Change Management is considered as the critical task in an organization .Most of time the leaders are responsible for the implementation of change. According to the past statistics 80% change is failed and sometimes objective of change is not successful, however there are also chances that these changes are succeed after the set deadlines. Different change management process are discussed which may help to implement the change. Different behaviors’ of the people are observed, in some organizations people are willing and sometimes they have certain fears of change. The independent variables of this study are Openness to change, Conservative to change and Anxiety and dependent variable is change management. Close ended questionnaire is used to collect the primary data and secondary data is collected through different articles and journals as well as different material available on web sites and most of the data is collected from the employees of public university unit of Analysis is individual. SPSS version 16.0 is used to conduct the Analysis. Correlation, Multiple Liner Regression Reliability Analysis and Normality is tested on the collected data.
The findings shows that there is strong relationship between openness to change and change management and other two variables are not significant with respect to change management. So these findings suggest that by applying different change process techniques and proper communication may reduced the fear and it will turn into openness. If employees are happy to adopt the change, there are maximum chances that organizations will succeed in implementation of change.
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful’ “Surely, Allah is with those who are As-Saabiroon (the patient)”. [Al Quran 6:46]
All praises to Allah for the strengths and His blessing in completing this thesis. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor for the continuous support of my MBIT research, for his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. His guidance helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis.
Secondly I would like to dedicate my research work to my parents who support me throughout my life, It was their love that raised me up again when I got weary. I am grateful to my brothers for always being there for me.
Table of Contents
- Change Management
- Change Management Process
- Openness to Change
- Conservative to Change
- Dependent Variable
- Independent Variable
- Research Question
- Research Design
- Descriptive Research
- Time Dimension of Research
- Cross Sectional
- Data Collection Technique
- Sample Size
- Sampling Technique
- Non-Probability Technique
- Data Collection
- Primary Data
- Questionnaire Design
- Measurement of Scale
- Data Processing
- Pilot Study
- Data Analysis Techniques
- Reliability Analysis
- Normality of the Data
- Numerically Testing of Data
- Graphically Testing of Data
- Regression Analysis
- Correlation Analysis
‘Any modern enterprise having a fear to change never survives today!’
Now a days, the change is continue process and today quick change is consider as edge of society. Adopt the change is considered based for a successful business. The management should have enough capacity to accept the change and implement the change to move with the global world.
“Change Management is a systematic activity to prepare an organization for and implement ongoing environmental changes in a business operation. So to speak, Change Management is about innovative strategies and speedy activities to deal with variable and sudden changes. In addition, the current definition of Change Management can contain individual change management models to address the people side of change.”
The change management discusses the business operations from planning to control for example product development customer satisfaction as well as organization and its governance structure.
The success full management not only focuses on the improvement of governance which is sometimes important to be changed but also handle the existing organization system and increasing the productivity at the maximum level and creates the good image for the customer to enhance customer satisfaction as well as retain the customer. (Jin-Hyuk Ahn, 2005)
The change is not only concerned with the organization but also concerned with the people who are associated with that organization.However the successful change depends upon the people of organization that how quick the positively respond to change and adopt it. It is the responsibility of top management to create a positive sense of change because without the clarity of vision it is impossible to achieve the targets that will become the activities that have no goals or outputs. (Bourda, 2010). There is a lot of searches conduct on the human behavior regarding change. However the shaul study the impact of conservative and imposed values when the changes are imposed or whenever they are voluntary. My study is based on two personal values as well as anxiety. The fact is that imposed changes create more uncertainty as compared to voluntary change because in imposed change there is a pressure on somebody to change its routine. In the Voluntary change there is the option for employees to work on their own model however it is difficult for an organization. Usually openness accept the change and conservative values become the cause of resistance to change (Sverdlik & Oreg)
Openness value motivates the individual to accept the change and conservative values preserve the person to change.The academic scholars have general consensus about the personal values that they influence people point of view and thinking and also interpret their environment.
Whenever there is any change occurs in the environment of organization it increased uncertainty because organizations are always sensitive to their internal or external environment. Some time change is occurred because organization finds new methods to conduct different operations.
