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Online Privacy Will Hit Tipping Point in 2016

Assignment: Applying Ethical Theory


The status which we call privacy because of which an individual can tackle their information in segregation, achieving a particular exposure of one’s information & identity. Privacy can mean mystery if a person needs to remain unidentified. Privacy can similarly be related to the security part of individual details. The implications of privacy can fluctuate transversely over societies & individuals. The privacy intrusion can be kept up an essential separation from the issue of privacy laws. Though the Internet, which has a gigantic base of data, has offered to rise to the possibility of information privacy. The tremendous data on the Internet faces security needs. Unapproved access to the data is unwanted. Information privacy alludes to the relationship between the innovation and the lawful rights identified with it. At whatever point, any data about a person or a person’s information is put away, privacy needs emerge.  This paper speaks out about online privacy, which hits the tipping point in 2016. As far as the concern about privacy, the social sites come first, such as Facebook, Google etc. These are considered in the article by what measures they are taking to undermine privacy.


  • Utilitarianism Theory

Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that communicates that the best action is the one that increases utility. "Utility" is portrayed in various courses, generally to the extent of the thriving of mindful substances.

"With respect to privacy and obligation, people reliably ask for the past for themselves and they keep going for each other individual." - David Brin (Data Privacy and Ethics, 2013). 

"The gauges of privacy and data confirmation must be balanced against additional societal characteristics, for instance, general wellbeing, national security and law approval, natural protection, and monetary capability." - Omer Tene and Jules Polonetsky (Data Privacy and Ethics, 2013). 

As you survey new laws or precepts proposed for online privacy affirmation, new rules prescribed by endeavours that advantage from access to your online data, for example, Facebook and Google, or new online social standards​​ that make after some time, you could ask the accompanying with a request: ​​ 

Considering, correspondingly, everyone who may be impacted by these measures, would these measures propel the broadest fulfilment and cause the smallest general harm and persevering? This is the utilitarian approach when online privacy is a concern.​​ 

And how would the Utilitarian approach affect privacy on the Internet? It basically depends on the platform which a person is using, as it is utilizing the data of one person & instead​​ of it providing the user with any kind of utility, do they undermine​​ the ethics on such utility services or just providing the services free of cost & misusing the user data as well in such case Utilitarian ethical approach fails badly.

  • Deontology Theory

To understand the ethicality of online data privacy, it is important to examine the issue inside a moral structure. Deontology, or rights and obligations, centre around doing things that are right in themselves, as opposed to the privilege due to their outcomes, building up the ethical go about as "the demonstration which perceives the privileges of others and the obligations that those rights force on the performer." This moral approach is fitting for the appraisal of data privacy in light of the fact that​​ for one to assert a privilege to the privacy of online data, there must relate obligations. Joseph Gilbert attests that "a privilege is useless if nobody has a comparing obligation."(Hartley)

To decide the obligations that must be forced to ensure online​​ data privacy, one should first undermine the source of the people's rights, which they contain. Gilbert builds up four fundamental sources through which rights can be determined: human, position, legitimate & contract rights. It could be hard to build online data privacy as a human right, and regardless of whether one managed to devise a convincing contention to persuade us that it will be, it would do little to help in the security of this right. To secure a human right would require enactment and control,​​ which would make it a lawful right, yet as beforehand talked about, our present enactment has confinements (Hartley). Online data privacy could be seen as a contract right; however, just in particular situations where contracts exist to set up such rights. At long last, the lending rights source, being those acquired through position, isn't appropriate to data privacy. This thinking would recommend that any rights that we​​ have to the privacy of our data would be set up as legitimate rights to decide proper​​ obligations that encourage the insurance of such rights.

  • Virtue Theory

As shown by​​ "Virtue Ethics",​​ there are a few goals, for instance, enormity or sense of duty regarding everyone's benefit, toward which we should try and which allow the full change for​​ the general population. These benchmarks are found through sharp reflection on what we as people can possibly progress toward becoming.​​ 

"Virtues" are perspectives, dispositions, or character attributes that enable us to be and to act in ways that use to​​ build this potential. They engage us to look for the convictions we have grasped. Validity, sensitivity, benevolence, steadiness, reliability, sensibility, restriction, and wisdom are through and through instances of virtues (K.W).

When we attempt to determine the sort of privacy that we need to be ensured, and the degree to which we need it secured, As the general population, we "destined to opportunity" need to discover a balance. That is no simple accomplishment, as Eli Noam, executive of the Columbia Institute of Tele-data, clarifies:

Online data Privacy an interaction in which the privileges of various gatherings impact. Moreover, here a question is arising that would the sites which contain the people data can ensure them privacy ethically somehow in the article which we are reviewing according to virtue ethics. By the way, such organizations are currently working on it.

Would these ethical privacy measures lead people to build up their trust on these websites if the website ensures them the privacy not​​ as much as professionally but​​ ethically as well, then such kind of website if exists which is ethically trustful will be in the Virtue Approach.

  • Contract Theory

Contract Theory is a moral viewpoint that expresses that a person's good character, as well as​​ political commitments, depend upon a contract or assertion that people have made to build up the society in which they live (Sayles).

