined and enthusiastic students. The level of stress individual student’s experience is greatly influenced by above mentioned qualities of the students. Biology students also have to experience stressors arising from the complex nature of the subject itself, these stressors include: laboratory or practical work, insufficient educational resources, struggle for the available inadequate instructional material. When biology student’s fails to effectively deal with stressor resulted in bad academic achievement and badly prepared biology graduates, whose performance is very poor in their university education.
Among young students throughout the world, academic learning is an important cause of stress, this cause is also present in Asian countries Asian students have to face high educational load, performance related low satisfaction, and high expectations, and they have to face more academic stress, then other English speaking students in other countries of the world. Many psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety and suicidal behavior also resulted from educational stress (Lee, 2000).
Rosenberg & Simons (1976) conducted a research and found that striking gender differences emerge during the adolescent’s period. Lazarus & Falkman found that in psychological vulnerability individual’s differences influenced coping and appraisal.
Nancy (1998) conducted a study to study the effect of general stress, anxiety and depression on student’s strategies for coping with perceived demand. Results showed that age and gender differences are found in student’s use of coping strategies under stress and depression.
For nurses, learning of coping with stress is a useful skill, it also important for other careers of the life. Effects of stress can be reduced by determining priorities, organizing one self, planning of something very better. Coping term was used by Lazarus and Folkman to explain the cognition and behavior based efforts that a person uses to deal with stress. They have described coping strategies as emotional focused and problem focused coping. Students have to face many stressors such as pressure of success, and uncertainty about future. Healthy coping strategies are used by many of subjects, negative coping strategies. Nursing students mostly seek diversion coping strategy but they less seeking professional support strategy (Milona, 2013).
2.2.1 Love of Learning. There are some researches on love of learning that describe the students love and passion for learning.
In love and work and in developing a philosophy or worldview, experimentation and exploration are very important part of rising adulthood. Erikson (1950) observed these phenomena for the first time. According to him, in the development of identity, important parts are: the development of an ideology, making explorations and choices and choices about work and love.
Pusser and Breneman, (2007) was conducted a study and find out there were no differences among non-traditional graduate students(who enrolled in distance-learning and on-campus programs)on the use of coping styles and the perceived stress levels.
Zhou, (2008) published a book to influence teachers and facilitators. He said my training help me to recognize the important needs of adults, and to concentrate on unconditional positive regard or love, empathy, and congruence concerned with children’s development.
Rogers believed that learners must be trusted to develop their own potential, and effectively chose them earns and path of their learning. Assumptions of learning suggest learners should have to master learning, and also learn the measurement of outcomes (Zhou, 2008).
A relationship exist among learning, subjective well-being, and adjustment. The central thing in the prediction of performance and achievements of students were intellectual and temperance strengths. Interpersonal strengths were significantly related to social functioning. Best predictor of coping stress and adjustment problems was strengths-building and learning (Zhao, 2009).
The basic purpose of education is to train individuals to take the responsibility of their education. These persons must also be aware of their personal abilities and positive use of them. Perseverance means the individual’s ability to control the learning process without being dependent on the other people or his/her environment, Israel (2007). It is also means the capacity to plan, guide and monitor one’s behavior flexibly in the face of changing circumstances” (Brown, 1998).
Zimmerman and Schunk (1997) describe that to reach one’s goal, processes of activating and sustaining thoughts, behaviors and feelings are very important .Perseverance is active and goal directed and it resulted from self-control of behavior motivation and cognition, (Brooks, 1997).
If stress in academic institutions is not well coped then it have productive and negative consequences, Smith (2002); Tweed et al., (2004); Stevenson and Harper, (2006). Stress has effects in positive or negative ways. When stress leads to positive track it enhance performance, give confidence and most excellent ending results. Students have to face physical and psychological consequences when stress moves in negative direction.
An event is only perceives as stressor when it is appraised as threat, Lazarus and Folkman (1984). Academic stressors include the student’s general knowledge base required and an inadequate time to develop it, Carveth (1996). Academic stresses include study assignments, enmity with other students, discontent, failures and poor associations with other students or lecturer’s family or problems at home, Fairbrother and Warn (2003). Academic stresses include exams, and grade competition (Abouserie, 1994).
There are both emotional and cognitive factors in perseverance. In perseverance people make a goal that they want to achieve or attained and then persist on it. In which people have huge knowledge, have specific aims, different goals, coping strategies, and also skills that how to use the strategies, skill and how to maintain and persist on it. Through perseverance individual can achieve their goal (Zimmerman, 1989).
Student learning is considered as lifelong processes since it began at the point where we realize that every single moment is an opportunity for new knowledge in which will end at the time we leave this world. Understanding this learning process and continuously supports on the universal right to learn, we require a proper external and eternal preparedness. Adult learning is an interactive and creative way of accepting and transmitting new information in strengthening the equal right to remain relevant to the current needs. However, in certain circumstances the process of gaining knowledge has its limitation of aim, period and cost. This paper, unveils an adult interactive learning as project-based through interviewing method. Being adult learners, we wish to share our perspective-taking to achieve the insight of the contour of others’ in order to understand a vast realm of experiences beyond our own. The aim of applying interactive adult learning is to understand and extract as much as possible the knowledge and understanding critical views from the heritage observers and experts in the area of knowledge of urban heritage revitalization. The psychological setting in this ‘learning and teaching environment’ is through adult learners ‘consideration that heritage observers and heritage experts play a role as ‘mentor’ as they are expert in their field and researchers as ‘mentee’ who are new in the field. Hopefully, this process of learning encountered the diversity of learning processes so that it will elevate researcher’s mind to reach beyond the urban heritage revitalization’s cognitive skills and professionalism (Goodman, 1993).