They changes in any organization might create anxiety disturbance in the workplace. Employees may have different expectations regarding change and have different priorities. Change may create different emotions of loss and grief in the employees. (Osborne, Wennerberg, & Provost, 2009)
The objectives of my study are to investigate the relationship between Change Management, Anxiety, Openness to Change and Conservativeness.
As the modern civilization is moving fast and it’s the era of change. When the society is changed the environments within the society will also changed. It is within the framework of ever changing environment that organizational changing and its more precise extent that change management has been recognized as a field within organizational studies.
My thesis is motivated by an interest to explore the reactions of employee’s at work in organization when faced with the need of “change Management” and also examine that how much they are willing to adopt the change, as well as determined the relationship of uncertainty with change Management.
Significance of study
The emergence of new economies has offer many business opportunities for the public as well as private organizations. It is the cause of traditional organizations like public sector organizations, they usually accept the process of change and if they do not accept the change then they can’t exist. 70% change failure is identified by Beer and Nohria (2000) Hammer and Champy (1993) Kotter at 2008 and Senturia et al at 2008 (Beer, 2000)
At the time of change, the employees mostly take the change management as a threat. The understanding about change is very important to explain the individual about organization, the changes in organizations and themselves as the members of organization. The understanding of organizational change and employees of that organization is important to make the effective policies. The successful change is dependent upon employee’s perception regarding change (D’Ortenzio, 2012)
Kotter estimated that more than 70% changes failed even people feel the need of change because some time people tried, budget out and due to time constraint. (Kotter, 2008)
The little effort has been made to realize the employee’s behavior about the change management, that in the working place when changes occurred how they react, they happily accept the change or take it as a threat and then resist. It also helps to examine the impact on change management when there is already anxiety exist in working place; people have a fear regarding change. It will help to change the employee’s perception regarding change that they should take “change” as an opportunity not threat. There must be some training session for the employees to change their negative thoughts into positive regarding change.
In this Chapter the literature is related to change management, personal values that are openness to change and conservative to change. As well as it also contains the literature of anxiety that occurred in change management. Section 1 contains the definitions of change management according to different authors.1.1 is the literature review of change management. Section 2 contains the definitions of “openness to change according to different authors, 2.1 is about the literature review of openness to change.Section 3 describe the definitions of Anxiety section 3.1 contains the literature review of anxiety in change management. Section 4 contains the definitions of “conservative to change” and theory of Conservatism as well as 4.1 contains the literature review of Conservative to change
All data is collected through different articles, case studies, conceptual papers, reports and different websites.
According to the Pierce and Delbecq
“The Change Management is adaptation of a process, procedure behavior and idea that is new to an organization”
Berger: He defines the Change Management as an:
“Ongoing process of aligning an organization with its marketplace and doing it more responsively and effectively than competitors”
(Jin-Hyuk Ahn, 2005)
“Change Management is an activity to prepare an organization for change and implement environmental changes that are continuing in almost every business operation. Change Management is strategies of innovations and quick actions to deal with the rapid changes”
“Change Management is an approach to ensure that changes are smoothly implemented in a structured way for achieving the long term benefits of change. The change management specially focus on people that how they as group or as an individual move from present to future situation, There may be a change in simple process to major system to achieve the organization potential.”
The (Kirings, Dec 2003) takes data from the Public sector, they Explore the efforts of managers to engage in the change initiative; however they took place in the perspective of administrative reforms. They conduct interviews and used documentary data as a source.
According to the Kirings,the communication is most important and initial stage of the negotiation about change. They describe the two models of change one of them is rational model and other is sociological approach. Rational model focus on planning and problem solving and second approach focus on changing and uniqueness of each situation. According to different studies the leadership is important factor to bring successful change.
This study demonstrates the problem which is occurred the change is not supported with enough resources and not fully implemented. Resistance is not a problem but the change strategies are real problem.
(Oreg N. S., 2015) Identify that what happened with the individual when the change is occurred at the collective level. Identifies the Anxiety which is occurred due to the change process, Personal values are openness and conservative to change interact with the type of change which is imposed and voluntary in predicting identification following change. That was the longitudinal study. This article manipulates a change that is imposed or voluntary and relationship between values and type of change. According to Oreg N. S,when the change is imposed the personal values are conservative and it create high level of anxiety among individuals who are not in favor of change, same case when the change is voluntary the personal values are openness to change and there is low level of anxiety because change creates some level of uncertainty. The methodology used by this study is Questionnaire. The Questionnaire was sent via email to 500 employees who are permanent in University.
