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Paper Summary Discussion Example

Geneticist Mechanisms of Genomic Imprinting

Common Themes in The Regulation of Imprinted Regions in Mammals, Plants, And Insects

The article “Epigenetic Mechanisms of Genomic Imprinting: Common Themes in the Regulation of Imprinted Regions in Mammals, Plants, and Insects” is written by William A. MacDonald, he is working in the department of biology, the department of biochemistry and obstetrics and gynecology; he is also working in the children health research.

Summarize of Paper 

The author has discussed the genomic imprinting that, it is the form of the epigenetic inheritance, where there are the regulations of the gene or the chromosomes, that the sex depends on the sex of the transmitting parent, it can be known or expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. However, if the allele from the mother is expressed than it means, that the allele from the father is imprinted or silence and vice versa. DNA in a sex depends on a manner; the mice have the same pattern of genomic imprinting like the human, however, the species-specific arrangement of chromosomes, acquired imprint regulations (MacDonald, 2012).

What Are 3 Questions You Have About This Paper?

  1. Why did the author research more on the plants and insects?
  2. How could we relate human, plant and insect?
  3. Are the number of X and Y-chromosomes can identify about the genomic imprinting?

How Does This Paper Relate to Your Research or Interests?

The paper is related to my research as its explain about the mammals, plants and insects, sex or genomic imprinting pattern, the study of the author will be useful in the future and useful for the people want to explore the field of biology. The research is interesting because, in the limited text or content, it explains much.

Manipulation of Flowering Time

Phenological Integration and Maternal Effects

The topic “Manipulation of flowering time: Phenological integration and maternal effects” is written by the authors Laura F. Galloway and Kevin S. Burgess, the authors are from the department of biology and the university of Virginia, the authors are working on the maternal effects that warmer climate effects on the reproduction.

Summarize of Paper 

In the article, the timing of the flowering is discussed that the reproductive success depends on the warmer climate, the advancing in the natural population influence on the reproductive phenology. We can say that the seed produce fruits or flower depend on the temperature or the environment, there is the strong phonological integration of the reproductive trait. However, the rate of reproduction has the dramatic effects on the offspring generations and warmer temperature can increase in number annual offspring’s (GALLOWAY & BURGESS, 2009).

What Are 3 Questions You Have About This Paper?

  1. The offspring has created by the heat or warmer temperature can be weak or healthier?
  2. Are the phonological offspring’s (flowers and fruits) given the same taste and reproduction like others?
  3. Is phonological reproduction is possible with the human being, relates to the maturity risks?

How Does This Paper Relate to Your Research or Interests?

The research of the authors is related to my interest because everybody is interested in knowing about the warmer temperature affects the maternity or not, the question really matters, and the scientists did researchers on the topic, can give the reader advantages. As the reader can know about that how maximum offerings can be produced annually, and if there is any disadvantages or effects of considering the integration of reproductive phenology, the field can give the knowledge about the reproductive facts.

Paper Summary Discussion Example

Genome, Transcriptome And Methylome Sequencing of A Primitively Eusocial Wasp Reveal A Greatly Reduced DNA Methylation System in A Social Insect

The topic “Genome, transcriptome and methylome sequencing of a primitively eusocial wasp reveal a greatly reduced DNA methylation system in a social insect” is written by the Daniel S. Standage, Ali J. Berens, Karl M. Glastad, Andrew J. Severin, Volker P. Brendel and Amy L. Toth. The authors are doing researches on the discipline of the genetics, related to the field of biology.

Summarize of Paper 

In the article there is the discussion about the comparative genomics of the social insects, the insight is providing to the evolution of the social behavior, the underlying studies be related with the epigenomic and genomic basis. There are the studies on the different species, the caste differences and in the social insects, the DNA of the social insects tested and relates to the epigenomic and genomic, the methylome studies identify and the study provides the characteristics differences based on the epigenomic and genomic (Standage, Berens, Glastad, Severin, Brendel, & Toth, 2016).

What Are 3 Questions You Have About This Paper?

  1. DNA methylome system is beneficial for the human beings or not?
  2. Why is the study limited to few species?
  3. The caste related gene expressions are similar in the castes or not?

