The Relationship Between Attachment Orientation, Perceived Parental Support or Social Adjustment in Adolescents of Working Parents
The current research designed to examine the relationship between attachment orientation, perceived parental support or social adjustment in adolescents of working parents. It was hypothesize that: there is likely to be a positive relationship between attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment; attachment orientation is likely to predict social adjustment in adolescents and there are likely to be gender differences in attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment. Co relational research design and non-convenient probability sampling was used to recruit a sample of adolescents N=150. Experience in Close Relationship- Relationship Structures (ECR-RS) (Frarely, Heffernan, Vicary, & Brumbaugh, 2011) and Perception of Parent Scale (pops) (Grolnick, Ryan & Deci, 1991) and Bells adjustment inventory (Bell’s, 1963) Questionnaire were used for assessment. Pearson product moment correlation, Hierarchal Regression analysis and Independent sample t-test was used to analyzed data. Results showed a positive relationship between attachment orientation and social adjustment. Moderation analysis showed that mothers’ support influences social support where on father support didn’t influence social support in adolescents. Results revealed statistically significant difference in girls and boys that boys tend to have more secure attachment than girls. This study can serve as a guide for parents to help their children to adjust in the society and grow as better human beings.
Adolescence is an important phase of improvement in terms of concept formation (Vivona, 2000). Adolescence is a phase of development that involves continuous changes in mental, psychological and physical self. At this phase the adolescents is gain information extra concerning the genuine planet and they are demanding on the way to struggle as of parenthood. Another target of children in this stage is the struggle of addition within societal cluster. Youngsters wish for to be there perceived because adults among competent judgment creation ability, other than more over they would like the proper and complete attention of their parents that they fulfill the wishes of their self. Adolescent’s want sustain or arrangement commencing the blood relation, although they task an unconcerned behavior and confront the sympathetic measure from the blood relation. Although parenthood be concerned within also sustain the youngsters educating time, be able to openly distress the individual or societal growth of their educational achievement. Perceived parents support optimistically pessimistically influence adolescent’s intelligence of personality, particularly self-worth, personality assessment, friends associations and social adjustment (Vivona, 2000). And this study addresses that if children of working parents have good attachment orientation and strong parental support then they can better socially adjust in the society.
1.1 Attachment Orientation
Attachment is defined by Bowlby as an emotional, enduring, reciprocal, and physical Affiliation between a child and a caregiver (Bowlby, 1969).
Supporter of attachment supposition that of Bowlby, discussed so as to individual be unsuccessful on the way to expand or else diverge inside attachment manner be mainly vulnerable in the direction of psychological disturbance. On the other hand whereas attachment is reflect on to be an essential component of human being performance during the living duration of the person.
- Views of Attachment
Steinberg and Silverberg (1986) explain the both vision about association among attachments toward parenthood. The first suggest that throughout teenage years here be a move left commencing parenthood towards friends is an element of a determined intended for independence. In accordance with this observation attachment to mother or father also attachment to friend’s siblings must be turned associated. While a move away parents happen during in the early hours adolescents, approach of personality confidence might be reduce, more over can guide in the direction of the adolescents life form excessively vulnerable towards tare cluster stress, particularly inside anti-social movement ( Steinberg & Silverberg, 1986).
An option perspective point, getting from the work of Belsky and Nezworski (1988) on vulnerability to social impact, is that family and associates constitute two autonomous “social universes” Attachment of folks may be free from connection for companions, or the relatives estimation of those two universes relies on upon which bunch the young people create consider the critical setting of self-assessment. As per this perspective, for instance in circumstance that are antagonistic or distressing, poor attachment of folks may be made up for by solid attachment to peers. Such prescience is additionally tried and true with exploration build up a relationship between social backing and emotional wellness (Bowlby, 1982).
A third perspective is that attachment to mother father and social adjustment are decidedly corresponded, Greenberg et al. (1991). From the survey of the early writing of attachment, Greenberg et al. (1991) watched a noteworthy movement from mother or father to associates in adolescents. Then again, they call attention to that this perspective has been incredibly overhauled. For instance smith (1976) demonstrated that in essential circumstances were values and choices about future, youths were more prone to look for the guidance of their guardians as opposed to their associates. Mother father have likewise been positioned higher than associates in interpersonal significance all through the young people years (Rohner, 1986). Hence more than a shift far from parenthood to companions, teenagers seem to keep up their association with their guardians in numerous imperative circumstances. Greenberg et al. (1991) found that guardian as opposed to associate attachment were an all the more intense indicator of prosperity in young people.
- Wiser Attachment
Crosswise over human transformative history, assurance from risk by a more grounded, more established, or more astute figure has been vital for the survival of defenseless newborn children and youthful kids. To guarantee enough security, developmental decision weights delivered an intrinsic framework the attachment framework that rouses defenseless people to look for close physical and/or enthusiastic vicinity to more grounded/more shrewd defensive quality, particularly when they are bothered (Bowlby, 1969). These behavioral propensities would have expanded the shots of making due to conceptive age, allowing the qualities that coded for the attachment framework to be gone on to posterity (Simpson, 1990). This rule that people developed to keep up and look for close physical and passionate binds to their essential parental figures when they are troubled is the basic precept of attachment hypothesis.
- Attachment parenting
Attachment Parenting is a way to deal with child rearing that advances a protected attachment bond in the middle of mother father and their youngsters (Baldwin, 1992). Attachment is a logical term of the passionate bond in a relationship. The attachment condition that structures in the middle of guardian and kids, gained from the social request with guardians from conception on, corresponds with how a tyke sees – and at last has the capacity experience – connections (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1990). Attachment quality is corresponded with deep rooted impacts and frequently a great deal more significant an effect than individuals get it. A man who is with a safe attachment is typically ready to react to stretch in solid ways and set up more significant and cozy connections all the more regularly; a man with a shaky attachment style may be more vulnerable to push and less sound connections. An effective number of unreliably connected people are at danger for more genuine emotional wellness concerns, for example, sorrow and uneasiness (Bowlbey, 1969)
1.1.4 Developmental Task
Scharf & Mayseless, (2007) discusses four developmental task generally face concerning expected changes in the structure and operation of their pre-adult attachment behavioral framework changes in the way attachment is communicated, changes in the targets of attachment practices, changes in the arrangement and structure of system of attachment figures and changes in attachment disguised models in view of the thoughts put forward by Bowlby and Ainsworth. Scharf & Mayseless, (2007) also puts forth five issues pertaining to adolescent attachment; 1. Turning off from parents, 2, turning towards others, 3.Forming pair affiliation, 4.Diversity or convergence in working models of attachment or 5.Individual differences.
1.1.5 Characteristics of parent adolescent relationship
Hadely, Hair & Moore, (2008) mentioned that researchers have focused on five major characteristics of father-adolescent relationship 1. Spending time together, 2 . Involvement or communication, 3.Closeness, 4.Conflict, 5.Power these characteristics are considered to be important dimensions of relationships in general including relationships between parents and children. Attachment is best considered as commonly strengthening examples of conduct between a guardian and kid. In spite of the fact that kids assume a dynamic part in creating and keeping up an attachment relationship what inspires a parental figure to react to the youngster is as imperative to attachment as a kids conduct in snippets of need.
Parent figure expand a safe attachment among their kid deceit within the mother father capability on the way to complete so as to kids have require of empathy, faith, or love through provided that stable, caring, also receptive concern. Through revealing fit also optimistic connection ability, that parents Provide serious touching trussed intended for the kid on the way to study necessary self-authoritarian ability (Hazan & Shaver, 1987).
1.1.6 Socio Emotional Patterns
Socio emotional designs, people with a less protect attachment introduction could encounter more stretch in ordinary life. Conversely, people who experience predictable, supporting consideration giving are more prone to add to a protected attachment introduction alongside social abilities and feeling regulation aptitudes that help diffuse stretch and foster change. So, researches are increasingly showing that adolescent’s independence is more easily established not at the expanse of attachment relationships with the parents, or against a backdrop of reliable relationships that are likely to endure well beyond adolescents (Ainsworth, 1979). Attachment orientation plays an important role in helping adolescents to meet the challenges of life.
1.1.7 Normative Development of Attachment Orientation
Attachment perspective describe that adolescents is an intermediary time. On the beginning of this era, the youths is starting to attempt immense endeavors to end up less subject to give a second thought giving from essential attachment figures. Minimal more than a large portion of 10 years after the fact, in late young people the likelihood of getting to be attachment figure to one’s own posterity has completely risen (Colin, 1996). Teenagers are not just the period that connections these two times of incredible inclusion with attachment encounter. It is time of serious change in particular passionate psychological and behavioral terms. Young people create from being a recipient of consideration from parents to being a potential parental figure.
1.1.8 Transformation in Attachment Oriented Behaviors
A basic alteration since childhood on the way to maturity is the appearance of the solitary in excess of doorway attachment organizations. This forecast prospect performance also social adjustment since the numerous different examples of attachment responses (Horsley, 1997). This is not to say that the adolescents no longer recognize distinctions between qualities of specific relationships with the father, or with the mother and with others (Capra, 1996). Youth carry it through the ability in favor of official equipped thinking, as well as rational moreover theoretical analysis skill, this let the human being on the way to construct, since the understanding through numerous guardians. Youth are further more differentiating through spectacular augment in discrimination of personality furthermore other.
1.1.9 Transformation in parental relationships
Adolescents who want to stay out past an agreed on cur few considers not only the desire to stay out late, but also the overarching set goals of maintain trust and warmth in relation to parents. Goal corrected system in secure dyads allow such as adjustment to be made flexibility as needed. A recent study showed that infant security was more clearly predictive of observed qualities of autonomy and relatedness in adolescent’s parent interaction. This suggest that flourishing matching of hard work on the way to reach independence also preserve a common sense of connected in young people parent communications related to disagreements might still possible exist believe might still possible be believe a phase particular demonstration of attachment safety in youngsters.
Attachment is a procedure that starts right on time in an existence of individual, a large portion of the individuals accepts even in a newborn child’s first minutes in this entire world. This procedure is known as the enthusiastic connection that structures between a tyke and a parental figure, and it is the reasoning towards physically tie individuals after some time (Ainsworth, Blehar, & Waters, 1978). Exploration done by Bowlby (1969) has demonstrated that there are various distinctive versatile and non-versatile guardian kid attachment designs (Ainsworth, 1979) after that investigated the matter of protective and shaky attachment examples and found that the nature of right on time attachments of guardian and kids, as measured by utilizing Strange condition investigation, that forecast the division of kids’ working numerous years down the line.
Bowlby’s (1969) unique deal with attachment concentrated on comprehension the enduring mental connectedness that tie and young people to his or her mom esteem, in light of the fact that moms were for the most part the ones satisfying the part of essential parental figure of newborn children, and were in this manner.
Frequently at first newborn become emotionally involved. Bowlby originate with the aim of inside the earliest time of existence, the majority newborn expand a well-built relation to their mom stature, in that infant answer to adolescents mom while contrasting the direction of new citizens (Bowlby, 1982). They revealed to still on three-months mature, mainly infant was previously exist responding a different way to their mothers, And in the duration of their initial time the majority new born were more show their attachment toward their mothers in a structure of behavior. In support of case in point, the children who are in age one will demonstrate classification of the mother of newborn, would sing and smirk further willingly in favor of their mothers, and start following them longer with their eyes. So that’s why in the stage of adolescents, most of the children become addict of their mothers, and when this attachment get less day by day, so this cause the problems in social adjustment.
1.1.10 Effects of Attachment
Bowlby (1969) came to accept that the early attachment kids structure with their parental figures have an incredible effect on kids later in the life of them. He find that the way grown-ups parented their youngsters, whether it be maladaptive or versatile, or it influences the amount of kids appended with their guardians, furthermore with other individuals sometime down the road too. On the off chance that mother father get to be receptive to the needs of their youngsters and persistently demonstrated administer to them, then kids were prone to create secure guardian kid attachment and this type of secure attachment was liable to tail them amid life. Then again, if folks react eccentrically to their kids’ prerequisites, their kids were likely to study that they were not able to rely on upon their guardians’ consideration and/or security. These youngsters were suitable to build unstable examples of connection, which would finish them life and conceivably serve as the start of various other formative issues (Bowlby, 1969).
Different analysts (e.g., Belsky & Nezworski, 1988) found that unhealthful, self-questioning youth attachments could manual for various negative long time possessions, for example, conduct wrongs, troubling issue, and relationship issues. (Shaver, Hazan & Bradshaw, 1988) held the feeling that a man’s attachment style remained moderately stable from youth toward adulthood, in light of the fact that it was assumed that it was sustain through the singulars inside perspective. In this way, if a man is solidly sincerely included as a youngster, he or she figures out how to feel appealing and able, and come to realize that others are dependable. Thusly, these convictions keep up a protected attachment style into young people.
Individual’s initial attachment examples would proceed through life and that these early encounters could extraordinarily influence later life. They accepted that early encounters with attachment helped structure inward meeting expectations models of the self as well as other people, which, once shaped, were moderately steady after some time (Colin, 1996). working models included considerations, state of mind, trust of the self, others and the globe, behavioral calendar, and “framework for direct mindfulness, translate data, and organize recognition” which would “have enduring outcomes for identity development and secure relations” (Colin & Read, 1990). Individuals who experienced safe attachment late in life were liable to learn Early on that they were socially able and loveable, that the mankind was a secured spot, and that others were dependable. These reasoning would stay with every one of them over life. Then again, individuals who did not have the advantage of having a safe guardian kid attachment were liable to have an altogether different perspective of themselves and the world and bear an altogether different arrangement of convictions and opportunity. These gathering may watch themselves as not deserving of adoration, see the world as unstable, perspective others as dishonest, and be exceptionally apprehensive or avoidant about structure cozy connections further down the road.