(Oreg S. , 2006) Test the model of resistance to the organizational change. In this study Oreg and Shaul examined the relational ship among Employees attitudes, personality, organizational context and work related outcomes and resistance components. These attitudes were associated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment and the intention to quit the job.
In this study the changed was caused due to the merger of two departments within the organization. The primary change is change in the organizational structure into matrix design. The second change is that now employees have two supervisors to answer them and have different projects.
To test the hypothesis in this study, interviews were conducted with employees and managers who are relevant to change. The primary data were collected via surveys. The employees who have stress and angry due to the change is less satisfied with his job. However they have more intentions to leave the job.
According to (Juliana Sutanto, 2009), to succeed the implementation of information system the change management is very essential part. As there is rapid advancement in the information technology but as compared to growth there is lack of guidness for implementation. This Research explores the trend with the help of case study of a country. This research identifies the critical success factors for change management in IOS for the public. According to the findings there should be proper flow of information through senior management and cooperation of affected organization to overcome the resistance. However proper advertising could start the change in public.
The methodology is case study and primary data is collected through interviews. The research finds that if the top management support then there is higher energy of change and higher beliefs of change in employees. The top management can initiate the change but can’t continue it. However the Advertisements can reduced the anxiety of new technology and encourage the people to use it.
(Colletti & Chonko, 2005) Describes the initiatives of the change management that is undertaken by the companies to maintain their competitive advantage as well as preventing the employees to quit the job. This paper examines the challenges about the change management initiatives business cycle and implementation of changes for the sales manager and objectives of change management. The major findings of this paper is that there should be proper communication with the customers regarding to related aspects of change management process to increase their sales .The data is collected through surveys and the respondents are 259 executives of the different companies. In this survey they find out that there should be 3C’s to implement successful change management. These 3c’s are coordination, commitment and last is competencies.
(Meisiek, 2002) The “situation drama” is new management tool for the change management. It is a unique way to promote and support the organizational change. The main purpose of this tool is to create awareness of problems and to motivate employees for change.
This drama particularly practiced in Germany and France, Another practice is used in which employees also participate in this situation.They asked the questions about change to the employees and note their feelings and readiness about change. Also notice the threats which the employees might face. Unlike other cases or drama it’s not for entertainment but also influence the employees. The second order remarks are collected through interviews and observations. The questionnaire is sent to audience members a week after the event to observe the acceptance level after and before situation drama. But still it is impossible to fully determine the direct effect of situation on employees working behavior.
(Hayashida, 2009) That is the report on change as management problem or problem with management. Change is associated with uneasiness and uncertainty so mostly employees or victims opposed to change. This situation is challenging for management to convince their work force for change. This report was conducted on the Water supply Company. According to report findings it’s the management core responsibility to aware its employees with the need of change. Change not always viewed as negative it can be a positive or as opportunity for work force in an organization. However change can be a problem with management or management problem. The manager must have knowledge about organization functions and when these functions become outdated then there is need of change to maintain the productivity of organization. However if manager reduce its responsibilities and not focus on it then it’s become problem with management.
(Edmonds, 2011) Describe the managing change; it helps the organization to realize the significance of managing organizational change in vague economic climate. The training in change management can provide a batter knowledge for its participants and understanding that how to implement change in organization. This article shows that how to prepare for a change to get a successful results. According to the findings Edmonds and John, employees resist to change because it is always unknown to them, so to achieve the batter results apply the tools and techniques that are known. Give them opportunity to ask about change and company vision as well as express their views. Once the strategy of change is place in the organization it will emerge in the organization it is difficult to manage the change as a whole.
(Burnes, 2006) Examine the organizational change and the development of management, there is the argument that there should be proper alignment between organizational change and management development. The data is collected through surveys of two organizations. This study identifies the benefits of organizational change and management development as parallel implementation.Now a day the most important thing in organization is leadership and change as well as development of management.Development of management is not only improving the effectiveness of individual manager but also the improvement of management performance as a whole and organizational effectiveness. Lack of managerial skills, lack of communication, functional boundaries and employee’s opposition are major hurdles to implement change. The article shows that there is lack of managerial skills and efficiency that is the reason of failure of change management.