Researchers showed that those institutes that have high competition enhance stress in students and also they leads students to attempt suicide and burnout in their educational settings (Neumann & Reichel, 1990).
Perseverance means to deal all problems with patience and consideration. To become a good preserver it is necessary to deal with all the difficulties and problems with courage (Beane, 1993).
Jones (2013) explored that the students have lower level of passion about learning and lower level of perseverance that have freedom to get higher education. Those students who have higher education and academic achievement have low level of learning and also less persistence in their tasks.
Smith (2007) conducted a study and explored that those students who have high level of motivation, good academic performance are better in their studies and have better interest in their study. They complete their task regularly and also have a decision making sense and coping strategies to cope with their difficulties and problems. These students are very hard working who are motivated
Mattern (2005) conducted a study and explain that the people who havr proper skills and have capability to achieve their goals are able to get more chances and fight with more challenge. They have best learning skills, positive attitude towards their academic skills, have higher passion of love and explore new things
Horn (2006) find out that those students who get higher marks and position in their academic setting are more persistent in comparison of those who are less hard working student. In school or college setting they do work hard than their peers and achieve their goal and show perseverance.
Ross (1999) exposed that those students who have high level of academic stress, load of home works, too much assignments, syllabus problems, poor time management, poor family relationships, uncomfortable environment, cause stress and high level of anxiety in students. Fear of failure in students is also a main reason of academic stress.
Zhou, (2008) described that those student who have high level of stress also have some physical and psychological problem that are very harmful for the students, they lose their coping skills, and problem solving techniques and also showing help seeking behavior, many symptoms shows in stress like lack of physical activities, disturbed sleep patterns, lack of appetite and many other factors of stress. He also describe that those students who have or get support from their parents have high level of satisfaction than others.
Bowman (2008) conducted a study and found that the students of different fields have different kind of stress and difficulties about their academic level. He conducts a study on pharmacy students and health students and found their individual problems that they face during their academic session. He found that those students who get complex learning have different learning styles and different levels of stress in their academic sessions. He also found that learning styles and coping skills are different in different students there are individual differences in students to perceive things and then cope with them.
Busari (2000) explored in his study that there is no difference in male and female in the perception of stress, anxiety and frustration. He describe that some time female perceive more stress than male in their daily routine. There are many difficulties in student’s life like financial problems, educational problems, and social problems. Female feel more stress, anxiety and frustration than man.
Sumalatha (2013) describe that as students aware of the new strategies of education they are more stressed and feel anxiety. There are many reasons of stress like exams, assignments, self expectations, pressure of study, workload and many other problems that cause stress in students. Parents who have limited child have much expectation with their child that cause severe depression and academic stress in students that is very harmful. He also explored that females feel more stress than males. He explored that the students of English medium have high level of stress than those students who studying in government institutions. Those students who live in cities are more frustrated than those students who live in villages. Science students feel more stress than arts students.
Yim (2013) conducted a study and found that students who have love of learning they also need attention to gain learning. Discriminating concentration plays an essential character in group education. However, immaturities of top-down concentration manage during youth joined with victorious group education recommend that near the beginning group knowledge is attained without presence selectively. The consequences of this research found that near the beginning in increase groups are educated without presence selectively to category-relevant in sequence.
Akker (2012) conducted a study and found that those students who learn new things but have some problems like financial problems, educational problems, vocational problems, occupational problems because of these reasons they could not get knowledge properly and have difficulty to gain some learning. The result finding is that first of all overcome these difficulties and then get education.
Another study researchers found that those students who get problems in school age they have some learning difficulties and some learning deficits due to this reason student did not get proper learning and adopt some mysterious behavior like criminal behavior, like prisoners who always want to hurt some other person this is because they have some difficulties in their childhood and these problems occur in their adulthood so it is necessary to overcome these difficulties in school going children (Zimmerman, 1997).
Kendler (2010) conducted a study and found that stressors have main effect on the memories of the students, it also affect the progress of students in academic level and in other activities. Students who learn new skills have difficulties to learn these skills and it had sometime bad and sometime good effects on the memories of the students. It also effect the performance of the students, that cause less interest in learn something new and problems occur in achieving goals. Motivation is also plays an important role in students lifes.
Orte (2012) conducted a research and found that learning is a lifelong process. Lifelong learning is a approach that produce many profit to health and the worth of life and should consequently be a policy of choices in age-related policies. People can get knowledge over the period of life they can make a plan, organized it and achieve their goals at the every level of life. Adult learning is also important for the people they can learn at any stage of life and maintain their life and reduce the stressors of their life.
Sowygh (2013) explored that stress occurred in all fields of students he found stress in dental students and also the environment of the college. He found that the student have stress due to much competition in their fields and also stress in their surrounding and environment. When students feel stress in their lives they have less courage of learning less passion and love for learning and have most stress in their lives and cannot achieve their goals because those students have no perseverance in their works and found severe stress in their life and have poor academic performance, less motivated and have less academic achievement and have much academic stress in their educational life. These students have less coping strategies, less problem skills and show help seeking behavior caused stress in students.
Students learning process is affected by the student’s less motivation. Motivation is play an important role in student learning (Helm & Clarke 2000).
Those students who take responsibilities of their own success and learning they get more achievement and success than other who have not responsibility of their learning. Those students who have awareness about their personal problems and know about their learning processes have less stress about their learning processes (Brown, 1998).