Specialists have tried to find how early attachment examples are Linked to social adjustment and prosperity in youthful adulthood, with the theory being that those with secure early attachment examples would be better balanced and have a more noteworthy feeling of Well-being than those with unstable early attachment. One such study was finished by Gunvor Andersson (2005), who utilized a longitudinal outline to take after a gathering of individuals in Sweden from before the age of 4 to the ages of 20-25. He took a gander at the impacts of ahead of schedule connection on later prosperity and social alteration, and also later parental attachment and view of relations. The bunch of children in his study were all set in further care before the age of 4, which is the way they went to Anderson’s consideration, and subsequent meet-ups were finished with them 15, 10, 5, and 20 years a while later. Andersson evaluated the youngsters’ initial guardian kid fondness design, and later than follow up with his subject amid youthful adulthood, gathered them into three classifications: (1) those with “great” social adjustment and wellbeing; (2) those with “moderate” social adjustment and less prosperity; and (3) those with “awful” social adjustment and prosperity (those included with medications, criminal conduct, and/or demonstrating insubordinate practices). Andersons build up that the youngster grown-ups who, completely through meeting and testing, were arrange as have “great” social adjustment and prosperity were more probable than those in alternate classifications to have had secure mother-kid attachment ahead of schedule in life and to have stayed in positive associations with their moms all through life. They likewise indicated secure examples of attachment in different connections in their lives, recommending that their safe early attachment examples did actually finish them life, as Bowlby (1988) accepted. While the individuals who were composed were more inclined to have had secure early attachment, Anderson (2005) make that the individuals who were characterize as have “moderate” modification and less well-being were more probable than those in the “great” gathering to have been surveyed with unstable mother-kid attachment right on time in life. He additionally begins that the puerile grown-ups who fell into the” awful” modification and prosperity classification were liable to have had “blended prior connections,” which brought about “irregularities in attachment design” (Andersson, 2005).
So, Attachment of parents is very important for adolescents. Attachment of parents is the main source of social adjustment of every child. Attachment of parents develops the feelings of trust, love and care and motivates their children to cope with the environment. Kids frequently demonstrate pain once alien since persons bordering toward them (bowlby, 1988). Parenting is a job with the purpose of wants occupied devotion and motivation, working parents frequently find it very hard to give proper time to their child which may effects their attachment orientation which can lead to more insecure attachment and adjustment issues in children.
1.2. Perceived Parental support
Perceived parental support describe that quantity of contribution a parent have once it approach to education also her kids whole living, and how much they support their child (Watzlawick, 1966).
A great amount of study have revealed so as to social adjustment experienced through groups, informal communities, families and other interpersonal relations diminish the probability of mental misery among grown-ups and young people. Perceived support is more critical for bringing down trouble than genuine bolster (Cohen & Wills, 1998). Among youths, perceived support from parents has been the essential center of examination (Barrera & Wagner, 1996), with most studies demonstrating that teenagers who perceive a great support from their guardians are less inclined to experience the ill effects of mental trouble than young people who perceive less support.
Unfavorable child rearing, showed as, for instance, absence of maternal and fatherly care or meddlesome and over the top control, has been proposed to be connected with a few psychiatric conditions and ailments (Cohen& wills, 1998). It is generally perceived that if individuals are to augment their potential from educating they will require the full support of their guardians. Endeavors to upgrade parental support in training interface government, chief, educationalist and mother father’ relationship crosswise over North America, Australasia, mainland Europe, Scandinavia and the UK. It is likely that parents ought to assume a part not just in the advancement they could call their own kids’ accomplishments however all the more comprehensively in school change and the democratization of school administration (Kaslow, 1998).
- 1.2.1 Parent Adolescents Relationship
Parent adolescent’s association is also a significant factor of the concept of social adjustment. Parent adolescent association is the primary bases so as to place in movement the series of how young people would personality assess also cooperate among other. Within additional expressions the kind of association they understand among their parents is notion toward predict their feelings towards themselves also the superiority of relations they should contain in the midst of their peers (Rohner, 1986).
Another factor that affects the concept of adjustment is the family unit. The relations be able to act as a foundation of sustain also assist a kid’s viewpoint regarding to their self-worth. Friendships, peer relationships and social approval are important for adjustment (Grotevant & Carlson, 1989).
Parents endeavor to develop individual qualities in their posterity that will empower them to work effectively and autonomously once they leave the parental habitation. This farming ought to happen completely through the kid’s life. In the event that he or she is to extend the confidence and aptitudes needed to meet the difficulties of grown-up life. In spite of ahead of schedule hypotheses of immature improvement (Erikson, 1950). A stormy dismissal of parental binds is not needed to accomplish skillful adult status. Maybe, an exploration shows that person who keep up a cozy association with folks all through pre-adulthood exhibit more self-assurance and freedom who report more noteworthy enthusiastic separation from their guardians (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987).
- 1.2.2 Effect of Developmental Period
Studies of initial adolescence improvement additionally stretch the significance of a top notch association with parents for the procurement of required life abilities. As per Ainsworth (1982), responsive and supporting guardian gives a protected base from which the kid can investigate the earth without uneasiness about parental openness. A protected association with one or both parents help, examination, discovering, capacity accomplishment, and the growth of identity certainty (Ainsworth, 1982).
As a transitional period in youngsters’ improvement, early youthfulness speaks to a period of critical changes in kids’ associations with both their companions and their guardians. Brood contain expanded unsupervised contact with associates and start to put more noteworthy significance on their endorsement, perspectives, and exhortation (Barnes, 1989). At the comparable case, they utilize less time with their parents are seem to separate themselves candidly from them (Labate, 1979). These concurrent procedures appear to be essential parts of the transaction of the force adjust and power in guardian youngster connections that happens amid in adolescence period (Labate & Wanger, 1985).
- 1.2.3 Parent Child Relations
For most early young people, parent child connections need to start giving more noteworthy unity and more open doors for youths’ investment in choice making (Sagan, 1980). While numerous families likely make these changes productively, others may not. The conduct amid which families handle this transitional period ought to have essential ramifications for the parts or parents. The guardian kid relationship comprises of a mix of practices, emotions, and desires that are one of a kind to a specific guardian and a specific kid. The relationship includes the full degree of a youngster’s improvement. The relationship in the middle of parents and youngster is the most important. The nature of the guardian kid relationship is influenced by the guardian’s age, experience, and self-assurance; the strength of the mother father’ marriage; and the one of a kind attributes of the youngster contrasted and those of the guardian (Labate &Wanger, 1985).
Parental self-assurance is an essential pointer of parental skill. Moms who accept that they are powerful folks are more equipped than moms who feel uncouth. Likewise, moms who see themselves as viable additionally have a tendency to accept their newborn children as less hard to handle. Parental age and past experience are additionally important. More established moms have a tendency to be more receptive to their newborn children than more youthful moms. Likewise, mother father who have had past involvement with kids, whether through more youthful kin, vocation ways, or past youngsters, are as a rule better ready to adapt to parenthood. A standout amongst the most critical parts of newborn child psychosocial improvement is the baby’s attachment to. Attachment is a feeling of having a place with or association with a specific other. This noteworthy bond in the middle of newborn child and guardian is discriminating to the baby’s survival and advancement. Begun instantly after conception, attachment is reinforced by commonly fulfilling association between the mother father and the baby all through the first months of life, called holding. Before the end of the first year, most babies have framed a attachment relationship, more often than not with the essential guardian (Kinston & Loader, 1988).
If parents be able to adapt toward their children, address their issues, and give nurturance, the connection is secure. Psychosocial advancement can proceed in light of an in number establishment of attachment. Then again, if a guardian’s identity and capacity to adapt to the baby’s requirements for consideration are insignificant, the relationship is at danger as is the newborn child’s advancement.
- 1.2.4 Parental Support
Parental support is connected with less mental strain and enthusiastic brokenness among young people within times of distressing life change (Kinston & Loader, 1988). In view of the immature reliance on grown-ups, youthful emotional wellness is connected uncommonly, nearly to a strong social setting (McGoldrick & Gerson, 1985). Albeit accomplishing autonomy is a focal age reviewed assignment within youth, parental support, compassion and support remain a crucial establishment for change advancement within this period (Nurse, 1999).
Discussion parental conjugal clashes relate altogether too young people maladjustment (Wilson, 1975). Pre-adulthood have negative and irate emotions about picking up autonomy from their guardians experience issues changing in accordance with school (Patterson, 1997). Parents endeavor to develop individual attributes in their posterity that will empower them to work effectively and autonomously once they leave the parental living arrangement. This improvement ought to happen all through the kid’s life on the off chance that he or she is to build up the fearlessness and abilities needed to meet the difficulties of adult living. Restricting to late hypothesis of adolescent advancement (Erikson, 1958), a stormy dismissal of parental binds is not needed to achieve competent adult position.
Somewhat, study indicate that persons who retain a close association towards their parents all through adolescence show further self-possession also sovereignty than persons who account better expressive detachment as of their parents (Tamaki& Takahashi, 2013).
Adolescence is an exclusive era of change manifest through mutually physical and psychosocial alteration. Persons in this improvement phase experience remarkable teenage alteration moreover competent of more and more theoretical and composite interpretation. Family unit member’s relations and in distinct as the process of differentiation begins to obtain position. This is a moment once adolescents depends more on parents (Gray & Steinberg, 1999).
- 1.2.5 Types of Parental Support
Shaffer (2002), has ordered five noteworthy kind of parental support, first sort of parental support which is fundamental commitment of parents alludes to the obligations of families to guarantee the youngsters’ wellbeing and security, to the kid training and parenting aptitudes expected to get ready children in support of school, to the successive need to direct, regulation and behavior kids at each stage and to manufacture positive home conditions to support school learning. Second sort of parental support is essential commitment of the school alludes to the correspondences from school to home about school programs and kids’ advancement. Third kind of parental support is guardian’s contribution at schools alludes to the guardian volunteers who help mentor, director, and children in classrooms or in different territories of the school. Fourth kind of parental support is guardian’s inclusion in learning exercises at home alludes to parent started exercises or youngster started exercises demand for help, and thoughts or directions from educators to screen or help their kids at home on learning exercises that are facilitated with the kids’ class work. Fifth sort of support alludes to parents taking choice making parts in the warning gatherings or different boards of trustees or gatherings by the side of the order, area or condition stage. It in addition alludes to parent and group activists in autonomous support gatherings that screen the school and works for school change.
Parents change observably on the degree to which they are controlling or receptive to the needs and concerned of their teenagers. These parental practices can altogether influence the character, relations, conduct, and impetus additionally advance of their young people, and these influences can persevere all through life. Case in point, contrasted with people whose parents were conflicting, once in a while steady or warm, yet in some cases careless, basic and out of line person whose parents were dependably verging on strong, warm and receptive to their needs and concerns are less touchy to contrary reaction. They are additionally further inclining to perceive themselves as affable and capable (Gekas & Schwalbe, 1986). Parental support concerns committing assets to youngsters that is, being accessible to them, educated about their lives, and worried about what is continuing for them (Grolnick, Deci, & Ryan, 1997).
As indicated by Amato & Keith (1991), parents support has two self-representing component, guardian as supporters and guardian as enthusiastic accomplices. Concentrating on one or these parts alone is not an adequate way to deal with guardian support. Parents can be dynamic, yet not strong of the training procedure. They can likewise be strong however not dynamic at the school. Obviously, the thought is the guardian who is both steady and dynamic, yet this frequently troublesome when both parents work outside the home, or when there is stand out guardian at home.
Patterson (1999) has demonstrated that in the middle of moms and fathers, moms are thought to be more included as in they are seen to indicate more intrigue and invest energy and identifying with the kids. In the Filipino setting, moms are additionally seen to be more included contrasted with their partners. Moms are accepted to be the essential guardian of their kids and have the general obligation with their youngster when it came to regulating their exercises.
Parenting support gives lodging, wellbeing, nourishment, security, parenting abilities in guardian tyke cooperation’s, home conditions to support study. Parental support is a mix of responsibility and dynamic investment with respect to the guardian to young people life (Patterson, 1997).
- 1.2.6 Levels of Parental Support
There are different levels of parental support, such as responsibilities and presence, communication and involvement, tutorial assistance, volunteer, and leadership and partnership. Parents support means that either child is attending the school, provide home environment and encourage positive feeling. Parent communicate with child their problems and support them, give them tutorial assistance and health them in standing, monitoring their work and support them (Brock & Barnard, 1992).
In the middle of moms and fathers, (Cromwell, Olson & Fournier, 2005) has demonstrated that fathers tend to be more steady to self-rule as in they were seen to urge their kids to settle on their own decisions and choices as opposed to figure who ought to apply further weight to control the decisions that they made.
In the Filipino setting, fathers are seen as self-sufficient as in Filipino fathers have a more procreative nature of child rearing methodology (Bienvenu, 1970). At the end of the day, Filipino partners their part as only natural and first supplier for the crew.