(Neus, 2009) The IBM Global making change work study identifies that how change was implemented. There were 1500 participants over worldwide. They conduct surveys and face to face interviews with the project managers, project leaders and change managers from well known organizations. They investigate the real life experience of those leaders who ever faced organizational, technology based change. These large and small projects had objectives of customer satisfaction sales and revenue growth, cost minimize, innovation and implementation of new technology as well as entry in new market and organizational change. According to findings of study there is 52% succession that follows the formal change management process and only 36% succeed who improvised according to situation. This study identify that people related factors present greater challenges than technology related factors as they are easy to measured, The companies cannot longer justify an improvised approach for change management, there should be systematic way. The other findings of the study is that there must be two way communication in an organization, However two way communication and employees involvement enable and strengthen the employees and then change happens with the help of them not just to them. To successful change it’s the responsibility of leader to empower and enable its people at all levels of the organization.
(Werkman, Boonstra, & van der Kloot, 2013) Although there is a lot of study on the problems of change and failure of change, this article is one of them. This research is conducted in more than 300 business units and enterprises. This study is about the change and perception of change and patterns of changing organization. Usually leaders are failed to established the urgency of change and the change process stopped. Leaders are too powerful or having no control.
Data were collected through three networks of Dutch management training institutes. The Mode of Collection is questionnaire which is distributed to top manager, line manager staff members and employees within organization. This study identifies the inaccurate flow of information, outdated technology, rigid culture, inflexible organizational structure and political behavior in organization as barriers of change. Unclear goals and policy and usually unpleasant culture cohere with unclear change process. The Organization strategic goals are associated with the change management when ever organization goal is clear, flexible and pleasant then flexibility can be found in change management. In this study the employees have resisting behavior when organizational characteristics are negative ,employees also resist to change whenever they are not involved in it, and when they are unclear that how they contribute in vague process. Power strategies are also part of resisting changing.
According to (Lattuch & Young, 2011) for developing organization the effective change management is important concept. But it is also important that how this change will affect the employee’s behavior in an organization as well as it is difficult to manage the change without considering them. This paper conduct surveys of 168 young employees that how they perceive about change management. They identify that change is associated with uncertainty and this uncertainty caused stress about job.
Change Management Process
There are many methods and techniques regarding implementation of change. Sometimes people agree upon the change but they can’t understand that how the change will implement in an organization, that’s why change management process is not the responsibility of single body but it is only possible with the collective contribution of employees in the workplace. However according to Kotter’s change management process there are 8 steps of change management process. First step is creation of importance, Build the group, make a vision of change, Communication the vision of change, Eradicate the barriers, Go for Quick Wins, Let the change mature and last step is integrate change.
The first step is to create the need of change and told the employees that it is also the growth opportunity of employees not only the organization then build the team that support the change and give them responsibilities to implement that change when people agree that the follow the change then create the vision of change, after creating the vision it is very important to share it with your employees so that they can well understand about the change. There are always some resistances of change i.e. people may resist. Not only people resist there is possibility that system and technology resist, so identify them and eliminate that factors.
It is not always possible that you succeed to implement 100% change, let mature that change and integrate the change. (Change Management Process, 2011)
(Connelly, 2016) Figure 2: Kubler Ross Change Curve
In 1969 Kubler explain the five stages in his book “ON DEATH AND DYING” this stages shows the normal feelings of people whenever they face the change in their life or workplace.
Denial is the first stage whenever someone doesn’t want to believe that change is occurred and when they realized that change is real or they might be affected by this change the shock turned into angry that why this happened with them. Then the bargaining stage comes and when they realized that barging is not working it caused depression because they are uncertain about their future. Acceptance is the stage when they understand the change it is the stage when people can’t fight against the change anymore then they tend to accept it.
“There is nothing permanent except change. – Heraclitus”
Openness to Change
Openness to change is the readiness to accept the change it can be said that is the acceptance regarding change. However it is impossible to get 100% this behavior about change.
According to the Schwartz’s Value model:
“The openness to change is degree to which a person is motivated to follow innovative and new traditions. It includes the values of self direction and stimulation”
Openness to Change can also be defined as:
“It is the wailings to be open to the change that could boost the efficiency of the organization.