Kelly, (2011) found that those students who have skill or ability to organize their daily activity schedule and maintain their tasks they gain or achieve more in their lives than those people who have no organized plans for life. Those students who persist on what they decide and organized their activities they achieve their goals respectively.
Sternberg, (2006) also found in his research that students maintain their reading, writing and other learning skills, when students maintain their skills they feel happiness and less stress but when there is lack of maintenance of these skills, and students have no responsibilities of their tasks then learning and learning skills decrease and academic stress increased. Students have abilities to cope with their difficulties and enhance learning skills.
Rafidah (2009) conducted a study and explore the factors of stress, levels of stress and different periods of semester in educational setting. These factors of stress caused academic stress in students. It influences the performance and the achievement of the students. These factors affect the student’s academic level and it is harmful for the success of students. Those students who could not get proper sleep and have disturbed sleep patterns caused academic stress.
Academic stress is one of the main stresses. A type of suffering educational means taking different exams writing different textbook and coursework. In short educational assess what a person learns and what they want to achieve. A college student faces many different stressors in form of financial, occupational, that caused anxiety and stress in students (seaward 2006).
Fairbrother and warn (2003) describe that work load, lot of homework and assignments, lack of pocket money, pressure in educational atmosphere, essentials needs of the students are reduce, lack of interaction with students and teachers, poor performance in academic setting, these are the major reasons of academic stress and lack of learning skills in students. So much competition in class rooms is also called stress in students.
Ongori (2007) found that lack of essentials resources in educational setting also caused academic stress in students and huge number of lecture also caused stress in students
Topper (2007) conducted a research and found that poor performance, lack of interest in students studies, financial problems, lack of time, poor time management, workloads pressure of study these are the basic reason of academic stress in students, these things enhance the academic level stress in students and reduce learning skills.
Zimmerman conducted a investigate on self-efficacy an necessary purpose to study. He conducted that self-efficacy principle how have been originate to be responsive to slight changes in students, presentation situation to interrelate with self-governing knowledge method, and you arbitrate students’ educational accomplishment.
Social cognitive theories of self-regulation stress the importance of student’s inspirational beliefs and teach how to maintain their learning skills, and also how to regulate their self. He describes those people who show perseverance get their goal easily because he persist on it and have a high level of learning and with high level of learning reduce academic stress and achieve their goals. They face difficulties with courage and passion (Nayak & Rao, 2008).
Perseverance is a best process to achieve their goals and attained their target. Through persistence behavior students become great learner and get learning in their colleges and first make a goal and then persist on it and achieve their goal or target. Students are guided about their goals and instruct to get their goals with learning skills and reduce the academic stress level ( Wolter, Pintrich, & Karabenick,2005).
Educational inspiration reflects student’s intensity of determination, concentration in the subject issue and educational exertion. The enthusiasm of learner is an significant matter in senior learning. Student incentive is the component that leads student’s manner toward educational procedure (Brophy, 2004).
Demaris and Kritsonis (2008) conducted a study on a class room exploring its special effects on student determination and contentment. They explored that the students that study in classes provided with all the conveniences are more pleased.
According to Powers and Rossman (1985) they found that student’s teacher interaction is also important for the success of the students in educational setting. Students are more satisfied then those who have no interaction between faculty members. Interaction with teachers, professors and other faculty members are necessary to reduce stress and increase learning. There is also need of interaction between peers and friends.
William (1996) create that those students who have social support from their social area they get more good grades than those students who have not support from their social circle. Faculty members also predict that those students who get good marks show good academic performance are more motivated and less have academic stress. Orpen (1996) conducted a research and found that those students who get social support from their family members, friends, relatives, peers they feel less stress in their life’s than those students who are alone and not get support of any person.
Smith and Renk (2007) explored that those students who get affection and love from their parents they have much love of learning and also persist in their daily tasks. Parental support plays an important role in the success of student because parents know how to increase students learning, and how students can persist in their goals and how can they achieve their goals, so parental support play important role in student academic achievement and reduce academic stress of students.
Aselton (2004) investigated in his research that financial problem are also caused academic stress in students those students who could not pay their fees they feel much stress because they could not pay full attention to their education and work in school, colleges and do also jobs are more spend stressful life. So financial problem is a big problem for students in educational setting that caused academic stress. Due to this reason student cannot get good grades in their exams.
Blai (1972) explored that those students who lives in another city out of their city feel more stress than those students who get education in their house. Those students who live in hostels they have stress because of their roommates, because there is no collaboration and cooperation between different students in hostels and students could not adjust in these places that caused anxiety and stress in students. Few researches showed that many students not feel stress in the presence of roommates they feel comfort with them. The performance of students is also based on the student adjustment.
Schafer (1996) conducted a study and asked university students to tell about their stressful events. He observed that the most irritating thing for students in colleges is too much homework, presentations, assignments, case reports and many other hard works that cause academic stress in students. Financial problems, career problems, job related problems are also caused stress in students.
Greenberg (1981) described in his research that academic stress is significantly correlated with academic performance, academic achievement and motivation and also associated with negative outcomes like health problems, eating problems, sleeping problems, physical problems, psychological problems that caused higher academic stress in students. Higher stress in students causes low preparation, concentration about learning in students and they feel more stress in their lives. Exams, assignments and other workload also caused stress in students.
Vancouver and Putka (2000) explored that they would precede our awareness by clarifying the procedure that expressed goal aimed at achievement. In this study he described that when feedback are given to the students when they achieve their goal they give more perfection in their next time tasks. The results revealed that when students pay more attention in their work and show great performance that feedback and reinforcement give to those students and they enhance their learning abilities and achieve their goal and target easily. So feedback and reinforcement is important for the student’s motivation, learning and performance.