How Does This Paper Relate to Your Research or Interests?

The article is interesting because it gave the information about the gene in the castes, the DNA methylome studies has identified about the eusocial insects, the article provides the new insight in the gene field in the social evolution . The article provides the clear understanding of the epigenomic and genomic because the test is done on a human being, so in the field of biology, the things can be further explored.

Epigenetic Regulation of Stress Responses in Plant

The article “Epigenetic regulation of stress responses in plants” is written by Viswanathan Chinnusamy and Jian-Kang Zhu, the article focuses on the stress response in the plant, the authors did the research on the DNA and in the field of biology, and they are from the department of botany and plant sciences.

Summarize of Paper

The article is based on the epigenetic regulation, which is the result of the DNA, the stress response in the plant is also associated with the DNA, and there are the heretical modifications, associated with the stress response in the plant. The stress memory is related to the epigenetic memory so that the plants can effectively deal with the subsequent stresses; the stress or the study explore or enhanced the understanding of the stress adoption of the plant and that it is inherited (Chinnusamy & Zhu, 2009).

What Are 3 Questions You Have About This Paper?

  1. How could in the plants, the level of stress, can be known?
  2. What are the effective techniques, to deal with the plant stress?
  3. How could the inheritance stress, can affect the plant generations in the future?

How Does This Paper Relate To Your Research Or Interests?

The research is very interesting as it could give the information about the plant stress that the plant stress is the reason of the inheritance and the level can be controlled if the DNA is known, the inheritance has the impacts on the stress-induced. The researchers in future, through the article, can explore the ways that the RNA could be the powerful tool epigenetic modification. The researchers or the people in the biological field need to control the stress in plants because there could be the negative impacts and thus the reproduction can also suffer the stress-responsive gene expressions need to be fully known.

Epigenetic Regulation in Plants

The article “Epigenetic Regulation in Plants” is written by the authors, Craig S. Pikaard and Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid, they are working in the field of biology and from the department of biology, the authors did research on the epigenetic regulation, that how survival of plants is possible.

Summarize of Paper 

The article is based on the epigenetic in the plants, the clear history of the plants are also given, there are the discoveries on modifying the proteins and RNAs that the mediate gene is getting silence in the eukaryotes and in the human beings. The phenotypic plasticity of the plants are known, the ability of the plants to survive is also assessed. However, the unpredictable also affects the plants epigenetic, so the plants epigenetic regulations are masters, through the researches of the authors. The balance between the enzymes is known that there are multiple ways to combat the viruses; however, the article provides the information about the epigenetic regulation (Pikaard & Scheid, 2015).

What Are 3 Questions You Have About This Paper?

  1. What is the main epigenetic regulation for plants need to follow?
  2. What is the best way to predict the unpredictable environment?
  3. What could be the natural selection of epigenetic regulation in plants?

How Does This Paper Relate to Your Research or Interests?

The article is interesting for me, as the article provide the complete information about the epigenetic regulation of plants; the history and background of the plants are known. However, there is need to predict the environment, so the plants could be grown in the best ways, in order to understand the environmental interaction and agricultural challenges related to the plants, can also be known after reading the article, the research may be informative in the future as there is information about the epigenetic regulation or plants genetics.

References
  • Chinnusamy, V., & Zhu, J.-K. (2009). Epigenetic regulation of stress responses in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol , 12 (2), 133–139.
  • GALLOWAY, L. F., & BURGESS, K. S. (2009). Manipulation of flowering time: Phenological integration and maternal effects. Ecological Society of America , 2139–2148.
  • MacDonald, W. A. (2012). Epigenetic Mechanisms of Genomic Imprinting: Common Themes in the Regulation of Imprinted Regions in Mammals, Plants, and Insects. Genetics Research International , 17.
  • Pikaard, C. S., & Scheid, O. M. (2015). Epigenetic Regulation in Plants. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press , 1-31.
  • Standage, D. S., Berens, A. J., Glastad, K. M., Severin, A. J., Brendel, V. P., & Toth, A. L. (2016). Genome, transcriptome and methylome sequencing of a primitively eusocial wasp reveal a greatly reduced DNA methylation system in a social insect. Molecular Ecology , 1769–1784.

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