Be willing to follow new ideas and if they don’t work you can always go back to the ways the things were”.
It can said that;
“Successful change can only happen when employees are willing to devote the time and energy needed to reach new goals, as well as endure possible stress and hardship“
The(Ertürk, 2008) explores the managerial communication role as well as employee’s participation and trust in leadership to create the openness in organizational change. This study was held in turkey. The data were collected through structured questionnaire in public organization of 878 participants. The major findings of this study are that the trust on manger effects the communication, however it maybe task communication, career communication. Trust and employees participation have joint effect on employee’s openness to change in organization. The employee’s participation and managerial communication is positively related to trust on management.
The (Chawla & Kelloway, 2004) developed and tested the model of change management and then predicts the openness and commitment to large scale organization change. It is based on the sample of 164 employees. This study explores the direct effect of job security, communication and openness to change and indirect effect on turnover intentions. The participants were notified about this study via email. After week later the survey questionnaire was mailed to the employees.They were given 1.5 weeks to respond and complete the survey.
(Rao, 2014) Identifies that how openness to change is refined in the organization that is multicultural. However it can be cultivated through proper communication and discussion.
In this study the employees take part in inquiry procedure and the focus group discussion evaluate the impact of discussion on their mind-set regarding change. The findings show that there is increase in sense of safety and increase in voice behavior. It also increases the energy and motivation for a change.
Anxiety is not only stress and worries, it is more than stress. Stress and Anxious feelings are common and temporary while anxiety is the ongoing process. It is the uncertainty that is incurred due to the combination of different factors like personality, health or different stress events i.e. stress of job or change.
According to (Hunt, Paulsen, Tourish, & DiFonzo, 2003) Anxiety is the main cause of psychological damage during organizational change. This article tested a model of change related communication, anxiety, Control and their association with psychological damage as well as job related satisfaction and intentions to quit. The Data was collected in hospital which was restructured. Findings Shows that anxiety had a direct or indirect relationship with psychological damage (Via feelings of lack Control)
According to (lrmer, Bordia, & Jimmieson, 2007) Anxiety has been identified as a main effect of organizational change for the employees. There is lack of understanding about the process through which employee’s deals with such perception. This study identifies the role of different sources of communication that is related to change related uncertainty for the staff.
The interviews were conducted from the employees. The purpose of this data is to study that how employees handle change related uncertainty and anxiety. The findings of study show that anxiety is related to different source of communication. However they further suggests that there should be direct supervision to control the anxiety. As well as trust is also important part that employees seek information from and who gave them
The second study was conducted in government department that faced the change, restructuring of human resource department. This study provides the partial assessment of the relationship that is identified in previous work. It shows that the employees who received the change as growth have quality information about change.
(Olgilive & Stork, 2003) Is the conceptual paper in which they examine the tensions around interest HR should represent and their part in change process .There is some questions regarding HR and organizational change that reflects the tension? This study provides the historical context to present conversation about HR and organizational change. They interpret the scientific management, welfare work and professional supervision. This study focuses on problems due to change. However HR approaches to changed focus on efficiency, consistency and fit. Alternative to Conservative approach to change them offer a negotiation approach that would allow HR to establish on its history by enacting a role where different interest can be examined and realized.
The(Lambert, 2007) developed the theory of change management with the help of dual framework. There study is based on the anxiety which is created due to change in organization; anxiety is the cause of resistance however they examine the possible preventions and treatment to reduce this anxiety. When there is crisis and uncertainty then the individual and organization both of them may suffer from anxiety related problems. They said that organizational anxiety can be treated as same as individual anxiety.
This is the conceptual paper and use three case studies to analysis the model.
Conservative to Change
This is the behavior that opposed the change. This value generates the resistance to change.
According to the Schwartz’s Value model
“The extent to which a persona is motivated to preserve status quo.It includes the value of safety and security as well as value of conformity”.
“The world hates change, yet it is the only thing that has brought progress”
Someone said that;
“People don’t resist change. They resist being changed”
(COMMERCE, 2015) Dynamic Conservatism model is introduced by Donald Schon, in this model he assumes that organizations are naturally conservative and resist as well as struggle to protect themselves for any kind of change in the organization. He examine that there is the need of learning organization to identify that which organization should shed this conservatism and open to change quickly.