2.4 Indigenous Researches
There are little researches in this area in Pakistan. So it is the need to conduct researches on this topic.
Maryum (2010) conducted a study on those students who are belong to science and arts medium and describe their stress level in educational setting and also their sucidel attitude due to academic stress. She found in her study that there is no relationship between academic stress and sucidel attitude, because those students who feel stress they do not adobt the behavior to attempt suicide.
Kalsoom (2012) conducted research on self-efficacy educational inspiration and academic approval among students those who study in conventional knowledge and essential education results exposed that there is important divergence between education in students those who learn from any institute who near to their houses than those students who learns from the other universities that are far from their houses like online education and so on.
Nudrat Sohail (2010) found a relationship between medical students and also explores their anxiety and stress level and their educational performance. She collected data from both male and female students and measure their academic stress level. The finding of this study describe that there is relationship between level of stress and sources of stress and also the academic performance of the students. Because those students who have less stress their academic performance is best than those students who perceive more stress. The results also showed that intensity of stress is connected with deprived academic performance and less stress lead to success.
A study conducted by Muhammad Asif Khan (2013) to observe the relationship between student’s passion and love of learning in advanced learning. In this study he collected data from students of different colleges and also find out the predictors of learning. He found the stress level, sources of stress, pressure from study, exams anxiety, financial problems, emotional stress, academic grades, and love and passion about study. The study exposed that stress for education, and work load are the main predictors of learning. Economical problems are also predicting love of learning.
Rafique (2011) conducted a research to find out relationship between educational stress and its possessions or effects on performance. He describes that stress belongs to our biological system. It due to biological reasons, when we feel stress or academic stress it produce hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical that enhance stress level. He describes the reasons of academic stress that stress due to biological reasons not for the social and economical reasons, and stress also reduce the academic performance.
Hamid, Khan and Ali (2010) conducted research in Pakistan on inspiration and its relationship with educational performance. The sample of 342 individuals studying in different universities was selected. Results revealed tht those students who are highly motivated feel less stress about their study and those who feel more stress are less motivated.
Hashim (2003) experienced the stress level and coping stratiges in the students of different countries. The results revealed that different countries of students show different coping stratigies.The students who lived in others countries feel less stress than pakistani students. He also describe in his study that there is differences between male and female perceiving stress. But there is no gender differences in male and female in coping stratiges.
Nawaz conducted a study in (2004) he want to explore the coping skills and stress level and stress sources in medical and engineering students. Data was collected from both male and female students. He describe that the students have no ability to cope with problems, vulnerability, academic stress also enhanced, tension, assignments are the main factors of academic stress. He also describe male are mostly perceive stress more than females.Lack of interest in daily activities, lack of sleep patterns, lack of appitite are tht most common symptoms oh academic stress. These symptoms are more commonly found in females.Assignments and exams anxiety are the main stressors of stress. Capability to deal with this stressor are the main factors of dealing with stress. It can effect our education badly. He describe that there are many factors that cause anxiety like workload, pressure from study, and many other factors that cause stress.
After reviewing literature it can be concluded that a love of learning is openly related to perseverance and also connected to academic stress. Love of learning very helpful to overcome the stressors that students face in their academic life. Those students who have great love of learning make a good perseverance in their life. Love of learning can make academic life more pleasant and a lack of love for learning can became stressful academic life.
In previous researches, Oyerinde, (2004) found out in his research that that every human being feel stressors in their life’s, stress is everywhere in the life of people specially students who spend stressful life in their colleges and universities, because of competition in their academic setting, social setting, occupational setting and even children also experience pressure in their lives all time.
Previous literature showed that those student who have more passion and love for learning they also face difficulties like, pressure, stress, anxiety, tension, workload, anxiety, worry, nervousness, frustration, disturbance, dissatisfaction and stress in their educational setting. Previous researches also showed that those students who are more persistence, determined and preserver they have more love of learning rather than other people.
Love of learning and Perseverance is a great blessing of God. A good preserver and learner can facilitates happiness, pleasure and become helpful to overcome the stress in educational setting. It can also make things more tolerable, acceptable, reasonable and less stressful. Love of Learning is a positive thing which makes life healthy and free of stress. Love of learning is also a predictor of academic stress.
2.6 Rationale of the Study
Students experience stress in their educational in different kinds like pressure from study, workload, self-expectations, financial problems, interpersonal problems and so on. It can affect the academic performance, academic achievement and academic motivation of the students. That is related how much students enjoy studying and have love of learning and how much student show consistence and perseverance. Both of these can help to reduce the stress. There is a very little research on love of learning, perseverance and academic stress among young students in Pakistan. This study is being conducted to see the effect of learning and perseverance on young students. To check how much people are satisfied or happy in the presence of love of learning and perseverance and how they cope their stressors having these character strength. To study love of learning, perseverance and academic stress enhance physical and mental health and bring positive change in peoples thinking to cope with theirs stress that exist in their lives. Those people who have great love for learn something and keep stand on their thoughts and keep hard work have good skills to reduce their academic stressor and stressful situation.
2.7 Objective of the study
The aim and objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship connecting loves of learning, perseverance and academic stress in the lives of young students. When the students develop a love for learning and work with perseverance than they become able to cope with academic stress and they should be live a safe and sound, peaceful psychological, educational and social life.
Hypothesis is a tentative statement about the possible relationship between two or more than two variables, which can be tested out and empirically confirmed (Azevedo, 2009).