The Internet is a perplexing system, with both physical & virtual perspectives, and is made out of a huge group of people​​ at different levels, which undermine the privacy issues as well. This many-sided quality makes investigating moral issues on the Internet & data privacy in it, which troublesome in light of the fact that the numerous connections that happen among the individual privacy measures & data administration troublesome and changed (Sayles).

The Contract theory of ethics plays a vital role here (Sayles); the person's morals depend on their characters, which is the basic approach of contract theory here a; people privacy changes according to their characters the more introvert the person is he/she demands the high privacy & vice versa. So, maintaining the online data privacy of a person must undermine the character or also known as social contract theory of ethics from the different information site holders like google & Facebook etc.


Regardless of the way that people think about their privacy and security threats, somehow often they neglect them. Social networking sites encourage individuals to reveal information about them, paying little notice to what the information is about.​​ A part of the time, even the brightest of savvy people give out data that they ought not to have. Today, nearly everyone on the planet has a profile account on Facebook or Twitter,​​ and they use to chat with their sidekicks, families, and accomplices over the Internet. People must not disregard that since they have their 'own' profile page they can get to; they should comprehend that whatever data is made on the Internet will more than likely remain there until the end.

I have contended that online data privacy should be a lawful right just to the degree that society values privacy and maintains a shared obligation to add to the scholarly procedure of finding shortcomings in current data privacy insurance and recommending better options for the foundation of more applicable laws and directions. Online data privacy is an intricate issue that requires steady watchfulness to secure, for innovation is quickly changing alongside implies for​​ obtaining individual information. Moreover, online data privacy is compared with the different ethical theories in the paper & discussed how it is affected with each of the ethical theories.

  • Data Privacy and Ethics. (2013). Big Data, Big​​ Analytics,151-167. doi: 10.1002/9781118562260.ch7

  • Ethical Issues in Information Systems Privacy. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/media/ethical-issues-in-information-systems-privacy-media-essay.php

  • Ethical Issues of Internet Privacy Media Essay. (n.d.). Retrieved May 4, 2018, from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/media/ethical-issues-of-internet-privacy-media-essay.php

  • Hartley, C. (n.d.). Data Privacy: A Deontological Perspective. Retrieved May 4, 2018, from http://the-business-scholar.blogspot.com/2014/06/data-privacy-deontological-perspective.html

  • Santa Clara University. (n.d.). The Ethics of Online Privacy Protection. Retrieved from​​ https://www.scu.edu/ethics/privacy/the-ethics-of-online-privacy-protection/

  • Sayles, K. W. (n.d.). The Internet as a social contract. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.utep.edu/dissertations/AAI1483835/

Marking Sheet



Marks awarded

Classical Ethical Theory (Value 60%)

HD: Demonstrates an excellent ability to apply ethical theories to ethical issues. (51-60)

DI: Demonstrates a good ability to apply ethical theories to ethical issues. (45-50.4)

CR: Makes a genuine attempt at applying the ethical theories to ethical issues. (39-44.4)

PS: The ethical theories do not link well with ethical issues. (30-38.4)

FL: Ethical theories are not properly applied to ethical issues. (0-29.4)



Writing & structure

(Value 20%)

HD: Language​​ features and structures are used to convey meaning effectively, concisely, unambiguously, and in a tone appropriate to the audience and purpose with no spelling, grammatical, or punctuation errors. (17-20)

DI: Well developed skills in expression & presentation of ideas. Fluent writing style appropriate to assessment task/document type. Grammar & spelling accurate. (15-16.8)

CR: Good skills in expression & clear presentation of ideas. Mostly fluent writing style appropriate to assessment task/document type.​​ Grammar & spelling contains a few minor errors. (13-14.8)

PS: The text contains frequent errors in spelling, grammar, word choice, and structure, lacks clarity, and is not concise, but the meaning is apparent to the reader with some effort. (10-12.8)

FL: Rudimentary skills in expression & presentation of ideas. Not all material is relevant &/or is presented in a disorganised​​ manner. Meaning apparent, but writing style not fluent or well organised. Grammar & spelling contains many errors. (0-9.8)



Conclusion (Value 10%)

HD: Superior conclusion that ties the results of the analysis together into a coherent, logically valid & convincing argument. (8.5-10)

DI: Very high standard conclusion that ties the results of the analysis together into a coherent, logically valid & convincing argument. (7.5-8.4)

CR: High standard conclusion that ties the results of the analysis together into a coherent, logically valid & convincing argument. (6.5-7.4)

PS: Rudimentary conclusion that provides a convincing argument. (5-6.4)

FL: Sub-standard (or no) conclusion. (0-4.9)




(Value 10%)

HD: Referencing is comprehensive, demonstrates academic integrity, and conforms exactly to APA style conventions. (8.5-10)

DI: Very good referencing, including reference lists and​​ citations. High-quality references. (7.5-8.4)

CR:​​ Good referencing, including reference lists and citations. Good quality references. (6.5-7.4)

PS:​​ Referencing is comprehensive, mostly accurate according to APA style conventions, and demonstrates academic​​ integrity. Some minor errors or omissions in style and formatting choices (e.g. italics, punctuation, etc.) don't impact the transparency and traceability of the source or demonstration of academic integrity. (5-6.4)

FL: Sub-standard (or no) referencing. Poor quality (or no) references. (0-4.9)​​ 



Total Marks





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