As the readers will proceed through Project Report On Organizational Commitment, they will come to know about the job commitment and the factors causing job commitment. We interviewed 4 different candidates of different organizations regarding job commitment and looked for that variable that keeps an individual to stay committed or not committed with his job. Using those variables we have formulated 3 hypotheses and a theory accordingly.
INTRODUCTION TO Project Report On Organizational Commitment
Organization Commitment (OC) • is the second most frequently studied attitude in the workplace, but it has captured much less attention than job satisfaction. That can be defined as the relative strength of an individual’s identification with and involvement in a particular organization
Organizational commitment describes the level of attachment a member has towards his organization. A leading model of organizational commitment is the three-component model that argues that organizational commitment is a factor of three components that interact with each other. Effective commitment is the degree you want to stay with the organization. Continuance commitment is the degree that you stay with the organization because you believe you have to stay. Normative commitment is the degree to which you believe you ought to stay. Employee retention, work performance and organizational citizenship behavior are affected by the level of organizational commitment.
Finding ways to manage workplace stress isn’t about making huge changes or rethinking career ambitions, but rather about focusing on the one thing that’s always within one control: you.
- Create a balanced schedule. Analyze your schedule, responsibilities, and daily tasks. All work and no play is a recipe for burnout. Try to find a balance between work and family life, social activities and solitary pursuits, daily responsibilities and downtime.
- Don’t over-commit yourself. Avoid scheduling things back-to-back or trying to fit too much into one day. All too often, we underestimate how long things will take. If you’ve got too much on your plate, distinguish between the “shoulds” and the “musts.” Drop tasks that aren’t truly necessary to the bottom of the list or eliminate them entirely.
- Try to leave earlier in the morning. Even 10-15 minutes can make the difference between frantically rushing to your desk and having time to ease into your day. Don’t add to your stress levels by running late.
- Plan regular breaks. Make sure to take short breaks throughout the day to take a walk or sit back and clear your mind. Also try to get away from your desk or work station for lunch. Stepping away from work to briefly relax and recharge will help you be more, not less, productive.
Phase-I Interviews and Hypothesis Developing
Questionnaire-To measure 3 commitment factors:
(i) Acceptance of the organization value and goals.
(ii) Willingness to work and to help the organization.
(iii) Desire to remain with the organization
Following were some of the questions we asked from four different employees of different jobs and different work places .
- I am comfortable with my co-workers and supervisors
- I will not leave this job for more money but i will leave for job satisfaction
- I don’t.t feel equality and fairness in this organization
- Level of involvement and recognition is my need
- Some of my best friends work in my office, i would miss them if i left
- My current job duties are very rewarding
- My Job creates a desire to remain a member of organization
- I’ve enjoyed your time in work
- I enjoy coming to work each morning
- Management policies and procedures are flexible
- Organization provides development opportunities
- I like the atmosphere at my current job
- Job related independence is provided
- Positive work environment is motivation for me to stay with organization
- My salary and benefits meets my needs
- I’m due for a promotion so i don’t want to leave the job
- My salary is competitive enough
- I’ve less alternative work opportunities because of age
- I’ve less alternative work opportunities because i am female
- My job utilizes my skills and talent
- I am satisfied with my duties and pay
- Right now staying with my organization is matter of necessity
- Too much of my life will be disturbed if i wanted to leave my organization now
- The retirement benefits provided by the organizations are my focus
- I would sacrifice a lot if i left this job
- My Boss has invested time in me, that is why i am serving this organization
- For me staying in this organization is a moral thing
- Loyalty is the norm, i must stay with this organization even with low salary
- I feel obliged to repay the organization
- This organization helped me in increasing my skills and education that’s why its my duty to serve this organization
- This organization gave me my start
- This organization hired me when others disqualified me, so i can not leave it
- My employer has helped me a lot financially, i feel obliged
- My employer has helped me a lot emotionally, i feel obliged
- This organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me
- i owe to this organization for where i am.
Following were the people we interviewed
- Adnan Ali
- Fatima Jawed
- Miss Maria Adnan
- Mr Musa Butt
Introduction and overview of the candidate Mr. Adnan Ali
Mr Adnan Ali did his M.COM from Hailey college of commerce Punjab university, and currently is serving as branch manager at HBL .Mr AdnanAli joined this bank on February of 1982and since then he has been working there. He has an experience of working in foreign trade operations. Mr Adnan ali likes his job at the office and to and his commitment for the bank is high because in private sector people are likely to get more fringe benefits even after their retirement. So upon asking will he go for any other opportunity he said that he will prefer working for the same organization in which he is working presently.
