To Investigate Leisure Activates and Their Link with Emotional State of Adolescence
First of all I bow my head before Allah almighty who bestowed his countless blessing upon me, guided me towards the way of success and blessed me with courage of facing problems and obstacles that enable me to accomplished this research work.
I would like to thank to my supervisor who help and guided me at all stages of completion of this study in this true sense.
I would like to thank Director of Institute of Applied Psychology; this research work would not have been possible without her suggestion and encouragement.
I would like to thank the respected authors who granted me permission to use their scales for my research.
I am also thankful to participant who participated and gave me their precious time and information in this study.
I would like to show deep appreciation for my parents who gave me their unstained support and always prayed for attainment of my goal. I am also thankful to my younger brothers who remain a constant encouragement and moral support throughout this project.
Finally, I can’t forget to library staff and computer laboratory staff of the Institute of Applied Psychology for their full cooperation and help in the acquisition of knowledge.
- My Family especially my parents who gave me their unstained support and always prayed for attainment of my goal.
- Pakistan- My Proud, native Country.
Table of Contents
Title Page No.
- Declaration i
- Certificate ii
- Acknowledgement iii
- Dedication iv
- Table of content v
- List of Tables vii
- Appendices viii
- List of Abbreviations ix
- 1.1 Leisure Activities 1
- 1.2 Emotional States 8
- 1.2.1 Positive Affect 9
- 1.2.2 Negative Affect 11
- 2.1 Rationale 27
- 2.2 Aims and objectives 27
- 2.3 Hypothesis 28
- 3.1 Research design 29
- 3.2 Sampling strategy and Sample 29
- 3.2.1 Inclusion Criteria 29
- 3.3 Operational definition of variables 31
- 3.3.1 Leisure Activities 31
- 3.3.2 Emotional States 31
- 18.104.22.168 Positive emotional states 31
- 22.214.171.124 Negative emotional states 31
- 3.4 Assessment Measures 31
- 3.5 Procedure 33
- 3.6 Ethical Consideration 33
- 3.7 Statistical Analysis 34
- Results 35
- Summary of the results 44
- 5.1 Limitations 50
- 5.2 Suggestions 50
- 5.3 Implications 51
List of Tables
|Descriptive statistics of demographic variables (N=100)|
Descriptive statistics of study variables (N=100)
Independent sample t-test for boys and girls on leisure activities and emotional states (N=100)
Independent sample t-test for joint and nuclear family system on leisure activities and emotional states (N=100)
Independent sample t-test for Rural and Urban residential background on leisure activities and emotional states (N=100)
Independent sample t-test for those who are Day scholar or Not on leisure activities and emotional states (N=100)
Pearson Product Movement Correlation between study variables and demographic variables (N=100)
|Pearson Product Movement Correlation between Leisure Activities and Emotional States (N=100)|
Regression Analysis on Leisure Activities as a predictor of Emotional States (N=100)
|Appendix A||Permission Letter from Authors|
|Appendix B||Permission Letter from institutes|
|Appendix C||Consent Form|
|Appendix D||Demographic Sheet|
|Appendix E||Plagiarism Report|
List of Abbreviations and Symbols
- N Sample size
- M Average arithmetic mean
- SD Standard deviation
- f Frequency
- % Percentage
- p Significance
- LL Lower Limit
- UL Upper Limit
- CI Confidence Interval
- LA Leisure Activities
- PA Positive Affect
- NA Negative Affect
The present study was conducted to explore the leisure activities and to determine the link between leisure activities and emotional states of adolescent. The research hypotheses were; a) there is likely to be a difference in leisure activities and emotional states in adolescence on the basis of gender, family system, residential background and current residential states, b) there is likely to be correlation between leisure activities, emotional states and demographic variables, and c) leisure activities likely to predict emotional states of adolescents. Correlation Research Design with Convenient Sample Strategy was used. The sample consisted of 100 students (male=55, female=45) with age range 13-19 years. Data was collected from different schools and colleges of Sheikhupura. Demographic Information Questionnaire, ISSP 2007 Leisure Time and Sport Questionnaire, (Haller, Hadler, Hollinger & Ressler, 2007), Satisfaction from Leisure Activities Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) (Watson et. al, 1988) were used as assessment measures. Findings revealed that there was significant difference on social, relaxation and total leisure activities among boys and girls, while there was no difference on the basis of family system, residential background and current residential statues. Age was positively linked with leisure activities and father education was negatively correlated with negative emotional states. Physical leisure activities were found the only predictor for positive emotional states and creative leisure activities were found the only predictor for negative emotional states. The present research has important implications for adolescent to improve their positive emotional states by engaging in physical leisure activities.