The hypotheses for current study are
- There is likely to be positive relationship between love of learning and perseverance and negative relationship between love of learning and academic stress.
- There is likely to be gender differences in students in academic stress.
- Character strengths (love of learning and perseverance) are predictors of academic stress.
- There is likely to be comparison of the students of different universities in academic stress.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association among love of learning, perseverance and academic stress among young students. This section gives description of research design, sampling strategy, sample, assessment measure, procedure, ethical consideration and statistical analysis.
3.1 Research Design
Within group research correlation design was used to study the relationship between love of learning, perseverance and academic stress among young students. Students from Punjab University, M.A.O College and Minhaj University were selected for the purpose of the study.
Purposive sampling technique was used to select sample. Sample was selected from the departments of Punjab University, M.A.O College and Minhaj University. Sample was consisting of male and female students. Sample was consisted of N=200, (77=male) and (123=females) young students with age range 18-22 in present study. The participants were taken from colleges situated in the city of Lahore.
3.2.1 Inclusion Criteria
- Undergraduate students that study at any university of Lahore.
- Age range of the participants are 18-22
- Students from joint and nuclear families were included.
- Both host elite and day scholar.
Descriptive of demographics variables (N=200)
3.3 Operational Definition
An operational definition explains a concept solely in terms of the operations used to produce and measure it. The variable in the study were operationally defined as,
- 3.3.1. Love of learning. Learning is an enduring change of behavior and its potential as a result of experience and it cannot be caused by the change in body state like illness, fatigue, or (Bresseler, 2007).
- 3.3.2. Perseverance. According to Rossman, (1985), perseverance can be defined as the ability to stick with the same point of view as previous after negative influences, resistance, or discouragement. As young adolescent’s deals with challenges and hurdles that can be physical, social, academic, ethical, and moral, they will need to stick to their point of view to cope with this situation. It is necessary to be satisfied with this and coping with these challenges and hurdles before they experience them.
- 3.3.3. Academic Stress. Stress has also been defined as a pattern of disruptive physiological and psychological reaction to event that threatens a person’s ability to cope (Syele, 1986).
3.4 Assessment Measures
Following assessment measures were used in this study, these were:
- Demographic sheet
- Educational stress scale
- Items of love of learning and perseverance from VIA Character Strength Inventory
- 3.4.1. Demographic information sheet. Demographic information sheet was developed by the researcher and to obtain information related to individual’s (i.e., age, gender, education, family system, father education, mother education, department, birth order, semester, name of college).
- 3.4.2. VIA Character Strength Inventory. Character strengths are seen as the interior determinant of the healthy life. Park and Peterson (2006) presented the standards in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth (VIA-Youth), a consistent and applicable self-report questionnaire for the evaluation of strengths and qualities among young people. The VIA Youth is a 5-point Liker-style (very much like me to very much unlike me) answer format measuring the love of learning and perseverance that items will use only in this research. The psychometric properties will be determined and the paper-pencil version and their equivalence will be determined. Preliminary studies support the reliability and validity of this measure. Uses of the VIA-Youth are discussed in positive youth development research and practice.
- 3.4.3. Educational Stress Scale. The scale used to measure academic stress was developed by Dune,Sun,Nguyen,Truc,Loan and Dixon (2010) the scale has 16 items measuring The reliability and validity of the scale was found to be acceptable. Cronbach alpha for the 16 items ESSA was .81 indicating good internal consistency. The test retest reliability was.78.Six domains of stress consisting of five items each were predefined, including attitudes towards study and grades (such as “I am very dissatisfied with my academic grades”), perceived pressure (such as “I feel a lot of pressure in my daily studying”), perceived burden (such as “I feel that there is too much school work”), expectations from others (such as “I feel that I have disappointed my parents when my test/exam results are poor”), and self-expectation (such as “I feel stressed when I do not live up to my own standards”). The response format used a 5-point Liker scale ranging from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 5 (Strongly agree) with a higher score indicating greater stress. Items were initially created in English or adopted from other English scales. After piloted study, The final 16-item Educational stress scale contains five latent variables: Pressure from study, Workload, Worry about grades, Self-expectation, and Despondency.
The authority letters from the Institute of Applied Psychology was obtained to seek permission from the college authorities to collect data. Before the formal data collection, the participants signed the consent form in order to show their willingness to participate in the study. Rapport was established assuring them the confidentiality of their information. The participants were asked to fill the questionnaire by themselves, in presence of researcher. They were approaches from their departments, universities and colleges. They were requested to voluntarily participate as research sample. The data was collect in class room setting from Punjab University, M.A.O College and Minhaj University. All the staff members of M.A.O College, Minhaj University and Punjab University are very cooperative. Students of these universities give attention and time to fill the research questionnaire. Consent was taken from the participants they were fully informed about their right to withdraw from research at any time. They were told about the purpose of research and also told that the information would keep confidential and would use only for research purposes. Data was collect only from those students who are willing participants. After data collection from universities students, data was analyzed through statistical techniques. Results were find out, and were discussed for implication.
3.6 Statistical Analysis
SPSS version 16 was used for organizing, analyzing and interpreting the data. Both inferential and Descriptive Statistics was used.
- Reliability analysis was used to find out the reliability of the scales.
- Correlation was used to find relationship between love of learning and perseverance.
- Regression analysis was performed to find out the predictor of academic stress.
- Independent sample t-test was used to find out gender differences.
- Anova analysis was used to find out comparison between the students of three universities.
3.7 Ethical Consideration
In order to conduct this research, some ethical considerations were kept in mind.