The present study assessed the relationship of attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment in adolescents of working parents. Previous research suggests parental contribution in school straightforwardly affects understudy achievement. Seen parental support decidedly or contrarily influences pre-adult’s feeling of enthusiastic satisfaction, social conformity,
Parenting is all that much persuasive in the lives of kids, as from parents we take in the most they are similar to first school of characteristic in kids’ lives. Working parents regularly feel it hard to achieve both the confinements of work and parenting. In cutting edge world, both the father and mother working is the across the board way of life and when there are children, they fall into a predicament and may feel perplexed on the off chance that they fall behind in their obligations to the youngsters. Being a working guardian is an all that much requesting part as both the assignments might incompletely cover at sure times and conflict stuck between. At the point when kids are wiped out or when the guardian is obliged to be with the kids, they may need to drop of the work of the day; comparatively, when the work requests couple of additional hours, children may feel awful about the inaccessibility of parents with them. Adjusting both work and parenting parts is not a simple undertaking and it obliges additional abilities and vitality. As it is troublesome for them to deal with, the kids regularly create frail connection and absence of adjustment.
1.3. Social Adjustment:
Adjustment might take place through adapt the nature to the environment or by changing the environment (Brendt, 2002). Adjustment is the behavioral procedure of adjusting contrary necessities, or needs close by intricacy in the environment. As per Karger (2000) adjustment can be characterized as the consistent procedure of endeavoring to overcome internal and external hindrances as per the general inclination of organic and social needs. It is a conduct which is an endeavor to meet these requests. It is a singular’s endeavors to manage anxiety, to address issues and to keep up amicable associations with environment.
Adjustment is rough guessing to the typical the acknowledgment of full possibility under a given gathering of circumstances. Regarding man and lady, adjustment is not finish until the fullest conceivable open door has been managed for the improvement of human limit. The acknowledgment of full probability, of complete adjustment, through the improvement of limit, is molded by circumstance (Nearing, 1916).
Social adjustment can be characterized as adjustment of the individual to the social setting. Adjustment may occur by conform the self to the earth or by changing the surrounding. It is the path in which the individual satisfies different parts that are committed him or her in social connections and wellbeing of a person with the social connections (Campbell et al, 2005).
Social adjustment is used to refer to a person’s degree of satisfaction in social setting. Success of the adjustment to the social systems can be appraised both subjectively and objectively. By subjective adjustment we self-judged satisfaction with the particular domain of life; for adolescents, the three main foci for adjustment are defined as school, friends and family. But objective adjustment we mean the adequacy of the role performance in that domain, as judged by role partners. Social adjustment has been broadly defined in terms of subjective measures (Satisfaction with one’s friends) and objectives measures acceptance by one’s peer (Scott, 1998).
Psychologists utilize the word adjustment of unreliable circumstances of social also personal family member in the culture. Therefore amendment is able to describe the response to the burden also stresses of the social environment obligatory ahead the person (Hayes & Forte, 2008). There is need of impractical perception for social adjustment. The procedure of actions e.g. education, maturation, feeling, insight and encouragement supply to the process of adjustment.
As Plato says ‘Man is a social creature.’ We exist in a world and form view regarding others and others have view regarding us. We struggle to act according to the standard of the culture so that we can adjust with others. Other than it is not an simple converse because the qualities of each person is a exclusive organization (Huang, 2007). This organization has to make special efforts to adjust with other unique organization which fine civilization. Social adjustment is the way, the instructor struggle to inspire adjustment skill in our scholar. Teacher should emphasize on the adjustment of the student in the school. They must facilitate the scholar capacity with the existing situations of the school. They must add to civilizing the social environment of the school (Huang, 2007).
- 1.3.1. Process of Social Adjustment
There are sure different procedures which we can use for social adjustment as under: Environmental elements which make it hard for a person to live are known as weight. The weight is qualified as disappointment as uneasiness. At some degree more elevated amount weight is clarified as the expectation of damage. In people certain sort of anxieties produces tension. Nervousness at times produces suspicious answer. Military assurance is typically seen as poor system of adjustment. The procedure of social impact.
- 1.3.2. Attachment pattern links social adjustment
Various scientists have needed to discover how premature attachment illustration are joined with social adjustment and satisfaction in little adulthood, with the hypothesis living being that those with secure premature attachment sample would be enhanced adjust and have a more noteworthy feeling of prosperity than those with insecure early attachment. A number of these lessons use understudies as their point, as this are an effectively open minimal grown-up group. Then again, studies utilizing other youthful grown-up gatherings have been incorporated in this exchange trying to pick up a fuller photo of the association in attachment and social adjustment and prosperity among young people.
A good social Adjustment is important in adolescence not only because the adolescence craves for social success but also because his social adjustment will determine to a large extent what he will be throughout his adult years. The adolescence who gains experience of social adjustment within the family will determine the type of adjustment he would make in his social world outside the family. His social life stems from the kind of family in which he is reared and to which he is expected to adjust and contribute. Social adjustment is generally judged in terms of social activities in which the individual participates. Active individual is socially depend on many factors such as interest in social activities that are available to him and the family situations that provide a field for his social activities and such similar factors that are conductive to his social development.
Huang (2007) has rightly defined adolescents with a sociological perspective “sociologically adolescents is a period in the life of a man when the general public in which he capacities stops to respect him ( male or female ) as a kid and does not accord to him full grown-up status, part and capacities. Regarding conduct it is characterized by the Roles of individual is relied upon to play, is compelled to play or precluded by playing by temperance of his status in the general public.
Thus the transition period of adolescence from childhood to adulthood is a critical period for the adolescents to adjust to the social needs of the adult globe. The culture supposes him to take action according to his period and at the same time does not accord to him the adult status by interesting the required responsibilities to him. Parents with better understanding of this period of a child’s life help him in the healthy development of his personality by recognizing his status both within and outside the family. One of the means of such psycho social development of the adolescents is the family programmed of social activities.
The participation of adolescents in the social activities of the family along with their parents and the parent’s responsibility to create situations for such get together activities of the family develops into healthy parent adolescents relationships.
Parents and children can hardly be together for a longer time during the day. The distant working place of the father and the clashing of his working time with that of the school timing are some together during the day time. Only on Sunday and holidays can the parents in the family normally enjoy the company of their children and share the social activities with them. Where an adolescents boy or a girl is sure of enjoying himself the household duties there is less danger of loneliness. This can give them an added security in social relationships and also a healthy parent adolescent’s relationship within the family. So the parents of different size of families are capable of providing such situations where the adolescent’s sons and daughters participate in the families household routine and thus develop a healthy parent adolescents relationships remains to be examined.
Emotions play a leading role in ones adjustment to self and his environment. An individual is said to be emotionally adjusted if one is able to express his emotions in a proper way at a proper time. It requires ones balanced emotional development and proper training in the outlet of emotions. One should be adjusted with health and physical aspects soundly, if an individual physical development and abilities are in conformity with those of his peers and they did not feel any difficulty in his progress due to some defects or in capabilities in his physical organs, he enjoyed full opportunity of being adjusted. Home is a source of security and greatest satisfaction and security to its members. The relationships among family members and their way of behavior play a leading role in adjustment of an individual. All problematic and delinquent behavior is the result of the adjustment and maladjustment, to a great extent at it is the product of faculty rearing an uncongenial atmosphere at home. An individual social adjustment can be ascertained by his social environment. Social adjustment requires the advancement of psychic qualities and ethics in a person. It additionally requires on ought to be sufficiently social to live in amicability with that social creatures and feel capable and compulsory towards ones kindred individuals, society and nation.
There are notable differences between the social skills needed in peer interactions, which are typically more egalitarian in nature, and the parent child relationships (Hadely & Moorey, 2008). However parental attachment may provide a framework for adolescents to develop social adjustment within the family that are relevant to peer and romantic relationship may provide a secure base from which adolescents feel more safe and secure to extend the skills learned within the family setting to peer interactions (Kerns & Steven, 1996). There is empirical support for the power of parental attachment taking place the growth of social adjustment inside adolescence. Attachment of parents has been found to impact adolescent’s social relationships by setting expectations of how to interact with, interpret and respond to others needs and feelings. For example Middle adolescents who reported higher parental attachment to indicated that they performed social skills more frequently and were less anxious to perform such skills (Kerns & Steven, 1996). Late adolescents reports of current parental attachment have been positively associated the development of adaptive social ability (Huang, 2007), and their overall social adjustment when making the transition to college (Kerns & Steven, 1996)
Parental attachment seems to exert its influence on relational competence through its impact on the child’s social skills development. A perception of the caregiver as unresponsive in childhood is associated with feelings of powerlessness in close relationships and an increased vulnerability to long term deficits in social self-efficacy in later years. Likewise, young adult’s retrospective accounts of their parent’s responsiveness were positively associated with their self-perception of their current social self-efficacy (Huang, 2007).
Similarly to family functioning, parenting behaviors were expected to cooperate a more essential part in the growth of social adjustment for adolescents. Socialization influence of parents may be particularly powerful. Thus, lower level of parental over-protection and parental engagement characterized by a positive interaction style were expected to facilitate social adjustment for adolescents. To make good social adjustments, the individual must perceive and predicts the thoughts, feelings and behaviors of others. Furthermore, good social adjustment demands that the individual dovetail his behavior with a society or some social groups within a society. Social adjustment is generally judged in terms of social activities. It is assumed that the better adjusted individual the more active he will be socially (Hurlock, 1955).
- 1.3.3. Social Behavior during adolescents
The social adjustment in adolescent’s starts develops and enriches in the family (Dodge & Brown, 1988) and the scaffolds between the young people and the general public are set up by means of families (Karaaslan, 2006). The family have their kids’ adjustment enhance, coordinate their practices; constitute the bases of their social accomplishments by supporting them when they experience issues (Karadağ, 2007). The securing of the social modification is key in this formative stage. Social adjustment are learnt practices that can be acknowledged in social situations, for example, beginning an association in any climate, critical thinking, deciding, organizing companion relations, building up positive dealings in the company of others, protecting individual rights and with respect to others (Kerns & Steven, 1996).
Social skills have three components as cognitive, behavioral and environmental. These three components have strong interactions at preschool ages (Scott, 2008). Family and the social framework in which the family live in are the hotspots for the youngster’s social adjustment advancement procedure (Worden, 2002). A youngster secures social qualities and social practices fundamentally in the gang. For this reason, families ought to show positive social conduct models. The structure of the family is significant for exhibiting positive social conduct models and supporting the kid’s social
growth. A fit family structure is closely related with factors that start with premarital times and continue through the marriage (Kerns & Steven, 1996).
Attachment is a profound and permanent affecting tie that attaches one person to another transversely instance and space (Ainsworth, 1973). Parents support towards their children and attachment of adolescents with parents make the individual strong and groom up their personality and it helps easily to adjust in the social environment. Attachment orientation and perceived parental support is very important for children in whatever age they are in and if both parents are working they can’t give proper attention to their children and due to these factors attachment with parents is being disturbed and become reason for not to adjust socially in their life. In spite of the fact that the attachment framework works all the more noticeably and unequivocally in babies and youthful youngsters and it was more basic to their prompt survival, (Bowlby, 1969) kept up that attachment intentions influence how individuals can feel, think, or act in cozy connections “from support to grave” (Bowlby, 1979). Social adjustment is generally effected by attachment introduction and perceived parental support.
- I.4.1. Attachment theory
Bowlby defined attachment as a “permanent emotional connectedness among human being” (Bowlby, 1969). Theory of Adult attachment is an addition of Bowlby’s (1969) theory of the bonds between infants and their caregivers. According to this theory, people construct mental illustration or operational reproduction, of the personality and essential others based on their interpersonal experiences what’s more, can have an essential effect on molding a singular’s social advancement and interpersonal connections. These representations are accepted to assume an imperative part in the way individuals decipher and comprehend their social universes. While such, evaluate the safety of functioning models is crucial for understanding behavior dynamics, feeling, or interpersonal interaction.
- I.4.2. Two dimensional model of attachment
Brennan and Shever (1998) gave two dimensional model of adult attachment pattern. Brennan’s findings proposed that there are two major measurements as for grown-up attachment model. One vital variable have be label attachment related apprehension. Bunch who accomplish high on this variable have a tendency to be on edge whether their associate is exhibited, brisk to react, supportive, and so forth. Individuals who accomplish on the low end of this variable are more secure in the perceived responsiveness of their partners. The extra noteworthy variable is called attachment related avoidance. Individuals on the taking off finish of this component incline toward not to depend on others or open up to others. Individuals on the short finish of this component are more open to getting physically involved with others and are more secure contingent on and having others depend ahead them. An immaculate safe grown-up is squat on both of these extents.
- I.4.3. Self-determinant theory
Self-determinants theory recommends that parenting style as a socialization organization assumes a discriminating part in supporting the relationship between the perceived need support and young people, prosperity. Investigating the measurements in these connections SDT studies (Rayan & Decan, 2000) focused on the way that the fulfillment of three mental needs self-rule skill and relatedness supported and added to the teenagers. Ability is the enthusiastic need to accomplish dominance in managing nature (Grolnick et al., 1997). The requirement for self-sufficiency is the essential human success to be the starting point or operators as for activity. Relatedness is the need to experience adoration and interpersonal contacts. As basic formative stage young people require their parents support to be socially adjust in environment.
- I.4.4. Parental acceptance rejection theory
Parental acceptance rejection theory (PAR Theory) is a confirmation based hypothesis of socialization and lifespan advancement that tries to anticipate and clarify significant cause’s results and different associates of parental acceptance and rejection. It push to foresee and clarify why a few parents are warm and cherishing while others are frosty, forceful or ignoring/dismissing and forceful. Parental acceptance and rejection together frame the glow measurement of parenting, a measurement or continuum on which all youngsters can be set on the grounds that all have encountered pretty much love on account of significant guardians, ordinarily folks. Hence, the glow identified with the nature of the love bond in the middle of parents and their kids, and with the significant, vocal and delegate practices parents utilization to express these considerations.