Schon established the framework of reflection in action. In which he map the procedure to deal with constant change. It is the responsibility of management to identify the trends of macro and micro environment. He estimates the impact of changes on employee’s behavior. The job of the management is to consider the employees reaction and design the change patterns.
The (Leung & Adams, 2009) explore the model of technology acceptance (TAM), they predict the user acceptance of internet and communication technology with different framework. This article used the bureaucracy theory to study the conservatism to change and resistance to change. The researchers are based of randomly selected government employees around 700 and conduct the survey. They interpret that Hong Kong government employees are reluctant to change. Younger and Highly educated people are willing to adopt the change.
(Manning, 2012) Describe the hard times that currently faced by many organizations, especially public sector organizations in UK. This article review the literature of change management and identify the two basic problems of leadership, fail to implementation of change and successful implementation of change. However they introduced two more issues that when you have not clear vision then how you manage the change and second issue is when you have clear vision but employees are conservative to change and resist changing. They use the case study analysis. They identify that whenever the vision is clear and there is resistance then Mange the emotions avoid lies and engage in honest open and two way communications. It may limit the damage and provide the positive foundation for a change.
(Waldersee & Griffiths, 2004) Identify that there is two approaches for the organizational change. First approach is participative in which employees understands the need of change and adopt the change easily however the second approach is unilateral approach, according to this approach the behavior of employees must be changed before follow the change. The result shows that unilateral approach is more appropriate than participative approach in organization.
(Inalhan, 2009) Study the employee’s perceptions regarding change management. They implement the three phase longitudinal approach and it takes the time approximately one and half year to examine the process of change. For the analysis and interpretation they used the interpretative phenomenological analysis on the qualitative data. They identify that in previous studies there is lack of understanding of framework of people relationships and emotional significance. Considered the attachments in workplace may help to understand the reasons of resisting and provides the guidance to manage change in organization.
Dependent Variable: Change Management is dependent Variable
Independent Variable: Openness to change, Conservativeness and anxiety are independent variables of study
H1: There will be significant relationship between Openness to change and Change.
H2: There will be significant relationship between Conservativeness and Change
H3: There will be significant relationship between Anxiety and Change
Figure 3: Theoretical framework
This chapter contains the data about research methodologies that are used in this study as well as questionnaire design, population and sampling. In the last of this chapter the statistic test are mentioned which are used.
The research is conducted on the topic of “personal values (openness and conservativeness), anxiety in change management” .This study tries to find out answers of the different questions as followed;
- Employees in an organization are willing to accept the change.
- Employees are conservative to change.
- Anxiety as an obstacle in change.
- Descriptive Research
The study use descriptive research. This research is conduct to identify the characteristics of factors that are related.
Time Dimension of Research
- Cross Sectional
This study is cross sectional because it is conducted in one go or one shot. it is one time or snap shot study.
Data Collection Technique
There are two types of Data collection techniques in the research.
The Qualitative research is based on the observational study. They have topics, focus group discussion and case studies. Quantitative approach issued the surveys, experiments and content analysis.
This study used the Quantitative data collection technique on the basis of time constraint and topic. The data is collected through questionnaire and analyze that respondents faced the change management in their professional life and if yes, then what is their attitude toward change.
Population of this research is employees of Punjab University
Sample size of 160 is selected from the population.
- Non-Probability Technique
The non probability technique is used when we are not familiar with the chances of occurrences.
- Primary Data
The primary data of research is collected through questionnaire
- Questionnaire Design
The questionnaire in this study is pre coded in which scale is given and respondents have to select one appropriate option. The questionnaire is composed with the help of supervisor and internet sources, different questions are collected from different articles which are relevant to study.
There are four sections of the questionnaire, first section is about the Change management, second section having questions about the openness to change third section having questions about conservative to change and last section is about the Anxiety.
- Measurement of Scale
The Likert scale is used in the questionnaire.1=Strongly Agree, 2=Agree, 3=Neutral, 4=Disagree and 5=Strongly Disagree
- Data Processing
SPSS is used for statistical analysis of the data.16.0 version of SPSS is used in analyzing of data.