- Permission was taken from concerned authorities of the data collection by using the permission letter provided by the Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab.
- Permission was gotten from authors of tools, to use their scales for research.
- Permission was also be gotten from authorities and concerned departments to collect data.
- The consents were given to the participants and the nature of the study was explained to them before administration of the questionnaire.
- The participants had a right to withdraw from participation and terminate at any time they wish.
- Only willing participants were selected.
- The information was used only for research purpose.
- The participants were insured that the information required from them was held confidential and was not used for any other purpose other than this research.
- Results were reported accurately.
This Chapter includes reliability analysis, co relational analysis and regression analysis for assessment measures. Descriptive statistics, and Frequency statistics were used to measure the mean, standard deviation and frequencies of demographics. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to explore the relationship among study variables that include love of learning, perseverance and academic stress among young students. Regression analysis was used to assess the predictor of academic stress.
4.1 Reliability Analysis
The reliability analysis for love of learning, perseverance and academic stress was carried out using Cronbach’s Alpha. The internal consistency of love of learning is 0.84, perseverance is 0.88, and academic stress is 0.81.
Reliability Analysis for assessment measures (N=200)
|Love of learning||10||36.3||6.02||.74|
Independent Sample T-test
Independent sample t-test was used to explore gender differences in love of learning, perseverance and academic stress in students of different Universities.
Gender differences in academic stress (N=200).
M=Mean, SD=standard deviation, LL=lower limits, UL=upper limits, AS=Academic Stress
T-test shows there are no gender differences in academic stress in students. Results are non-significant. The effect size of gender on academic stress was small.
It was hypothesized that there is positive relationship between love of learning and perseverance, and negative relationship between love of learning and academic stress and also hypothesized that there is also relationship between love of learning perseverance and sub-scales of academic stress. Correlation analysis was used to test the hypothesis.
Correlation between love of learning, perseverance and academic stress and the sub-scales of academic stress (N=200).
|2. Love of learning||–||–||-.145*||.038||-.128||-.222**||-.154*||-.102|
|3. Academic stress||–||–||–||.781**||.762**||.656**||.725**||.742**|
|4. Pressure from study||–||–||–||–||.429**||.411**||.409**||.561**|
|5.Worry about grades||–||–||–||–||–||.358**||.532**||.437**|
|7. Self expectations||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||.351**|
|8. Work load||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
Note: ***p<.001, **p<.01, *p<.05
Note=LOL,=love of learning, PER=perseverance, AS=academic stress, PS=pressure from study, WG= worry about grades, D= despondency, SE=self expectations, WL= workload.
It was hypothesized that there is positive relationship between love of learning and perseverance, this hypothesis is proved that love of learning and perseverance has association.
It was hypothesized that there is negative relationship between love of learning and academic stress this hypothesis also accepted, the mean of academic stress is higher it show that academic stress is higher in students than love of learning, so there is negative association between love of learning and academic stress.
It was hypothesized that there is relationship between perseverance and factors of academic stress. Perseverance is negatively correlated with only despondency the factor of academic stress.
It was hypothesized that there is correlation between love of learning and the factors of academic stress. Love of learning is negatively correlated with despondency and sold expectation the factors of academic stress.
Academic stress is positively significant correlation with their factors pressure from study, worry about grades, despondency, self-expectations and work load.
The factors of academic stress have correlation between each other. Pressure from study positively correlated with worry about grades, despondency, self-expectations and workload. Worry about grade the factor of academic stress is correlated with despondency, self-expectation and workload. Despondency was correlated with self-expectation and workload and self-expectation was associated with workload.
It was hypothesized that love of learning is a predictor of academic stress. Regression analysis was used to test this hypothesis.
Linear regression to show the predictors of academic stress (N=200)
|B||SE||95 % CI|
|Love of learning||-.334*||.160||[-.648,-.019]|
Note: *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001,, CI=Confidence Interval
It was hypothesized that love of learning is a predictor of academic stress. This hypothesis is proved. Love of learning is a predictor of academic stress. The results revealed that the influence of love of learning on academic stress is β = -.170
It was hypothesized that there is difference between the students of different universities in academic stress anova analysis was used for the comparison and assess that there is difference in academic stress in students of different universities.
ANOVA Analysis was used for comparison (N=200)
Results of ANOVA demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the students of three different universities Punjab University, M.A.O College and Minhaj University. Further analysis was run for comparison of these three Universities.
Hochberg’s GT2 for Comparison among three University students (N=200)
|95% Confidence Interval|
|(I)Department||(J)Department||Mean Difference(I-J)||SE||p||Lower bound||Upper bound|
The result of the table showed that academic stress among students of different universities is significantly different Means are showing that academic stress is high in the students of M.A.O College than the students of Punjab University and Minhaj.
4.4 Summary of Results
- There was a significant relationship between love of learning and perseverance.
- Love of learning showed significant negative relationship with academic stress.
- There is insignificant relationship between academic stress and perseverance.
- Love of learning is a predictor of academic stress.
- There is no gender differences between male and females in love of leaning, perseverance and academic stress.
- Students of M.A.O College perceive more academic stress than the students of P.U and Minhaj.
The present research assessed love of learning, perseverance and academic stress in young students. Main objective of the study was to examine the relationship between love of learning, perseverance and academic stress. It was expected that there is some association between these variables and also learning and perseverance have different impact on academic stress.
In Pakistan very few scientific researchers have been carried out in the field of love of learning, perseverance and academic stress among young students. Therefore the current research would be unique one because it aims to explore the relationship between love of learning, perseverance and academic stress among young students.