Introduction and overview of Miss.Fatima Jawed
MissFatima Jawed is a teacher at IAS, PU she has been working for the organization for last 5 years .She is 28 years old . She is committed to her organization because of two reasons because she has a very deep affiliation with this department of PU because she herself was a part of the same Department once and for her being a part of the institute makes her committed to serve her organization in return hence her commitment can be classified as affective and normative commitment .being in the same organization is not boring or dull for her but she is of the view that one gets motivated time by time as they offer training(s) and such environment where one opportunity for growth also increases.
Introduction and overview of Miss Maria Adnan
She works as an examination controller at PUNJAB UNIVERSITY. She joined this in 2008 and at first she used to work as an assistant controller but later she got promoted because of her sheer hard work and determination. This promotion, recognition, acknowledgment boosted in her motivation as well as concern to work more hardheartedly for the organization also after being promoted to examination controller her responsibilities became more complex and demanding as well as challenging at times but for this duty she received a great deal of confidence and trust from the higher authorities this trust from supervisors boosted in her normative and affective commitment for the organization.
Introduction and overview of Musa Butt
He works as an HR manager in K&Ns (safe and healthy chicken) for last five years . He has high level of commitment because of the flexible working hours and conducive environment being practiced in their organization. Any employee who possesses negative feedback is given warning to improve their performances which depict their levels of commitment. the commitment level of MR can be categorized under the heading of effective commitment as he enjoy his work and will never intend to leave K&Ns for any other organization as this organization always come upto his expectations regarding pays , incentives , fringe benefits , promotions and flexible environment
Interview results and findings:
- As people get older and remain in their organizations, their commitment goes up, probably because alternative employment opportunities diminish for older people
- Higher education is associated with lower commitment, perhaps because educated people have expectations the organization cannot meet, It may also be that alternative work opportunities are greater
- Women are usually more committed than men to their organizations, possibly because they have to overcome more barriers to getting into those organizations or because fewer alternatives are available to them.
- Low effective, continuance and normative commitment increases the likelihood that a member will leave the organization, while high levels of affective, continuance and normative commitment are related to high retention rates.
- Affective commitment has been linked to performance. For example, employees with a high level of affective commitment will be less absent from work, be high performers, and are likely to engage in organizational citizenship behavior such as helping other members, putting forth extra effort and being an advocate for the organization.
- Normative commitment does not appear to be related to employee absences. An employee’s normative commitment is related to work performance and organizational citizenship, but the effect is weaker than with affective commitment.
- Unlike normative commitment, continuance commitment does not relate to employee absences. It is also unrelated to organizational citizenship behaviour.
Factors affecting Organizational commitment
- Job satisfaction
- Role stress
- Job insecurity and employ ability
- Distribution of leadership
- Work load ( stress on Job) is negatively related to Organizational commitment
- Supportive organizational climate is positively related to Organizational commitment and high performance
- Job security and competitive pay is positively related to Organizational commitment
- Independent Variable = Work load / stress
- Dependent Variable = Organizational commitment
- Mediating Variable = Willing to stay
- Moderating variable= Job Performance
- Independent Variable = Supportive organizational climate
- Dependent Variable = Organizational commitment
- Mediating Variable = comfortable relationships with co-workers and supervisor, job related independence
- Moderating variable= Organization citizenship behavior
- Independent Variable = job security/ pay
- Dependent Variable = Organizational commitment
- Mediating Variable = retirement packages, compensation and benefits
- Moderating variable= Management policies and development opportunities
Survey results shows that all three hypothesis are true. The level of stress and work load affects the organizational commitment and people prefer to do job with less work load and positive organizational environment. Results shows that people are more concern with affective and continuance commitment rather than the normative one.
To full fill the necessities of life and better living standards people prefer continuance commitment. More people are motivated by the high pay and job security
So a final result of the overall discussion is
- people having more stress or work load are less motivated towards their job
- pay is the key factor instrument for organizational commitment.
- people do consider work environment with pay and job security whereas preference is given to pay
- one cannot buy food and shelter by being obliged to someone, life must go on and we must avail better opportunities of our life
- Being committed to the organization is the need of both the worker and the honor. therefore better plans must be made to meet the demands of each other
Guidelines to enhance organizational commitment:
Five rules help to enhance organizational commitment
- Commit to people-first values: Put it in writing, hire the right-kind managers, and walk the talk.
- Clarify and communicate your mission: Clarify the mission and ideology; make it charismatic; use value-based hiring practices; stress values-based orientation and training; build tradition.
- Guarantee organizational justice: Have a comprehensive grievance procedure; provide for extensive two-way communications.
- Community of practice: Build value-based homogeneity; share and share alike; emphasize barn raising, cross-utilization, and teamwork; getting people to work together.
- Support employee development: Commit to actualizing; provide first-year job challenge; enrich and empower; promote from within; provide developmental activities; provide employee security without guarantees.