One finish of the choice is detectable by parental acceptance, which refers to the glow, affection, consideration, solace, concern, backing, or essentially adore that folks can feel and express toward their youngsters. The flip side is stamped by parental rejection, which refers to the unlucky deficiency of critical with drawl of these emotions and practices, and by the event of the assorted qualities of substantial, and mentally harmful practices and influences. Parental rejection can be indicated anyplace on the planet by any blend of four essential expressions, for example, icy and unaffectionate, the converse of animal calm and adoring, unfriendly and forceful, unconcerned and ignoring (Rohner, 1986).
The PAR theory is relatively different from the parental support. In PAR Theory the main focus is on the acceptance and rejection of the parents to their children. In PAR theory the parental rejection is the absence of the warmth feelings either physically or psychologically. The acceptance is the parental warmth, care, concern and support. The acceptance is related to the parental support theory which involves the autonomy support, involvement, and warmth. The passionate requirement for positive reaction for huge others, including attachment figure is an effective spark, and when youngsters don’t have this need fulfilled enough by their guardians and grown-ups don’t obtain this need met by their attachment data, they are inclined to react sincerely and behaviorally in a particular manner (Rohner, 1986).
- I.4.5. Social learning theory
The social learning theory of human knowing is essentially subjective, expressionist and deterministic as in discernment and conduct is connected to the earth. The fundamental commitment of this model lies in its examination of worldwide intellectual builds, for example, point of view taking, part taking and referential interchanges (Crick & Dodge, 1997). These develop underline further experimental comprehension of immature social conduct and social adjustment. Integral to social learning theory is the social information processing representation, which has fruitfully predict adolescent’s social adjustment and may contribute considerably to understanding how cognitive development influences adolescent’s social behaviors (Dodge & Crick, 1997).
- I.4.6. Blockage theory
Blockage hypothesis said that individuals who due to poor social abilities, conflicting kinship, or poor social adjustment are hindered from having their enthusiastic and physical needs of typical social association.
- 1.4.7 Erickson Psychosocial Stage
Adolescence is a period of transition in which individuals begin to ascertain who they are; they experience burgeoning autonomy and self-determination, and undergo the change from youth to maturity (Erickson, 1958). As it is the transition phase and according to Erickson it is the stage of ego identity and role confusion, adolescent at this stage wants more secure attachment and support from their parents which helps them to identify their roles and in satisfying their egoism.
- 1.4.8 Social Control Theory
Social control theory illustrates that attachment relates to the viable ties which the adolescent structures to critical others. The family environment is the wellspring of attachment in light of the fact that parents go about as good examples and educate their youngster’s socially satisfactory behavior. As it depicts that parents involvement and support is very much important for the adolescent in adjusting in society properly.
- 1.4.9 Social adjustment and religiosity
Various parts of social adjustment uncovered that individual contrasts exist in religious contribution and parts of social adjustment. In this society, religion penetrates all parts of life and adjustment in religious inclusion is essential as adjustment in different circles. Helping other people, scholastic anxiety, enthusiastic control and adding to a constructive perspective of self, these originations highlights the significance of comprehension youth advancement inside of confidence group and those parts that relationship can play (Elder & Conger, 2000).
- 1.4.10 Islamic Perspective of Parents Involvement
Parents ought to perform their obligations towards youngsters in the way they should. Taking after hadith ought to be remembered: Described Ibn Umar (RA): The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Every one of you are watchmen and are in charge of your words. The ruler is a watchman and the man is a gatekeeper of his family; the woman is a watchman and is in charge of her spouse’s home and his off-spring; thus every one of you are watchmen and are in charge of your wards.” This hadith represents the parent’s responsibilities for their children which may affect their lives, psychological well-being and adjustment.
Summary of Introduction:
To conclude that a human being by nature likes company and that is why he is called the social being. During infancy he does not wish to be separated as of his mother. Throughout childhood he sobs when others show indifference towards him and feels lap them to happy in company with others. If is the desire to enjoy the company of others because he feels himself to be a member of the society. This desire is not limited to children only, but is present among adolescents and adults too. All above theories depicts that an individual is nothing without the social support and parent support, if parents neglect their children or didn’t accept their children as they are so this things become problematic for the adjustment of adolescents. So, the present research will aimed to study relation between attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment in adolescent with both working parents as its difficult for working parents to give equal time to children and their work which may produce maladjustment in children. This research explored the responsibilities of parents.
There is an outgoing concern about the role of attachment orientation, perceived parental support are predictor of social adjustment in adolescents with job holder parents. In order to consider the possible link between attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment in adolescents it is important to review and systematically arrange the relatively considerable amount of literature on attachment orientation and perceived parental by providing and understanding explanation of what family functioning and perceived parental support challenges the social adjustment of adolescents with job holder parents.
2.1. Attachment Orientation
Love and Murdock (2004) conducted a study on a culturally varied sample of college going students belongs to integral family unit and stepfamilies to study the variances in Attachment model involving these two bunch or to find out that how these both attachment styles play their roles in the adjustment and sense of in adolescents’ life. Love and Murdock (2004) originate that there were undeniably noteworthy variances between the attachment patterns of adolescents from intact relations and step relations, with those since step relations exposure include had more self-doubting parents child relationships. They also instigate to attachment cooperate a momentous part in the difference of well-being between those in intact families and step-families. Their fall outs inveterate that parent-child attachment was important forecaster of well-being in adolescents, and that the alterations in attachment patterns between family categories could aiding enlighten why those from intact families were usually better accustomed than those from stepfamilies. However, as this research was finalized via a sector of United States institution scholar from mostly center to elite class homes, these fallouts may not be generalizable to adolescents from diverse socioeconomic circumstances.
Wang and Mallinckrodt (2006) inspected a study by taking sample of international Chinese and Taiwanese undergraduates to perceive how their attachment styles would influence their psychosocial adjustment and cultural assimilation to U.S. traditions. They start to high attachment uneasiness and high shirking, both issues made by frail attachment model, were real indicators for modification troubles, maladjustment and psychological discomfort.
Another study, finished utilizing a large sample of socio-monetarily various high contrast teenagers in the U.S., found that youths with a background marked by secure parent-child attachments had a tendency to be better balanced and more ready to control their feelings than those with shaky attachments (Cooper, Shaver, & Collins, 1998). This was discovered to be valid crosswise over both sex and ethnic group, with one exemption concerning sexual attributes. Cooper et al. (1998) originate that females with frail safe/conflicted examples of attachments had larger amounts of depression and tension than females with other attachment model, while well right now.
Grabill and Kerns (2000) inspected a study utilizing American undergraduates, took a gander at how attachment orientation in young people with their parents are identified with closeness in companionships. Grabill and Kerns (2000) found that youths with secure attachment were more inclined to self-uncover, to react when others self-unveiled toward them, moreover to encounter unwritten, confirm, and concern in backing of by others, than persons with insecure attachment orientation. These outcomes propose that people with weak attachment are inadequate in the general qualities expected to create closeness in kinships, while those with secure connection attachment built up these vital aptitudes prior in life, in all likelihood through secure connections attachment with their guardians.
Parade, Leerkes, and Blankson (2010) made determinations like those in the two studies talked about above in regards to the impacts of parent child attachment styles on relationships in adulthood. In their study, American undergraduates who reported secure parent child attachment on begin in their starting year of college by and large would do well in making associations with others. They find in consistent with both white and minority students. Parade et al. (2010) additionally originate the results that persons with secure parent child attachment shaped kinships all the more effortlessly, undoubtedly on the grounds that these youthful grown-ups were more open to searching out new connections because of their constructive encounters in secure connections with their parents. While secure guardian youngster connections helped both white and minority students to make companions all the more effortlessly, Parade et al. (2010) begin to these safe connections likewise anticipated social apprehension and joy inside relationship, yet just for minority students.
Yet another study, finished by Saferstein, Neimeyer, and Hagans (2005), makes it clear that parent-child attachment can influence how adolescents experience close companionships and associate connections. This study was finished utilizing a specimen of American undergraduates. Saferstein et al. (2005) found that adults with solid guardian child attachment experienced lower levels of contention among companions, be further prone to be able toward work amid troubles in fellowships, and have propelled phase of companionship and wellbeing in connection to their closest companion than adults with insecure attachment. At this very moment is produced right on time in life in parents child attachment, these results give extra sign that Parent-child attachment impact how teenagers experience fellowship.
Gallo, linda & Mathew (2001) led an exploration to analyzed the impacts of attachment orientation on physiological reactions to naturalistic social connections in adolescents. Two-hundred five dark (49%) and white secondary school undergraduates (14–16 years; boys) finished a measure of anxious and avoidant association; additionally experience 1.5 days of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (AmBP and AmHR) observing while they followed social encounters. The present discoveries recommend that immature attachment orientation may shape later physical wellbeing through impacts on the earth of, and passionate response to, social relations in day by day living.
2.2 Perceived parental support
Backovia and Andrea (2000), directed an exploration on parental support and adolescents wellbeing in the setting of parental administration position. The point of this study was to look at the impact of parental support on adolescent’s wellbeing inside of the setting of parental administration position. Data on perceived mother’s and father’s support, mother’s and father’s administration position and adolescents apparent wellbeing were gathered among 1992 adolescents (mean age 16.9) and dissected utilizing chi-square and logistic regression. Consequences of this exploration recommend that on account of unemployment of single parent, support as of the further parent may be most essential for youngsters.
Lamborn, Mouths,Dornbusch and steinberg (1991) results show that young couple got advantage greatest from commanding and minimum from demanding and lenient parenting. Adolescents who come from families categorized as authoritative are well accustomed and further capable, they be sure concerning their skill, capable in the areas of attainments and less likely to get into distress. In distinction adolescents coming from authoritarian homes score sensibly well on measures indexing obedience conformity to the standards of adults but have relatively poorer concept of self then other youngsters.
Karukvi et al, (2010) led an examination to investigate the relationship of perceived social backing and parental demeanor with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent’s inhabitant model. Model be comprised on 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) addressed the poll and framed the last model. The show time of the subject was 19 years (run 17–21 years). Perceived parental consideration and overprotection were evaluated utilizing the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and use independently for mother and father. The outcomes likewise stress the requirement for further studies to set up the centrality of companion connections in the improvement of alexithymia.
Additionally Anthony & Ronald (1992) led an examination to look at the relationship between perceived parental acceptance-rejection, emotional adjustment, or material misuse. An example of 40 adult’s substance abusers was contrasted with a similar volunteer specimen of 40 nonusers regarding people’s perception of fatherly and maternal acceptance-rejection and emotional adjustment. Distinguish purpose study using the jackknife procedure was utilized to examine the predictive power and the classification accuracy of perceived parental acceptance-rejection and psychological adjustment. Consequences of the exploration demonstrate that both perceived fatherly and maternal rejection in adolescents have a tendency to be fundamentally higher among substance abusers than among no abusers, and substance abusers are more debilitated in their current mental modification than are no abusers.
Wenk, Hardestly, Constance, Margon, Carolyn (1994) while examining the longitudinal information shape the national study of Children attempts to inspect the impact of mother and fathers support amid childhood and puberty on the prosperity of the children. Three independent measures of well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction and psychological well-being were examined. It was found that adolescents view of their associations with the mother and father seen to be negligible remarkable in the deciding how they felt about themselves and their lives.
Diana and Shiri (2013) directed an examination to analyze the relationship between moms’ attachment style and their babies’ rest styles. The 125 moms who partook in this study finished (an) a measure of attachment orientation (b) and a measure of mother’s impression of their baby’s sleep patterns. The outcomes demonstrated that the more prominent the moms’ shirking attachment bearing is, the more it get the chance to put the child to love seat at evening, the further anxious the child is at evening, and the more the night wakes are. Then again, for moms with high tension connection introduction, here be a positive relationship between kid’s age and the time it takes to put him/her toward sofa, such in order to the senior the tyke, the more it get.
2.3 Social Adjustment
Jalaya and darul (2000) led an examination to analyzed relationship between the nature of family supper times and adolescents social adjustment. Inside this study, the family supper is characterized presently eaten by a man who lives in a multi-individual family which happens at home. Members comprised of 120 undergraduates (males = 60; females = 60) matured 16-18 years of age from Tawau, Sabah. Discovering affirmed esteem family unit supper were essentially identified with larger amounts of self-esteem also, better perception of one’s family functioning. Taking everything into account, family dinner time may advance better adolescence emotional well-being.
Sevda (2010) examined the connection in attachment and individual and social adjustment. This study went for testing whether the intercession of detachment individuation between the relationship of secure parental attachment and individual and social adjustment for adolescent is compelling or not in Turkish society. A study gathering comprising of 642 members matured between 18-25 learning at college in first, second, third, and fourth years. Concurring the finding of this exploration; that the connection between parental secure connection and individual and social adjustment interceded by sound detachment individuation is not upheld.
Ryan and Shim (2008) conducted study on adolescent’s social accomplishment objectives and social adjustment in middle school. Two studies examined the recommendation that social accomplishment objectives (diverse introduction towards social aptness) are an essential part of youthful juvenile’s social inspiration. Study 1 (N = 153 sixth grade understudies) built up that diverse introductions toward creating or exhibiting social capability can be found in youthful teenagers reactions to open-finished inquiries regarding their social objectives and social skill. Study 2 (N = 217 sixth grade understudies) assessed another review measure of social accomplishment objectives for adolescents. Different social success aim be associated with distinct patterns of subsequent self- and teacher-reported social adjustment (prosaically, Aggressive, and anxious introverted behaviors, because fine as social concern, best friend value, and supposed fame). Special effects for social accomplishment goals were independent of perceive social competence and gender.