This research aimed to investigate the relationship between love of learning, perseverance and academic stress. First hypothesis is there is positive correlation between love of learning and perseverance, and negative correlation between love of learning and academic stress. Second hypothesis is Character strength are a predictors (love of learning and perseverance) of academic stress. Third there is gender differences in academic stress.
Results demonstrate the significant correlations between study variables. Results showed that love of learning is positively related to the perseverance. The results confirmed hypothesis stated as there is likely to be the positive relationship between love of learning and perseverance among young students of different universities. The following researches also support these results.
First hypothesis of the study was that there is positive correlation between love of learning and perseverance. There were many researches that support this hypothesis, William James, (1907) conduct a research and, that result exposed the existence of a considerable and significant relationship between love of learning and perseverance. He defined as perseverance, persistence and excitement for durable goals, make a successful outcomes in the lives of peoples. Finally these results proposed that the accomplishment to achieving a goals or targets was not based on only talent or capability but also constant and persistence is required.
In behavioral perspective according to skinner behavior is shaped and maintained by consequences. He believed that motivated behavior results from the consequences of similar previous behavior. If students receive reinforcement of certain behavior they tend to repeat it vigor, and students who persist in their view are more motivated and have more curiosity for eager something new. So this theory supports this hypothesis. If they don’t students tend to lose interest and their performance suffers. He said that those who receive positive reinforcement and persist on their work are likely to develop self-motivation (Gines, 1998).
Belief perseverance theory argued that when cognitive changes occur idea is strongly associated to feeling, and may continue intact still. Even if he changes and becomes abusive, the feeling of love may persist. This theory also support the hypothesis that when people belief and persist with what they thought then passion and love developed for the particular task. This theory is relevant for anybody who is engaged in motivating people, whether in business or in the classroom (Power, 1985).
According to humanistic approach one well known theory of motivation developed by Abraham Maslow is the hirarechy of need and motives. This theory is helpful in understanding the variety of student’s motives, their emergence and their interrelations. There are five basic types of needs in Maslow theory physiological, safety, love and belonging esteem and self-actualization. Self-actualization is the most important and requires the satisfaction of the hire racy of needs. It is not the state that once attained, can be maintained indefinitely. Rather it embodies a continual growth process. In which he described once students motivate and encouraged then they attain their goal and not feel anxiety and stress. To foster self-actualization teacher can emphasize self-directed learning and encourage their students to branch out into new areas of learning and skills development (Gines, 1998).
The social learning theory of Bandore combined both cognitive and bahavoristic elements in his explanation of motivation. The social approach to the study of motivation emphasizes the extent to which people affect other people. Observation of models can produced some significant changes in student’s behavior. Observing models helps in the acquisition of new responses, strengthen or weakens existing responses. Students imitate what they see and hear in the class room and are influenced by how the teacher responds to them. This theory also supports the hypothesis of current study. Students who observe enthusiastic and knowledgeable teacher tend to imitate these behavior and become enthusiastic and knowledgeable themselves (Gines, 1998).
Cognitive explanation of motivation is best presented by burner theory (1967) called discovery learning. This theory also supports the hypothesis of the study. Burner stated that an attempt to improve education inevitably begin with motives for learning. Learning for burner involves the rearrangements and transformation of materials in a way that to insight. Students learn to manipulate their environment more actively and achieve considerable gratif8ication from personally coping with problems. Students respond actively by interacting teacher and with each other. Thus students see meaning in knowledge, skills and attitudes when they themselves discover these things. Burner noted the information or knowledge is most helpful when it is at the learner level. This also encourages self-actively and intrinsic motivation. The knowledge of results like feedback and reinforcements is valuable when learner compare their results with what they have attempted to achieve (Gines, 1998).
Another finding gave the evidence that love of learning and perseverance are positively correlated. Baumrid, (1998)conduct this research and Results of this study provide maintenance for our hypothesized model, which proposes that poor teacher and learner relationship is due to lack of knowledge and also lack of persistence behavior of teacher regarding their students. The study showed that teachers, who have love of learning and more persistence in their teaching method and also are flourishing in organizing misconduct in the classrooms, preserve healthy associations with the learners and students, support self-control, insistence and self-respect these types of teachers are more persistence, because learning and perseverance has great relation and association with each other.
Similarly another research suggested that Self-regulated learning is described as an active process whereby learners build goals for knowledge. Learning and perseverance have association between each other. Learner supervises, adjust, and manage their recognitions inspiration and performance and show perseverance and through this student can achieve their goals. They are supported and controlled by their own goals and the person individuality of a particular learning environment (Wolter, Pintrich, & Karabenick, 2005).
First hypothesis of this study is there is likely to be relationship between love of learning and perseverance. Intellectual level and learning reflects student’s level of perseverance awareness in the subject matter and academic attempt. In higher education inspirational level of students is most important; those students who learn more are also preserver so this study supports our hypothesis. Student inspiration is the factor that enhances student’s feelings toward learning development (Brophy, 2004)
Results demonstrate the correlations between study variables. Results showed that there is negative correlation between love of learning and academic stress. The results confirmed hypothesis stated as there is likely to be the relationship between love of learning and academic stress among young students of different universities. The following researches also support these results.
Second hypothesis of the study was that there is negative correlation between love of learning and academic stress. Warn, (2003) conduct a research and, that result exposed the existence of a considerable and significant relationship between love of learning and academic stress. He defined as academic stress among students have extensive been studied on, and researchers have recognized that those students who have great love of learning those are feeling more stress than those students who have less interest to learn things, stressors as too much assignments, lack of interest of students to gain some thing or learn some special things, pressure of competition with peers, fear so failure, adverse relationship with other students are also cause academic stress.