- Pilot Study
20 questionnaires are used for the pilot testing, it is used to check that the questionnaire and its items are reliable for analysis or not. Cronbach’s Alpha is used to run the reliability of questionnaire. The reliability of whole questionnaire is 0.745, 74% that shows that data is reliable.
Data Analysis Techniques
- Reliability Analysis
- Normality of Data
- Regression Analysis
- Correlation Analysis
This chapter is about the data analysis and it consists of different statistics test to analyze the significance and its interpretations. At the end of this chapter normality of data is checked by different methods (numerically and graphically)
(Tavakol & Dennick, 2011) The Alpha was developed by the “LEE CRONBACH”in 1951 that provides the measure of internal consistency of a scale or test. Alpha is an important concept for the assessment or evaluation of the questionnaire .Reliability and Validity are basic components in the assessment of measurement instruments. The reliability is concerned about the capability of the instrument to determine the consistency. The internal Consistency explains the level to which all the items in a test measure the same concept and the same construct.
The Table 1 shows the overall reliability of the questionnaire which is 0.745, its shows that it is 74.5% reliable that is good. The items of the questionnaire are 16.The Alpha shows that the items have repetitively high internal consistency. The reliability coefficient if 0.7 or greater than 0.7 is considered acceptable in most social science research situations. However the low value of Alpha shows that there is low number of questions and poor consistency between items of the questionnaire. The Maximum value according to the Article is 0.90, more than 0.90 shows that there are some questions that measured the same concept but in the different ways.
Normality of the Data
The normality of data can be viewed by two methods
These tests will help to determine that your data is normally distributed or not. Statistical test are easily make the objective judgment about the data but there is disadvantage of statistical data that they might be over sensitive to large data or maybe not enough sensitive for low number of data. Mostly researchers use the graphical representations of data (graph and plots), it will be a good choice to use the plots or graph when numerically data is large and sensitive.
Numerically Testing of Data
The above Table shows the two test of normality named as “Kolmogorov and Shapiro Wlik”
The Shapiro ratio is used for small data size and for those n>2000 then Kolmogorov ratio is used.
Ho is considered as normality and when you reject ho then its means your data is not normal and when your data is normal accept the Ho
Ho=Data is normally distributed
Above table shows that p=0.28 which is less than 0.05 (p<0.05) it reject the Ho because the test is significant. It shows data is significantly deviate from normal distribution and data is not normally distributed.
The positive value of skewness shows the right skewness and negative value of skewness shows the left skewness. Similarly the negative value of kurtosis shows the negative and positive value shows the positive kurtosis.
Specialist statistics packages such as SPSS report a statistic called the standard error for both the skewness and kurtosis scores. This allows a simple rule of thumb to be applied. If you divide either score by its standard error and the result is greater than ±1.96, it suggests that your data are not normal with respect to that statistic and for large data size the range is±2.58.
For Change Management Skewness= (0.352/0.192)= 1.88
For anxiety: Skewness = (0.409/0.192)= 2.13
For Openness to change skewess= (0.163/0.192)= 0.84
For Conservative to change Skewness= (0.191/0.192)= 0.99
Skewness of anxiety and Conservative to change is negatively skewed distribution, and skewness of change management and openness to change is positively skewed.By comparing the values of skewness with ±2.58 it shows that data is normally distributed
For Change Management Kurtosis= (0.315/0.381)= 0.82
For Anxiety Kurtosis= (0.479/0.381)= 1.25
For Openness to Change Kurtosis= (0.211/0.381)= 0.55
For Conservative to Change Kurtosis= (0.438/0.381) = 1.14
All the values are within the range which shows that data is normally distributed.
Graphically Testing of Data
Histogram of Dependent Variable (Change Management)
The Histogram of Change Management shows that data is normally distributed because the histogram has bell shape.
In statistics-Q plots are used to compare the probability distribution with the help of plots. Q-Q plot is Quantile Quantile plot. If the distribution of two points is similar then the points will be approximately on the line.
The Q-Q plot of change management shows that data is normally distributed as all points on the line and close to the line.
This graph shows that data of openness to change is normally distributed.
The Q-Q plot shows that data of conservative to change is normally distributed
Graphical representation of Anxiety shows that its data is normally distributed.