Chen, Kaspur and Noh (2000) conducted study on adolescent social, emotional and school adjustment. It specifies that adolescents look a diversity of challenge and difficulties in socio-emotional and school adjustment. It was found that adolescent’s social and behavioral troubles, emotional turbulence also educational complexity are highly interrelated and contribute to each other throughout growth. Defensive and manage possessions so as to be provided in the society, counting wide family participation, maintain and supervise organization in school, also authoritarian peer group and social system, might efficiently bumper unenthusiastic special effects of adolescent social, educate, and emotional difficulties, predominantly of an externalizing environment.
Gray (2011) reported that parent youngster relations are most grounded indicators of life fulfillment in young people posterity. They discovered youths perception of parental support, especially inherent support consolation, thankfulness, trust, love and so forth to be decidedly joined with the living satisfaction measure.
In wide-ranging investigators have honestly consistently shaped a rectilinear relationship between parental support and adolescents consequences such that the most support parents give to their children or the stronger the attachment between parents and the adolescence, the better the adolescents out comes (Gray, 2011).
Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters and Wall (1978) evaluated the behaviors of mothers in the strange situation on a sequence of scale, such because stage of warmth, approval, collaboration, also convenience. These scales are definitely associated with attachment sanctuary in particular; some mothers seem particularly sensitive to the delicate concerns and signals of their adolescents and then reply punctually and properly. The adolescents of these mothers were particularly sheltered when the mother return to the room, the child advance her enthusiastically, other than in that case be enthusiastic toward discover the opportunity confidently soon afterwards.
Gecas and Schwalbe’s (1986) research explored the correlation amid parent’s perception of their parental attachment and adolescence perception of their parent’s attachment. Special effects of these perspectives in view to adolescent’s identification of self-esteem, self-efficacy and perception of self were also inspected. This look for and concerning study distinguished no examination between how the folks see their contribution and how the teenagers see their guardian’s inclusion. In like manner, the juvenile’s identification of worth, self-effectiveness, and dignity be all the more firmly connected with their contemplations relating to their guardian’s inclusion as opposed to their guardian’s presumptions of the level of their parental contribution.
Gecas and Schwalbe’s (1986) study of 620 adolescents aged 16 to 17 years old recommended that parental support was, in fact, allied with adolescence personality-evaluation, through an enhance of apparent parental support humanizing the teen-agers personality evaluation, the research as well renowned the achievable require for the examination into other self-evaluation reference actualities such as complacency and contentment.
Charles and Brodsky (1979) study to inspect variances in the social systems of mental health clients to identify features linked with optimistic social adjustment. Participant was chosen as of three dissimilar kinds of mental health programs as well as from the general population of Oregon also merino. Findings usually exposed so as to subject from the community sample more often would look to immediate family associate intended for support. Improved performance persistent consumers highlight qualified links, while other inadequately adjusted persistent consumers would look to groups intended for support. The findings have suggestion equally for sympathetic the nature of the sustenance available to a client and rallying the support resources of the current system of associations to aid adjustment to community living.
Hier and kurboot (1990) study the social adjustment and side effect logy between two sorts of destitute students. Fifty-two destitute young people in Australia or Brisbane were assessing to difference male and female runaways and disposables for social alteration and symptomatology. Contrasts for social change (solitary inclinations and animosity) and symptomatology (social detachment and sorrow) are forecasted. Discovering demonstrate that male keep running off were essentially more unfriendly than male disposables (p under .001), and fundamentally more socially segregated than female runaways (p under .025). Female excursion dependably, however, were extensively supplementary forceful than male toss always (p under .025) and female runaways (p under .025). Yet destitute guys by and large had an essentially more grounded desire to carry on antagonistic vibe than destitute females (p under .025). Moreover, female disposables were fundamentally more solitary than male disposables (p under .001). There were no noteworthy contrasts for despondency. A hypothesis of inward social control (Hirschi, 1969), proposing nonattendance of holding in prior socialization, was keep up.
Harter (1988) conducted a research to investigate intimate communal intellectual features as conceivable intermediaries of social adjustment. Participants were 85 college females; include 29 by a record of sexual mistreatment by a family associate and 56 control subjects with no record of abuse. Findings show reduces structure and adaptability in the family unit of source, improved awareness of social separation, and inferior quality of social adjustment between ill-treated subjects. Extra psychoanalysis recommended to family unit features and augmented perceptions of social isolation were more prognostic of social maladjustment than abuse per se.
Gray (2013), scrutinizes the part Face book plays in pupils’ social adjustment during their first year of college using review data (N = 338) collected from students on a confidential, open-minded fine art college in the Middle West. We expand moreover test a form to comprise mutually traditional and Face book-specific predictors of social support and social adjustment, as well as discover the function to these feature play in predicting students’ enrollment status the next year. Findings shows positive correlation between two Face book variables the number of Face book Friends students have at the college and their assignation in cooperative behaviors with age group through the site and measures of social support and social adjustment, as well as a confident connection between social adjustment and persistence at the university.
Coletti et al., (2008) directed an examination to analyze the relationship of self-reported parental overprotection, perceived youth susceptibility and child rearing uneasiness to parent-reported behavioral, expressive, and social conformity of youths at present on treatment for disease. Larger amounts of child rearing uneasiness, however not parental overprotection or perceived adolescent weakness, be connected among poorer quality behavioral with social conformity. Upper phase of saw youngster vulnerability and child rearing nervousness, however not parental overprotection, were independently connected with shoddier mental change. Particular child rearing variables have all the earmarks of being identified with particular conformity results in children with tumor. Longitudinal record of these children is important to focus the formative direction of guardian variables and long haul youngster results.
2.4 Indigenous Researches
In general terms indigenous researches are the research on the variable which show the cause and consequences of the study variables and its implications on our general society. Below mention researches indicate the implications of study variables on Pakistani population.
Farhana (2012) led an examination to explore the relationship between family environment and social adjustment among right on time of adolescence. Sample was drawn by non-purposive sampling method. The sample for this examination comprised of 100 adolescence and it was chosen from tuition based schools of the city Lahore. Deciphered rendition of Adjustment Scale (Santrock &Warshak, 1979) and Family Environment Scale (Bhatia & Chadha, 1993) were controlled to every member. Pearson product moment correlation and independent sample t-test were utilized for examination while enlightening investigation was utilized for demographical information. The discoveries of this examination demonstrated that there is a noteworthy relationship between social adjustment and family environment among right on time adolescent and there is inconsequential gender contrasts among adjustment of young people.
Ali and Zahra (1993) inspect the relationship between the nature of family feast times and adolescent social adjustment. In this study, the family supper is characterized presently eaten by a man who lives in a multi-individual family unit which happens at home. Members comprised of 120 understudies (guys = 60; females = 60) matured 16-18 years of age from Tawau, Sabah. The Family Meal Time Questionnaire, Family Functioning Scale (FFS) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) were controlled to research self-regard and view of family working as intervening variables for juvenile social alteration. Discoveries demonstrated magnificence family nourishment were altogether identified with more elevated amounts of self-regard (r = .318, p<.01) and better impression of one’s family work (r = .650, p<.01). All in all, family feast time may advance better adolescent emotional well-being.
Imtiaz and Naqvi (2006) conducted a research to explore the relationship between parental attachment and identity styles among adolescents. The study was done in two stages. The initial, try-out stage was designed to discover language and cultural appropriateness of the Identity Styles Inventory-4 (Berzonky et al., 2011) also Parental Attachment feedback form (Kenny, 1987). The second phase of the study was designed to fulfill the research objectives. The main research was carried out with a sample of 252 adolescents. The finding demonstrates that tool were internally consistent and consistent. The findings surrender that parental attachment was positively related with informational method, normative method, also obligation however was negatively correlated with diffuse avoidant method. Intended for gender differentiation, girls achieve higher on parental attachment the same as compared to boys. In favor of personality styles, girls achieve higher the same as compare to boys on normative, information related, and diffuse-avoidant method however for commitment differences be no significant. While moderate position of gender be discover, significant moderation be observe simply in favor of emotional support to informational style link where boys were more inclined to share to show the trend.
Kausar and Shafique, (2008) directed an examination to analyzed gender contrasts in perceived child rearing styles and socio emotional adjustment of adolescents and inspected relationship between these variables. Test included 60 teenagers with equivalent number of young ladies and young men and was enrolled from diverse state funded schools in Rawalpindi. Parental authority questionnaire (Buri, 1991) and socio emotional adjustment scale (Najam & Sameen, 1991) were utilized for assessment. Young ladies perceived their guardians like legitimate additionally demonstrated essentially better socio enthusiastic conformity the same presently young men. Conclusion underscores criticalness of child rearing styles and their suggestions for socio emotional modification of adolescence.
Sohail (2011) conducted a research to investigate gender differences in religious involvement and social adjustment among Punjab University students. Cross sectional research design was used with a sample of (N= 100) including (n= 50) boys and (n=50) girls. The age range of participants was 18-19. It was put forward that there are significant gender differences in religious involvement and social adjustment. It was concluded that there is no noteworthy gender differences in religious involvement in students but there were significant gender differences in social adjustment in students. This research can be helpful in educational, crime and clinical settings.
Naz and Arshad (2012) conducted a research to investigate the relationship between perceived inter-parental conflict, perceived parental rejection and personality maladjustment among late adolescents. Research also focused on to explore the inter-parental conflict and parental rejection as predictors of personality maladjustment. A total number of 120students (60 girls and 60 boys) were recruited from different departments of Punjab university. The age range of the model is among 16 to 19 years. Children’s Perception of inter parental Conflict Scale CPIC (Gryeh, & Fincham, l992) was used to assess inter-parental conflict as perceived by the adolescents.
Akhter (2012) led an exploration to investigate the attachment styles of adolescent in connection to the child rearing strategy. The model of the exploration was 179 (81 females and 98 guys) respondents. Young people favor avoidant connection system. Legitimate fatherly system and maternal technique be experienced by folks. Noteworthy difference is built up for father’s tyrant style and mother’s legitimate and tolerant system. Father’s be all the more requesting for male pre-adult. Mother’s be all the more requesting for female youthful and lenient for male pre-adult. It be proficient to the adolescent age is the principle component of the study discoveries.
Raja (2001) directed the examination to examine the impact of parent and companion connection on the mental strength of adolescents. This study includes the specimen of 935 pre-adulthood. The female had higher nervousness and depression scores than males. Generally speaking, an in number saw connection to folks was fundamentally connected with high scores on the measure of prosperity, youthfulness who saw solid connection to their guardians and companions had high scores on the measure of self-perceived strength. In this study, young people perceived attachment to companions did not adjust for a low connection to folks with respect to their mental sick wellbeing. In this way, that discovering proposes that parental connection is a discriminating variable for the mental prosperity of immaturity.
There have been abundance of studies done on the issue of how early attachment Patterns influence social adjustment and prosperity later on inside of time. These inquires about represent us that safe Attachment styles manual for better adjustment and larger amounts of prosperity in adulthood than unreliable connection designs. Distinctive scientists found that secure parent-child connections were connected to larger amounts of mental prosperity. A few studies delineate the conclusion that those with secure attachments patterns were preferred balanced over those with frail attachment patterns. In this manner, while it is clear that attachment designs altogether influence social adjustment and prosperity in youthful adulthood, it is likewise clear that in the event that we are to pick up a more full comprehension of how attachment and support influence youthful grown-ups’ prosperity and social adjustment. Every above examination demonstrates that family environment, Attachment Orientation and support of parents impact Social Adjustment.
2.5 Rationale of the study
Secure attachment and support from the parents are very important for adolescents to adjust socially in environment (Bowlby, 2000). Because parental support plays a basic role in adolescent’s life, without parents support and secure attachment with parent’s children feel loneliness and other psychological problems. So it provides the happiest and goal achieving life of adolescents. Over the period of time, in our society, we are observed that those parents who are job holder, don’t give proper attention to their children. Parents even don’t know what the needs of their children’s are. Because they don’t have free time for family and due to these reasons children feels alone and due to this loneliness they are unable to adjust socially in environment. Parents support is very important for their children in this age because if they can’t give proper attention to their kids, then feeling of complexity become part of their life they can’t share their words and emotions with anyone; they think they are inferior to others. They start comparing their self with the peer group. Family perspectives (Elisbeth, 1987), prove this that adolescents is the age in which children expect best from their parents, but if parents can’t fulfill desire of their children’s, then they adopt some negative cues and spoil their own self. Thus it was need of era to study how parental attachment and perceived parental support help to adjust adolescents in their social life. The finding of this research will be helpful for parents as well as children. So it will explores the responsibilities of parents or help those who work with children in care comprehends the important messages from attachment theory and research.
2.6 Objectives of the Study
- To see the relationship between attachment orientations, perceived parental support and social adjustment in adolescents.
- To investigate the attachment orientation as predictor of social adjustment.
- To see the perceived parental support as moderator between attachment orientation and social adjustment.
- To see the gender differences in attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment.
- There is likely to be a positive relationship between attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment.
- Attachment orientation is likely to predict social adjustment in adolescent.
- Perceived parental support is likely to moderate the relationship between attachment orientation and social adjustment in adolescents.
- There are likely to be gender differences in attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment.
1.12 Purposed Hypothesized Model
3.1 Research Design
Co-relational research design was used to find out relationship between attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment in adolescents with both working parents.
3.2 Sample and Sampling technique
Sample was comprised of 150 adolescents with both working parents. Non probability convenient sampling was used. The criteria selection of adolescence was based on predefined inclusion criteria and the data of those students who were giving incomplete information or having one or both parent are non-working or having any physical or psychological injury were excluded from the analysis and those questionnaire were also excluded either due to incomplete. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed out of which 150 were selected for the study.