A theory that’s Opponent-Process Theory, It declares that emotions come from bodily changes, and each emotion we have has a balance with another opposite emotion. So that when we experience one emotion, it suppresses the other. Such as stress and anxiety can suppress passion and learning but it’s not always happened as Murphy, (1996). As from findings it’s reported that there is significant negative relationship between love of learning and academic stress. One thing increase in a student’s but another thing decrease or not developed.
Another research also supports the hypothesis. Lazarus and Folkman (1989), conducted a research that support our hypothesis that there is negative relationship between love of learning and academic stress, he describe that too much work and stress cause disturbances in our body and mind and it decrease the level of learning and problematic for our self-esteem, that enhance the level of stress in students and they could not able to achieve their goals.
Second hypothesis of the study was that there is negative correlation between love of learning and academic stress. Abouserie (1994) conduct this research and Results of the structural equation analyses provide support for our hypothesized model, which describe that academic pressure contain the student’s insight of the extensive understanding base compulsory and the awareness of an inadequate time to expand it. He found that those students who have experienced academic stress, lack of time management, competition in other fellow develop a huge pressure that reduce and decrease the learning and enhance the academic stress or educational pressure that also cause failure in class and reason of embarrassment towards others.
Arnold and Feldman, (1986) conduct a research and, that result revealed the existence of a significant relationship between love of learning and academic stress. He describe in his study that lack of love for learning and interest to achieve our target or goals due to the stress that occur in educational setting and became a stressful environment, and also the stress to perform the best role in class cause academic stress lack interest in learning. It also affects the relationships of students with their peers and family members these relations are may be internal or external and could not get their goal or achieve their target.
Carveth (1996) explored a research in which he describe that academic stress due to different reasons, in those students who live in hostels away from their houses they feel more academic stress because they have some issues that they face in hostel through this their learning level is become lower and academic stress become arise and they have low marks in their exams because they could not do learning in a stressful situation so when stress increase than learning decrease so this study support our hypothesis.
Orpen, (1996) conducted a study he describe that social factors are also increase academic stress and decrease love of learning. They contain require of occasion and maintain for and from family and friends, family commitments, economic difficulties, and problems with hostel roommates.
Soucy and Larose (2000) conducted a research, and measure the stress level in male and female in academic area and experienced for gender differences and found no differences. This study supports the present research hypothesis that there are no gender differences in academic stress. So this research supports our hypothesis that there is no gender differences in male and female in perception of academic stress.
Mattanah and colleagues (2004) conducted a research and found that there is gender differences in male and female in academic adjustment, academic achievement, academic motivation, and academic stress and he found that females perceive more stress in educational setting than male, so the result of this study was contradictory from present research so this is not supported the hypothesis of current study.
Third hypothesis is there is gender differences between male and female students Cooper (1983) conducted a study on students and found that the academic stress is equal for man and women and success inspiration generally held for women as well as men so this study support our hypothesis.
Bressler (2007) conducted a study that support our hypothesis that love of learning is a predictor of academic stress, he describe that academic stress affect our learning and memory. Sometime learning increase and love of learning enhance in students and they feel less academic stress and this situation enhance that ability to learn more and reduced the level of stress in students.
Fourth hypothesis of the study is love of learning is a predictor of academic stress. Carver (1994) conducted a research and this study support the hypothesis of our study. He describes college students observe academic pressure, financial problems, lack of time management, lack of skills and abilities, when stress is negatively exceed it affect our health and learning and performance. He also describe when students have more passion to learn something new they have less stress, so this study support our hypothesis that love of learning is a predictor of academic stress.
- The data was only taken from 200 people due to the shortage of time.
- Students that included in this study are from the few universities not from the universities of whole Pakistan.
- Sources are also limited to take data from the other cities of Pakistan.
- Very limited researches conduct on this topic in Pakistan. But many young students face this problem of academic stress. So there should be more researches in future on this topic.
- The present study includes students only from the few universities of city of Lahore of Pakistan. Further universities could be including for the data collection from the students.
- Inform the higher authorities of the colleges so that they can control the factors which are the main reason of the academic stress and lack of learning in students.
- The educationists will be able to pay more concentration to the stressors of academic stress of student, the use of counseling measures to aid students in the sound development of their bodies and mind and help the administrators to build and manage an intellectual youth.
- Pakistan is an under developing country that faces leadership problems and that problems will continue if proper plan of action not develop and implemented by government. Government has to change the system from primary level instead of graduation level efforts at gross root level are needed to improve the overall structure of this weak academic system.
- These students are future leaders and also future of Pakistan, for a healthy Pakistan a healthy education system is needed.
- This research will help to lay further ground for researches on the topic of love of learning, perseverance and academic stress in other educational settings, because there have been conducting very few researches on that topic in educational setting.
- The results of the study should be exercised as an awareness platform for students to identify and understand their problems related to their academic stress and learning and provide the best source to deal with that stress.
- This study was conducted in government sector; it can also helpful in conducting research on same variables in public and private sector.
- This study was mainly on the students of Punjab University, M.A.O College and Minhaj University Lahore it will also helpful in other educational institutions.
- Teacher can get insight how they make the environment more effective in order to make students more academically satisfied, about learning.
- Counseling programs should be arranged for those students so that they would develop better coping strategies to deal with stress occurred in educational setting in order to ensure success.
- More researches should be conducted on this issue to realize the importance of this issue.
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