Multiple linear regressions have one dependent and more than one independent variable
The SPSS allows us to enter the values in regression so the column “variables Enter “shows the list of variables that are entered in the regression analysis and second column “variable removes” shows the variables which are removed from the analysis. However it is usually empty. The column of method describes the method that is used by SPSS to run the regression, Enter means that every variable is entered in a usual way.
This table shows the goodness of the Model. Model summary table shows the regression line’s capability to account for the total variation in the Change Management, which is dependent variable
The value of r is 0.255 which shows that there is positive and strong relationship and R square shows that the model is good fit.The range of r square is 0 to 1.if it is less than 50% then model is not good fit. However in this research the r square is 6.5% that shows that model is not good fit.
It consists of two rows one is Total and other is Residual. The total variance is explained by the independent variables and residual is explained by the error term
ANOVA is also known as analysis of variance, and it is used to hypothesis testing. The column of f shows the overall significance of model. In Table 3 the sig value is 0.014 that shows that it is statistically significant and null hypothesis must be rejected as sig is less than 0.05.
These estimates show the relationship between dependent and independent variables of the study. The unstandarized coefficient is measure in its natural unit, Coefficient of this table cannot be compared to analyze which one is more influential because they may be measured in different units.
The coefficient is 0.285 it means that one unit increase in Openness to change may caused to increase 0.28 units in change management, The coefficient of Conservative to change is 0.156 it shows every unit increase in conservative to change may increased 0.156 units in change management similarly in case of anxiety which have coefficient 0.123 it shows that every unit increase in anxiety increases 0.123 in change management.
The coefficient of openness to change (0.285) is statistically significant because p<0.05
The coefficient of conservative to change (0.156) is statistically insignificant because p>0.05
The coefficient of Anxiety (0.123) is statistically insignificant because p>0.05
Correlation analysis is used to examine the strength of relationship between two variables. The Range of correlation is -0.1 to 0.1 if r=1 then it is perfect relationship, R=close to one (strong relationship), r=0.5 moderate relationship, near to zero shows weak relationship and zero shows no relationship between two variables.
There are three independent variables ( openness to change, Conservative to change and anxiety) The table 5 shows the impact of independent variables on the dependent variable which is “change Management”. The diagonal shows there is perfect correlation between variables as well as themselves.
Openness to change is positively correlated to the change and there is significant relation because p=0.007 which is less than 0.05.p<0.05 and also p<0.01
Conservative to change is positively correlated but there is insignificant relation between change and conservativeness p>0.05 and p=0.925
Anxiety is also positively correlated but there is no significant relationship between change and anxiety. P>0.05 p=0.525
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
Discussion and Conclusion
Different organizations react different in change management. Some employees considered that change is necessary in their organization and some employees resist changing due to some security issues and it’s create uncertainty in workplace. The aim of this study is to find out relationship of different personal values (openness to change and Conservativeness to Change) and anxiety.
The most important factor of change is Openness to change according to the findings. The three hypothesis are established as followed
- There is significant relationship between openness to change and change.
- There is Significant Relationship between Conservative to Change and Change
- There is Significant Relationship between anxiety and Change.
The findings shows according to the Regression Analysis and Correlation Analysis that there is only significant relationship between openness to change and change management so when employees are open to experience there are more chances to successful implementation.
The second and third hypothesis is not accepted according to the analysis; it means there is no significant relationship between conservative to change and change management, no significant relationship between anxiety and change management.
Chang management take place for many reasons, these reasons may be internal or external. Change in any organization is introduced to get more efficiency.
Most of the time people resist changing, however this resistance can be reduced by proper communication in an organization, in this way the employees have confidence that this change will bring growth in their future as well as organization. The success is not only dependent on the tools and systems but also leadership. It needs continued commitment by Administration and top management of the organization
Most of time no one notice that people resist the change and changed imposed on them it creates anxiety and intentions to quit the job, to avoid this situation there must be change process followed by the organization, during research it is noticed that universities usually not following any change process so it is necessary to follow the process that is according to needs of change and organization.
Limitations and future study
Respondents pay no attention to the questionnaire and they are hesitated to fill the questionnaire
Most of employees are not familiar with this term change management. There is the time Constraint that most of employees have no time to fill the questionnaire
The research is conducted in Public University this study can also be applicable for the university students, this research can be conducted with different variables and in different time horizon.
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