Descriptive of Sample Characteristics (N=150)
| 1 1st|
Most of the adolescents are belong from joint families with education or matriculation level and most of the participants are middle born.
3.2.1 Inclusion criteria
- Only those adolescents included in the sample that was living with both parental figures in the same household.
- Only those adolescents included in the sample whose both parents were working.
3.2.2 Exclusion Criteria
- Physically disable adolescents or those with any psychological problem were not included in the sample.
3.3 Operational definition of variables
- 3.3.1 Attachment orientation
Attachment orientation is a way to deal with youngster raising that advances a safe attachment bond in the middle of parents and their kids. Attachment is a logical term for the enthusiastic bond in a relationship (Frarly, 2011).
- 3.3.2 Perceived parental support
Perceived parental support refers to the measure of cooperation a parent has in terms of educating and her kid’s entire life, and how much they support their child (Ryan, 1991).
- 3.3.3 Social Adjustment
Adjustment of the individual to the social environment. Adjustment may occur by adjusting the self to the environment or by changing the environment (Bells, 1963).
3.4 Assessment Protocol
In the present research, following tools were used
- The Experience in Close Relationships-Relationship Structure Questionnaire (ECR-RS) (Fraley, Heffernan, Vicary, &Brumbaugh, 2011)
- Perception of Parent Scale (Grolnick, Deci, & Ryan, 1997).
- Bell’s Adjustment inventory (Bells, 1934).
- Demographic Information Sheet
- 3.4.1 ECR-RS Questionnaire
Based on attachment theory, the questionnaire Experiences in Close Relationships – Relationship Structures was developed by Fraley, Heffernan, Vicary, & Brumbaugh, (2011). This scale measures the attachment pattern in a selection of secure relationships. The similar nine items are used to evaluate attachment styles with respect to four targets (i.e., mother, father, romantic partner, and best friend). It consists of two subscales. Attachment related anxiety that consists of 6 items measures a fear of interpersonal rejection or abandonment, an excessive need for approval from others. Sample item is “I often worry that this person doesn’t really care for me”. Second subscale is “Attachment related avoidance” that consists of 3 items measures a fear of dependence and interpersonal intimacy, an excessive need for self-reliance, and reluctance to self-disclose. Sample item is “I don’t feel comfortable opening up to this person”. High scores show insecure attachment while low score in this scale indicate a secure attachment with parents. The Cronbach’s alphas for avoidance is 0.88 (mother= .91, father= .92, partner= .81, friend= .85) and for anxiety is 0.80 (mother= .84, father= .87, partner= .83, friend= .83) (Fraley, Heffernan, Vicary, & Brumbaugh, 2011).For the present study, two domains (mother, father) of this scale was used to see the attachment pattern of adolescents. Translated versions of this scale were used in this research.
- 3.4.2 Perception of Parent Scale
The perception of parent scale (pops) (Grolnick, Ryan, and Deci ,1991).measure the perception of parental support. It has 42 items, 21 items measure mother involvement and then the same 21 items for fathers, from these items, 6 subscales scores are calculated. Items 1, 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 19, 21 were of mother Autonomy support and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 were of mother involvement and 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20 items measured the mother warmth. Item 22, 23, 26, 29, 32, 35, 38, 40, 42 were of father autonomy support and 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39 were of father involvement and items 25, 28, 31, 34, 37, 41 were of father warmth. To measure the mother involvement there are 6 items, mother autonomy support consisted 9 items and 6 items measure the mother warmth and same for father. The Likert scale range from 1 not at all to 7very true. Reliability coefficient of pops is .79 (Cohen & wills, 1999).
- 3.4.3 Bells adjustment inventory
Bell’s adjustment inventory consists of questions intended to evaluate the subjects ‘status in respect to several factors (Bells, 1943). It consists of 140 items. There are two forms of this inventory, one for students and the other for adults. The student form give four separate measure of personal and social adjustments such as home adjustment, health adjustment, social adjustment, emotional adjustment. To assess the social adjustment the “social adjustment” subscale was used that consists of 32 items. The sample item is “Do you enjoy social gathering just to be with people”. Responses are given by circling around yes” or “No”. For the present study, student version of this inventory was used. Translated version of this scale was used in this research.
- 3.4.4 Demographic Information Sheet
Demographic Information Questionnaire includes gender, education, nature of parent’s job, age, family system, number of siblings, birth order.
- 3.5 Translation Procedure
Perception of parent scale (pops) (Grolnick, Ryan, & Deci, 1991) was developed in English language. So it was difficult to use this scale in Pakistani researches because less educated participants in research cannot correctly respond on these items. The purpose of translation in native language was to make language easy so that everyone can understand it easily. Because of cultural differences it is difficult for everyone to understand the other cultures languages.
Procedure for Translation pops
The steps that were followed in translating “pops” are given below: (MAPI Institute, 2012)
- Step 1: Conceptual Definitions
Analysis of original instrument was done to simplify the idea examine through every item of the unique apparatus.
- Step 2: Recruitment and Briefing
This step involved the recruitment and briefing of a consultant from the country of the target language to supervise the translation process. The research supervisor supervised the whole research as well as translation process.
- Step 3: Forward Translation
The aim of this process was to obtain a translation of an original instrument in a target language (Urdu) that was both conceptually equivalent to the original instrument as well as easily understandable for the people who give response on this scale. According to MAPI guidelines, two forward translations were obtained from two bilingual persons who were native speakers of the target language and fluent in the source language. The purpose was to obtain a consensus target language version. The consensus was developed in a meeting with supervisor between the two forward translations. So that translation was given preference which completed the meaning behind the items in English and on which there was a mutual consent too. Every effort was made by the translators to stay as close to the literal meaning behind the item as they can. In that way, a final version of Urdu translation was completed.
- Step 4: Backward Translation
The purpose of backward translation was to obtain a translation into English (source language) of the target language version (Urdu). For this purpose, two backward translations were done. Then researchers and supervisor develop consensus to make a final version of both English translations for comparing it with the original one. After getting a final version of backward translation, it was then compared with the original version of the pops.
- Step 5: Proof Reading
The aim of proof reading was to guarantee so as to no style spelling or grammatical error stay in the target language version.
First of all the researcher obtained permission from the authors of the original measures to use them in the current study. Synopsis was approved from board of studies (BOS). Before data collection, an authority letter was obtained from the University of the Punjab, Lahore that explained the nature of the research study and request for permission to collect data. Permission was taken from the concerned authorities of different schools and colleges of Lahore for collecting data. Researcher selected participants on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria from different schools and colleges of Lahore. Consent of participants, to be a part of the study, was taken and then they were informed about nature of the research. Confidentiality of the information regarding the results was assured to participants. It was also being assured to the participants that their information was used purely for purpose of the research and they can withdraw from the research any time during the research process. According to the characteristics of the sample, sampling strategy and the research design were selected .The researcher visit different schools and colleges so few schools and colleges were selected. The authority letter were sign by their principles to conduct the research after that researcher enter the class and give the instruction and information about the research and informing about the ethical consideration. After that questionnaire were distributed among the participants. The participants were cooperating and excited after receiving the questionnaire back, the researcher were thanked for being cooperative and develop the trust that confidentiality of the data will maintained. At the end study, the researcher concluded their finding and give implication and limitation about the research. Then, participants were given all the measures in random order followed by a demographic form. After data collection, questionnaires was be scored and quantitatively measured.
3.6 Ethical Considerations
Ethical considerations are as below:
- Preceding permission of the tool being used was required from the respective authors. Letters for permission were being sent.
- Consent was taken from concerned participant and they will be briefed about the research.
- Anonymity of the participants and confidentiality of the data was maintained.
- Results were reported accurately.
The present research aimed to investigate the attachment Orientation, Perceived Parental Support and social Adjustment in Adolescents of working parents. The data analysis strategy involved performing(i) reliability analysis for all the scales and their subscales; (ii) descriptive analysis for all the demographic variables; (iii) Pearson product moment correlation to see the correlation among study variables(iv) Linear regression analysis to see the prediction in attachment orientations and social adjustment (v) hierarchical multiple regression analysis to see the moderation effect of perceived parental support (v)Independent sample t-test to assess gender difference.
4.1 Statistical Analysis
Descriptive analyses were used for demographic variables. Pearson product moment correlation was used to assess the relationships between variables. Hierarchal Regression analysis with enter method used for prediction and moderation. Independent sample t-test was used to see the gender difference.
Psychometric and Descriptive analysis of Attachment Orientation, Perceived Parental Support an Social Adjustment (N=150)
|POPS total mother||21||.73||85.92(10.22)||57-111||21-147|
|POPS total father||21||.71||83.58(10.17||63-120||21-147|
Note= ECRS= Experience in Close Relationship Structure Questionnaire; POPS= Perception of Parents Scale
Table 4.1 showed the reliability coefficients of attachment orientation, avoidance related attachment, and anxiety related attachment, perceived parental support (mother, father) and social adjustment. The reliability values of assessment measures were significant enough to carry on further analysis in accordance with the present research hypotheses.
It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a positive relationship between attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to test these relationships that are given below in table 4.2.
Inter-correlation between Demographic Variables and Attachment Orientation, Perceived Parental Support and Social Adjustment
|4. POPS (m)||–||.70**||.70**||.71**||.02||.06||.03||.02||.14||-.29||.20||.29||.02||-.07|
|5. INV (m)||–||.18*||.32**||.03||.01||.03||.04||.11||-.26||.31||.11||.00||-.07|
|6. AUT (m)||–||.23**||.11||.16||.05||.03||.08||-.23||-.04||.24||.03||-.07|
|8. POPS (f)||–||.47**||.83**||.70**||.09||.10||-.10||.00||-.00||.02|
|9. INV (f)||–||.18*||.09||.12||-.09||-.00||.05||-.06||-.03|
|10. AUT (f)||.44**||.02||.12||-.15||-.00||-.06||.03|
|11. WAR (f)||–||.04||.15||-.04||-.02||.10||.04|
|15. father occupation||–||-.15||.11|
|16. Mother occupation||–||-.12|
|17. Family system||–|
Note= AT = Attachment Orientation ;AVA= Avoidance Attachment; ANA= Anxiety Attachment; POPS(m)= Perception of Parent Scale Mother; INV(m)= Involvement mother; AUT(m)= Autonomy mother; WAR(m)= Warmth mother; POPS(f)= Perception of Parent Scale father; INV(f)= Involvement father; AUT(f)= Autonomy father; WAR(f)= Warmth father; SA= Social adjustment
N=150 ***p<.001; **p<.01; *p<<.05
Results of Pearson product moment correlation analysis revealed that attachment orientation was positively correlated with the social adjustment. There was also a significant positive correlation between avoidance related attachment and perceived warmth from father as the adolescent who feel insecure attachment also perceive less warmth from their parents especially from their fathers. There is no significant relationship with demographics.
It was hypothesized that attachments orientation is likely to significantly predict the social adjustment. Linear Regression Analysis was used to test this hypothesis. Results are given below.
Linear Regression Analysis Showing the Impact of Attachment Orientation on Social Adjustment Among Adolescents (N=150)
|Attachment total||.55***||[.56, 1.20]|
|Avoidance related||.21*||[-.84, .07]|
|Anxiety related||.24**||[-1.05, -.20]|
***p <.001; **p<.01; *p<.05
In this analysis, attachment orientation, and its two subscales Avoidance related and anxiety related attachment was entered as predictor variables. The ∆R² of .17 indicate 17% of variances in the score for social adjustment of adolescents can be accounted for by independent variables entered in the analysis with F(3,146)=10.49,p<.001.Table 4.3 revealed that there is significant impact of attachment orientation, avoidance related and anxiety related attachment on social adjustment. Thus Findings supported the second hypothesis.
It was hypothesized that perceived mother support is likely to moderate the relationship between attachments orientation and social adjustment. Hierarchal multiple Regression Analysis was carried out to test this hypothesis. Results are given in below table.
Moderation Effect of Perceived Parental Support of Mother Between Attachment Orientation and Social Adjustment (N=150)
|Att X POP (M)||.26|
|Att X INV (M)||.02|
|Att X AUT (M)||.06|
|Att X WA (M)||.03|
Note= POPS(M)= perception of parent scale of mother; INV(M) = involvement mother ; AUT(M) = autonomy mother; WA(M) = warmth mother *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.
A multiple hierarchical regression moderation analysis was performed to estimate the extent to which the attachment orientation (avoidance related, anxiety related attachment )and perceived mother support (involvement, autonomy, warmth)were predicting the social adjustment and how the interaction between attachment orientation (avoidance related, anxiety related attachment )perceived mother support (involvement, autonomy, warmth) affected the adolescent’s social adjustment. Perceived mother support with its three subscales was entered in step 1, that explained 2% variance in adolescent’s social adjustment and it was not significant, F (3, 147) =1.15, p> .05. In second step, after adding the attachment orientation it explained 10% variance in social adjustment that was significant F(4, 146) =5.14, p = .01. Finally interactions were entered into step 3 of regression model. Overall this model was also significant F(7, 143) =2.99, p = .05by explaining 4% of variance. But individually no one variable explained significant variance.
It was also hypothesized that perceived father support is likely to moderate the relationship between attachments orientation and social adjustment. Hierarchal multiple Regression Analysis was carried out to test this hypothesis. Results are given in below table.
Moderation effect of perceived parental support of father between Attachment Orientation Social Adjustment (N=150)
|Att X POP (F)||1.24|
|Att X INV (F)||.07|
|Att X AUT (F)||.06|
|Att X WA (F)||.22*|
Note= POPS(F)= perception of parent scale of father; INV(F) = involvement father ; AUT(F) = autonomy father; WA(F) = warmth father *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.
A multiple hierarchical regression moderation analysis was performed to estimate the extent to which the attachment orientation (avoidance related, anxiety related attachment )and perceived father support (involvement, autonomy, warmth)were predicting the social adjustment and how the interaction between attachment orientation (avoidance related, anxiety related attachment )perceived mother support (involvement, autonomy, warmth) affected the adolescent’s social adjustment. Perceived father support with its three subscales was entered in step 1, that explained 2% variance in adolescent’s social adjustment and it was not significant, F (3, 147) =1.01, p> .05. In second step, after adding the attachment orientation it explained 11% variance in social adjustment that was significant F(4, 146) =5.45, p = .001. Finally interactions were entered into step 3 of regression model. Overall this model was also significant F(7, 143) =3.99, p = .01 by explaining 3% of variance. But individually only the interaction of warmth and attachment explained significant variance that is 22%.
Figure 2 Two-way interaction effects of attachment and perceived father warmth on social adjustment
Figure 2 represents the interaction effect following the method recommended by used (Dawson & Ritcher, 2006). Values of the moderator variable were chosen at 1 SD above and below the mean Simple slopes for the association between attachment and social adjustment were tested for low (-1) and high (+1 above the mean ) level of pops warmth (father) the simple slop test revealed that the relationship between attachment and social adjustment increases when the pops warmth is high (B= .50, P= 0.001) and also increase when pops father is low (0.64, P= .001). Results showed that Attachment is more strongly related to social adjustment when pops warmth is low. Simple regression lines were generated to introduce these values into the regression equation. In this way it can be seen that adolescents with high levels of attachments have more social adjustment when their perception of father warmth id higher (B= 0.50 (+1), p< .001), (0.64, (-1), p= .001),
Independent sample t-test was carried out to check the gender differences in attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment
Gender Differences Among Social Adjustment, Attachment Orientation, Perceived Parental Support (N=150)
Note=SA= Social Adjustment; AO= Attachment Orientation; POPSM= Perception of parent scale mother; POPSF= Perception of parent scale father
Independent sample t test was used to see the gender differences in attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment. Results revealed that there was statistically significant difference in girls and boys. The findings indicated that boys tend to have more secure attachment as compared to girls. Results also revealed that boys perceived more parental support from their mothers as compare to girls.
Differences in Adolescent Living in Nuclear and Joint Families for Attachment Orientation, Perceived Parental Support and Social Adjustment (N=150)
|Joint (77)||Nuclear (73)||Interval|
Independent sample t test was used to see the difference in adolescents living in nuclear and joint families. Results revealed that there was no statistically difference in adolescents’ social adjustment, attachment and perceived parental support living in nuclear and joint families.
Summary of the Findings
- The findings showed that secure attachment was positively correlated with the social Adjustment.
- There was also a significant positive correlation between avoidance related attachment and perceived warmth from father as the adolescent who feel insecure attachment also perceive less warmth from their parents especially from their fathers.
- Attachment orientation, avoidance related and anxiety related attachment have significant impact on social Adjustment.
- Perceived father support significantly moderate the relationship between attachment orientation and social adjustment.
- Boys have more secure attachment and perceive parental support as compare to girls.
The purpose of current study was to inspect the relationship between attachment orientations, perceived parental support and social adjustment in adolescents of working parents. Sample was assessed through non-probability convenient sampling. In the light of available literature on the topic, it was hypothesized that there would be positive relationship between attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment. Moreover, attachment orientation is likely to predict social adjustment in adolescents, and perceived parental support is likely to moderate the relationship between attachment orientation and social adjustment in adolescents. It was also hypothesized that gender differences would exist in attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment.
Results revealed that attachment orientation was positively correlated with the social adjustment. Significant impact of attachment orientation, avoidance related and anxiety related attachment was found on social adjustment. Perceived parental support did not moderate the relationship between attachment orientation and social adjustment in adolescents; however, interaction of warmth and attachment explained significant variance. The findings indicated that boys tend to have more secure attachment and they perceived more parental support from their mothers as compare to girls. In reference to the existing literature and sample characteristics, results of the present study are being discussed below.
It was hypothesized that there would be positive relationship between attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment. Results of the study supported hypothesis and revealed that attachment orientation was positively correlated with the social adjustment. If the literature on attachment orientation is searched, it is in consistent with the current findings, as Larose and Boivin (1998) found that the secure attachments with parents predict socio-emotional adjustment and social support in adolescents. Moreover, results of present study indicated a significant positive correlation between avoidance related attachment and perceived warmth from father as the adolescents who feel insecure attachment also perceived less warmth from their parents especially from their fathers. Previous literature supports these findings, as it was inferred from a research (Mofrad, Abdullah, & Abu Samah, 2010) that the children with avoidance related attachment perceived less protection and warmth from their mothers.
Similarly, Kanemasa and Daibo (2003) found that secure attachment was related to the positive perception of self and better mental health. The difference in literature between mother and father attachment may be due to the reason that in Pakistan, children are more attached with their mothers than their fathers. So, the results of correlation go with the previous researches on attachment orientation (Diana and Shiri, 2013), (Ryan and Shim, 2008). So the results describe that most of the time attachment with father mostly affect the social adjustment of adolescents. Because children mostly accept the roles of their father more than their mothers. The reason of insecure attachment of father is also this that if mother and father is working so father have more responsibilities then mothers, somehow mothers give time to their children but fathers have to complete the work of house, job or many other task, so they can’t give proper attention to their children and attachment become less.
Moreover, it was hypothesize that attachment orientation is likely to predict social adjustment in adolescents. Significant impact of attachment orientation, avoidance related and anxiety related attachment was found on social adjustment. The results revealed that the adolescents who have secured attachment, less avoidant and anxiety related attachment well adjust with their social environment. The findings are consistent with the previous researches of Cooper et al. (1988) and Brumariu and Kerns (2008) studied that ambivalent attachment orientation was related to social apprehension. Similarly, social skills were observed to negatively relate with the anxious attachment styles (Tamaki & Takahashi, 2013). The more the anxious attachment an individual have, the less will be the level of social skills acquired. Thus it can be said that the attachment orientation of adolescents towards their parents positively predicted their social adjustment and is supported by the literature.
Furthermore, it was hypothesized that perceived parental support is likely to moderate the relationship between attachment orientation and social adjustment in adolescents. But findings disclosed that perceived parental support of both mother and father did not moderate the relationship between attachment orientation and social adjustment in adolescents. These results might be possible because the respondents might have done self-serving bias and some information might not be delivered to the researcher. However, interaction of warmth father and attachment explained significant variance, indicated that adolescents with high levels of attachments have more social adjustment when their perception of father warmth is higher.
Similar results were found in a doctoral research by Wyttenbach (2008) that the social adjustment in college students was significantly related to their attachment with fathers while it was unrelated to the attachment with mothers. It may be because of the reason that fathers are generally considered as more social and idealized as the bread winner of a family, thus the adjustment to society is learned by this role model and the adolescents who, are more attached with their fathers and gain warmth, socially adjust better than those who are less attached with their fathers. In another study, Gray (2011) concluded that the early adolescence attachment with their parents, kept on influencing their later life social adjustment. The results of the study confirm previous literature (Sevda, 2010). Sometimes working parents are not able to give more time to their children because of the load of the work they didn’t pay much attention to their child’s need might be this is reason behind no moderation towards social adjustment.
It was in addition hypothesized that gender differences would exist in attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment. Results confirming the hypothesis showed that the boys tend to have more secure attachment as compared to girls, as well as perceived more parental support from their mothers than the girls do. Also results are consisted with the previous literature (Wenk et al, 1994) and Hier and Kurboot (1990).Wyttenbach (2008) also observed the influence of gender in social adjustment and parental attachment. In Pakistani culture it was observed that, mothers are more supportive for their boys to build social circles while girls are usually refrained from many social activities, therefore, the results indicated more parental support and secure attachment with mothers, in boys than the girls. An indigenous research (Kausar & Shafique, 2008) reported that boys perceived their mothers as more authoritative than the girls, in adolescents. Consequently, in this regard, the results of the current study are consistent with the previous literature. Psychodynamic theory reveals that girls are more attached with their father as compare to boys, because boys are more attached with their fathers.
The discussion of the research results in the light of research literature in hand can be summarized as, that the literature accepted the positive relationship between attachment orientation and social adjustment of adolescents. Literature supported the prediction of social adjustment through attachment orientation and its sub-scales, avoidance related and anxiety related attachment. There is a discrepancy, literature suggests the role of mother, while current findings point towards the role of father in relationship between avoidance related attachment and perceived warmth. Literature was found stable in respect to gender differences in attachment orientation, perceived parental support and social adjustment of the adolescents.
5.2 Limitations and Suggestions
Limitations and suggestions of the study are stated below:
- Sample comprised of those adolescents who live with both parents, regardless of the job status of their parents. Future researches can address the difference in social adjustment of adolescents with working and non-working parents.
- The sample was conveniently approached in different schools and colleges of Lahore. There can be a great difference in the social adjustment and attachment orientation of adolescents belonging to different socio-economic classes. Therefore, comparisons between the private and public sector schools and colleges can be done in further researches.
Adolescence is a critical phase of life where transition occurs from childhood to adulthood, and it is sensitive period where parental support and attachment is crucial for better life adjustment. Adolescents adjust better to their social environment, when they have secure attachments with their parents (Soucy& Larose, 2000). The present study is an indication towards the significance of parental support in adolescence. The attachment styles infer radical changes in social adjustment of the young adults. This study can serve as a guide for parents to help their children adjusting to the society and grow better human beings. School and college students may learn to identify and manage their attachment orientations with their parents and get to know, how significant it is for their healthy survival.
- Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1979). Infant-mother attachment. American Psychologist, 34, 932-937.
- Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44(4).doi:709-716. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.44.4.709
- Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E.& Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachments. A psychological study of the strange situation.
- Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdal: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Water. E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Akhtar, Z. D. (2012). Attachment styles of adolescents: Characteristics and contributing factors.International Islamic University. 5, 60-67. doi: ISSN 2094-1417.
- Ali, F., & Zahra, G., (1993). The relationship between the nature of family feast times and adolescent social adjustment. 5, 59-80. doi: ISSN 1404-1420.
- Alvaera, B. A., Bayen, S. E., &Marteinz, P. D. (2009). Teaching approach perceived parental involvement and autonmy as predictors of achievement. The international journal of Research and Review, 1, 57-80. doi: ISSN 2094-1420.
- Alvaera, B.A., Bayen, S.E., &Martienz, P.D. (2009).Teaching approach, perceived parental involvement and autonomy as predictors of achievement.The international journal of research and review, 1, 57-80.ISSN 2094-1420.
- Amato, P., & Keith, B. (1991).Parental divorce and the well-being of children.Psychological Bulletin, 110, 26–46.
- Andersson, G. (2005). Family relations, adjustment and well-being in a longitudinal study of children in care.Child & Family Social Work, 10 (1), 43-56. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2206.2005.00337.x
- Anthony, P.A., & Ronald, Z.(1992). The relationship between perceived parental acceptance-rejection, emotional adjustment, or material misuse.Journal of Marital Counseling, 9(1), 2-47
- Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological wellbeing in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427– 454.
- Armsden, G., & Greenberg, M. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal ofYouth and Adolescence, 16, 427–454.
- Ayub, N. (2004).The relationship between self-concept and the satisfaction of life among adolescents.(Published thesis).Institute of business, Karachi.
- Backovia, W., &Andrea,P. (2000). Effect of parental support and adolescent’s wellbeing in the setting of parental administration position.American Journal of psychological Research. All Right Reserved.
- Bagarozzi, D., &Pollane, L. (1983).A repetition and validation of the spousal inventory ofdesired changes and relationship barriers. (SIDCARB): Elaborations on diagnostic and clinical utilization. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 9, 303-315.
- Baldwin, L. (1992). Attachment of adults.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226-244.
- Barnes, G.M. & Farrell, M.P. (1992). Parental support and control as predictors of adolescents drinking, delinquency and related problem behaviours. Journal of Marriage and the family, 54, 763-776.
- Bartholomew, K. & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226-244.
- Belsky, J., &Nezworski, T. M. (Eds.).(1988). Clinical implications of attachment.Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development.Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.
- Bienvenu, M. (1970).Measurement of marital communication.Family Coordination, 19, 26-31.
- Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. London: Tavistock.
- Bowlby, J. (1969).Attachment and loss: Attachment. New York, NY: Basic Books.
- Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss. Attachment (2nd ed.). London: The Hogarth Press and The Institute of Psycho-analysis.
- Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.
- Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of Adult Romantic Attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes(Eds.). Attachment theory and close relationships. New York: Guilford Press.
- Bretherton, I., & Waters, E. (1985).Growing points of attachment theory and research.Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (209).
- Brock, G.W. & Barnard, C. P. (1992).Procedures in marriage and family therapy (2nded.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
- Brumariu, L.E., & Kerns, K.A.(2008). Mother-child attachment and social anxiety symptoms inmiddle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(5). 393-402. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2008.06.002
- Butt, Y. F., &Suhail, A., (2011).Gender differences in religious involvement and social adjustment among Punjab university students.Institute of applied psychology, University c of Punjab.
- Call-Horsley, G. (1997).In-laws: A guide to extended-family therapy. New York: Wiley.
- Campbell, L., Simpson, J. A., Boldry, J., &Kashy, D. A. (2005). Perceptions of Conflict and Support in Romantic Relationships: The Role of Attachment Anxiety. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 88 (3), 510-531. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1990
- Capra, F. (1996).The web of life. New York: Anchor Books.
- Charles, I., & Brodsky, D., (1979). Studied the social systems of mental health clients toidentify features linked with optimistic social adjustment. Journal of Social Psychology.43,167-112.
- Chen, H. E., Kaspur, L.R., & Noh, S. (2000). The study on adolescent social, emotional and school adjustment. Journal of Research of Adolescence,90, 232-145.
- Cohen, H., & wills, S. (1998). The influence of gender on same sex friendships. In C. Hendrick(Ed.), Close Relationships, 10, 164-186.
- Coletti, C . J., Christense, F., Carpentier, M . Y., Page M .C., McNall, K. R.Y., Mayer, W.H., Chaney, J.M., & Mullins, L.L. (2008). The relationship of parental overprotection, perceived vulnerability, and parenting stress to behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment in children with Cancer. Pediator Blood Cancer,51(2), 269-274. doi: 10.1002/pbc.21577
- Colin, V.L. (1996). Human attachment.Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
- Collins, N. L., & Read, S. J. (1990).Adult Attachment, Working Models, and Relationship Quality in Dating Couples.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(4), 644-663.
- Cooper, M., Shaver, P., & Collins, N. (1998). Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1380-1397.
- Cromwell, R., Olson, D., & Fournier, D. (1976).Diagnosis and evaluation in marital and family counseling.In D. Olson (Ed.), Treating relationships.Lake Mills: Graphic Publishing.
- Diana, Q., &shiri, B. (2013).The relationship between mothers attachment style and their babies’ rest styles. Journal of Research on Family Psychology,New York, All Right Reserved
- HYPERLINK “http://pure.au.dk/portal/en/persons/dagmar-feddern-donbaek(880bd520-8bcf-407a-92c0-88bb97d1cd30).html“Donbaek, D.F, &Elklit, A. (2014). A validation of the Experiences in Close Relationships ,Relationship Structures scale (ECR-RS) in adolescents. Attachment and Human Development, 16 (1), 58-76.
- Elder, P. A., & Conger, C. (2000). Impact of Cultures on Religiosity.
- Erickson, E. (1958). Young man Luther: A study in psychoanalysis and history . New York: Norton.
- Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.
- Farhana, R., (2012). The relationship between family environment and social adjustment among right on time of adolescence.Institute of applied psychology.All Right Reserved
- Fiese, B. H., & Kline, C. A. (1993). Development of the Family Ritual Questionnaire: Initial reliability and validation studies. Journal of Family Psychology, 6, 290-299.
- Fisher, B., Giblin, P., &Hoopes, M. (1982). Attachment orientation : What therapists say and what families want. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 14, 273-284.
- Flouri, E., & Buchanan, A. (2003).The role of father involvement and mother involvement inadolescents’ psychological well-being.British journal of social work, 33, 399-406.
- Forte, J. A., & Hayes, B. A. (2008).Peer Relationship and Adjustment at School. Family Process, 30, 55-73.
- Fraley, R. C., & Davis, K. E. (1997). Attachment formation and transfer in young adults’ close friendships and romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 4, 131–144.
- Friedman, H., &Krakover, S. (1992). Social Development and personality Development in Children. Journal of Family Psychology, 6, 77-83.
- Froland, C., Brodsky, G., Olson, M., & Stewart, L. (1979).social support and social adjustment: implications for mental health professionals. Jalaya, K., &darul, J. (2000).The relationship between the nature of family supper times and adolescents social adjustment. Community Mental Health Journal.15 (2), 82 93.
- Gallo, S., Linda, G., & Mathew, O. (2001).Impacts of attachment orientation on physiological reactions to naturalistic social connections in adolescents.Department of Psychology. London.
- Gecas, V., &Schwalbe, M.L. (1986). Parental behaviour and adolescents self-esteem. Journal of marriage and family, 48, 37-46.
- Grabill, C. M., & Kerns, K. A. (2000).Attachment style and intimacy in friendship.Personal Relationships, 7, 363–378.
- Gray, K.L. (2011). Effects of parent-child attachment on social adjustment and friendship inyoung adulthood (Unpublished dissertation). California Polytechnic State University. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu
- Gray, M.R., & Steinberg, L. (1999). Unpacking authoritative parenting: Reassessing Multidimensional contrast. Journal of marriage and the family, 61, 574-587.
- Gray, R., Vitak, J., Easton, E., & Ellison, N. (2013).Examining social adjustment to college in the age of social media: Factors influencing successful transitions and persistence.Computers & Education, 67, 193-207. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.02.02HCIL-2013-26
- Gray, U., (2013). Relationship between the Facebook and the social Adjustment of adolescents.Journal of Student Research and their Counseling.
- Grolnick, W.S., Ryan, R.M., &Deci, E.L. (1997).Perception of parent scale.
- Grotevant, H. D., &Carlson , C. I. (1989). Family assessment: A guide to methods and measures. New York: Guilford.
- Hadely, A.M., & Moore, K.A. (2008). A guide to adolescents self-concept. Child trends, 31, 65- 70.
- Harter, G., (1988).To investigate the relationship between intimate communal intellectual features as conceivable intermediaries of social adjustment.
- Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524.
- Hier, T., &kurboot, H., (1990).Study the social adjustment and side effect logy between two sorts of destitute students.The international journal of research and review.
- Huang, Y. S. (2007). The effect of home stimulation on Social Adjustment.
- Imtiaz, S. Naqvi, I. (2012). Parental Attachment and Identity Styles among Adolescents: Moderating Role of Gender. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 27, 241-264. Quaid-e-Azam University.
- Kanemasa, Y., &Daibo, I. (2003).Early adult attachment styles and social adjustment.TheJapanese Journal of Psychology, 74(5), 466-473. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15029764
- Kargar, H. L. (2000). Child and social adjustment. London: HarperCollins.
- Karukvi, C. J., Christense, F., Carpentier, M . Y., Page M . C., McNall, K. R.Y., Mayer, W.H., Chaney, J.M., & Mullins, L.L, (2010). The relationship between perceived social backing and parental demeanor with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent’s inhabitant model.Pediator Blood Cancer ,51(2), 269-274. doi: 10.1002/pbc.21577
- Kaslow, F. W. (Ed.). (1998). The handbook of relational diagnosis and dysfunctional family patterns. New York: Wiley.
- Kausar, R., &Shafiique, N. (2012).Gender Differences in perceived parenting styles and socio emotional adjustment of adolescents.Institute of applied psychology (NIP). All Right Reserved
- Kausar, R., &Shafique, N. (2008).Gender differences in perceived parenting styles andsocio-emotional adjustment of adolescents.Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research,23(3-4), 93-105.Retrieved from http://www.google.com.pk
- Kenny, M., & Perez, V. (1996). Attachment and psychological well-being among racially and ethnically diverse first-year college students. Journal of College Student Development, 37, 527–535.
- Kern, F.E, & Steven, B.C. (1996).Human Rights and Social Adjustment.
- Kerr, M. E., & Bowen, M. (1988).Family evaluation. New York: W. W. Norton.
- Kinston, W., & Loader, P. (1988). The family task interview: A tool for clinical research infamily interaction. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 14, 67-68.
- Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Davis, K. E. (1994). Attachment style, gender, and relationship stability: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66 (3), 502-512. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.522
- L’Abate, L. & Wagner, V. (1985).Theory–derived, family oriented test batteries. In L’Abate(Ed.), Handbook of family psychology and therapy. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.
- L’Abate, L. (1976). Understanding and helping the individual in the family.New York Grune & Stratton.
- Lamborn, H., Mouths, C., Dornbusch, F., &steinberg (1991). How young couple got advantage from commanding from demanding and lenient parenting.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(1), 58.
- Larose, S. Boivin, M. (1998).Attachment to parents, social support expectations, and socio- emotional adjustment during the high school- college transition.Research Unit on childrens social maladjustment.Journal of Research on Adolescence, 8 (1), 1-27
- Larose, S., &Boivin, M. (1998).Attachment to parents, social support expectations, andSocio-emotional adjustment during the high school-college transition.Journal of Researchon Adolescence, 8(1), 1-27. doi: 10.1207/s15327795jra0801_1
- Love, K. M., & Murdock, T. B. (2004). Attachment to Parents and Psychological Well Being: An Examination of Young Adult College Students in Intact Families and Stepfamilies.Journal of Family Psychology, 18 (4), 600-608. doi:10.1037/0893-3184.108.40.2060
- Mattanah, J. F., Hancock, G. R., & Brand, B. L. (2004). Parental Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and College Student Adjustment: A Structural Equation Analysis of Mediational Effects. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(2), 213-225.doi:10.1037/0022-0220.127.116.11
- McGoldrick, M., &Gerson, R. (1985).Genograms in family assessment. New York: W.W. Norton.
- Mofrad, S., Abdullah, R., & Abu Samah, B. (2010). Do children with different attachment typeperceive different parental rearing? Journal of Psychology, 1(1), 1-7. Retrieved from http://www.krepublishers.com
- Naz, F., &Arshad, A. (2012).Inter parental conflicts, parental rejection and personality maladjustment among the late adolescents.Institute of applied psychology, University of Punjab.
- Nearing, B., J. (1916). Social Adjustment and Environment.Journal of Family Psychology, 7, 176-185.
- Nurse, R. (1999).Family Assessment. New York: Wiley.
- Parade, S. H., Leerkes, E. M., &Blankson, A. (2010).Attachment to parents, social anxiety, and close relationships of female students over the transition to college.Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39 (2), 127-137. doi:10.1007/s10964-009 9396-x
- Patterson, T. E. (1997). Theoretical unity and technical eclecticism: pathways to coherence in family therapy. American Journal of Family Therapy, 25(2), 97-109.
- Patterson, T.E. (1999). The Couple & Family Clinical Documentation Sourcebook. New York: John publishers.
- Raja, S.N., et al. (2001).Perceived attachment to their parents and peer and their psychological health.
- Reis, H. T., Senchak, M., & Solomon, B. (1985). Sex differences in the intimacy of socialinteraction: Further examination of potential explanations. Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology, 48, 1204-1217.
- Rohner, R.P. (1986). The Warmth dimension: Foundations of parental acceptance theory. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.pk.
- Ryan, R. D., &Decan, P. (2000). Psychology:Self Determinants of concepts. London: Hodder&Stoughto
- Ryan, U. Z., & Shim, O. (2008). Compare the differences on adolescent’s social accomplishment objectives and social adjustment in middle school.British journal of social work, 43, 444-123.
- Saferstein, J. A., Neimeyer, G. J., &Hagans, C. L. (2005).Attachment as a predictor offriendship qualities in college youth.Social Behavior & Personality: An InternationalJournal, 33 (8), 767-775. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
- Sagan, C. (1980). Cosmos. New York: Random House.
- Scharf,M., &Mayseless,N. (2007). The developmental pattern of resistance to peer influence in adolescence: Will the teenager ever be able to resist? 2007. Manuscript submitted for publication.
- Scott, D. k. (1989).Adjustment pattern or developing growth.Journal of Family Therapy, 15, 259-269.
- Sevda, I. Y,. (2010). The relationships in attachment and individual and social adjustment.Journal of Psychological Research.
- Shaffer, D.R. (2002). Developmental psychology: child psychology and adolescents. (6thedition). The wads worth psychology resources centre.
- Shaver, P., Hazan, C., & Bradshaw, D. (1988). Love as attachment. In R.J. Sternberg & M. L. Barnes, K. The psychology of love. New Haven: Yale University Press.
- Simpson, J. A. (1990). Influence of attachment styles on romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59 (5), 971- 980. doi:10.1037/0022 3518.104.22.1681
- Smith, P. D., (1976). Variation and systematics of the stripetail darter, Etheostomakennicotti. Copeia 1976(3):532-541
- Sohail, A., (2011). To investigate gender differences in religious involvement and social adjustment among Punjab University students.
- Soucy, N., & Larose, S. (2000). Attachment and control in family and mentoring contexts as determinants of adolescent adjustment at college. Journal of Family Psychology, 14,125–143.
- Steinberg ,L., & Silverberg ,S.(1986). The vicissitudes of autonomy in early adolescence. Child Development.
- Tamaki, K., & Takahashi, J. (2013).The relationship between adult attachment style andsocial skills in terms of the four-category model of attachment style.InternationalJournal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(19), 84-90. Retrieved from http://www.ijhssnet.com
- Titchener, J.& Golden, M. (1963).Prediction of therapeutic themes from observation of family interaction evoked by the “revealed differences” technique. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 136, 464 – 474.
- Vivona, J. M. (2000). Parental attachment styles of late adolescents: Qualities of attachment relationships and consequences for adjustment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(3), 316-329. doi:10.1037/0022-022.214.171.1246
- Wang, C., & Mallinckrodt, B. (2006).Acculturation, attachment, and psychosocial adjustment of Chinese/Taiwanese international students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53 (4), 422-433. doi:10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.1992
- Watzlawick, P. (1966). A structured family interview. Family Process, 12, 127-144.
- Wenk, D. A., Hardestly, Constance, L., Morgan, Carolyn, S. & Blair, S. l. (1994). The influence of parental involvement on the well beings of sons and daughters. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 229-234.
- Wilson, E. O. (1975). Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge: The Belknap Press.
- Woodhead, R., Carr, J & P. Light. Becoming a person. London: Routledge.
- Worden, G .V. (2002).Social Adjustment in Old Age. New Jersy, Cambridge Uni.
- Wyttenbach, D.C. (2008). Relationship of parental attachment and identity status to college student adjustment (Doctoral dissertation).University of Minnesota.