The present study was conducted to investigate leisure activates and their link with emotional state of adolescence. Aristotle (1998) discussed the importance of leisure, arguing that leisure is more important than work because leisure provides pleasure and happiness in life, which is ‘‘something final and self-sufficient, and is the end of action’’ (Aristotle, 1980). Emiken (1999) said that emotion played a vital role in human-to-human relations and communication, allowing people to convey oneself away from the verbal domain and understanding each other in the relative information from a variety of modalities. The data showed that the greater participation in leisure activities had been linked to reduce the possibility of cognitive destruction (Fabrigoule, Letenneur, Dartigues, Zarrouk, Commenges, and Gateau 1995), boost up physical health, greater life satisfaction and positive affect (Menec and Chipperfield 1997; Kelly, Steinkamp, and Kelly 1986), lower stress and reduced depression intensity (Herzog, Markus, Franks, and Holmberg, 1998).
1.1 Leisure Activities
Free time is a time that spent away from business, work and domestic responsibilities. Another impression of leisure is social leisure, which occupies restful activates in a social setting, such as extracurricular activities, for example sports, societies etc. There have many rewards that arrive from social leisure, such as the improvement (growth) of moral fibers, self-identity, and consideration of a public setting or ladder. An important part of social leisure is mealtime that tends to be unnoticed but one is the component of free time activities. Many individuals build up their social expertise and dispositions during mealtimes that defines an individual.
Researchers have defined leisure in a variety of ways such as that leisure is a time that not occupied by paid or unpaid work or personal responsibilities and obligations (Roberts, 1999; Sonnentag, 2001), like favorite activities practice during free time for their own sake, fun, entertainment, or self-enhancement (Argyle, 1996). Some other said that leisure time which permitted the mind to consider physical and spiritual certainty (Pieper, 1952), and it is a state that is described by freedom and inherent inspiration (Iso-Ahola 1997; Passmore and French 2001) as well as a multi-dimensional construct together with both activities and a personal state of mind (Edginton et al., 2002; Haworth & Veal, 2004).
Leisure refers to freedom from the surroundings to act in such ways which have personally pleasurable, valuable and offers a basis for confidence. Leisure has frequently viewed as freely choosing to do some activities after responsibilities have completed. Pleasing and soothing that are done during time that is not meant for other jobs (Pettry, 2006).
There are different types of leisure activates; Social, Cognitive, Physical, Creative, Relaxation and Spiritual (Pettry, 2006).
- Social: Activities which done with other people for enhancing the need of relatedness (like get together with friends and relatives)
- Cognitive: Activities that require a person to think (such as reading)
- Physical: Activities in which body actions or movements are needed or involved (for example, football, cricket etc).
- Creative: Activities, in which a person makes something novel and new (like make handicrafts).
- Relaxation: Activities, where a person does to feel tranquil and cool (like listening music).
- Spiritual: Activities, where a person proposes to some higher power (like religious activities).
Leisure activities recommend so many benefits to human being. The major benefits that are included in leisure activities that it improved health, social connection, physical strength, mental health, improved life satisfaction and gratification, and increased personal growth and development (Pettry, 2006).
Newman, Tay and Diener (2013) proposed theoretical model suggests that certain psychological mechanisms have activated in leisure, which can directly promote the different domains of SWB in leisure. They suggested five core psychological mechanisms that leisure possibly produces to endorse leisure SWB: detachment-recovery, autonomy, mastery, meaning, and affiliation (DRAMMA). Detachment-recovery refers that working continuously can produce negative SWB e.g., burnout, so under these conditions, time away from work is important for recovery which has been defined as a return to a homeostasis set point or to a mental baseline (Vittersø 2011 ). Nevertheless, not all time away from work leads to recovery, as an individual may not be psychologically detached (Sonnentag and Fritz 2007). For instance, one may be think over about work even though trying to relax. Autonomy refers when individuals engage in activities willingly and with free choice. Mastery focuses on the efforts put into sharpen one’s skills and achieving a new level of success in a leisure activity. Meaningful leisure activities referred to as meaning-making through leisure, are a means by which individuals gain something important or valuable in life. Leisure activities can be solitary or social. Newman and Diener (2013) proposed that social activities meet our affinitive needs that referred the need of belongingness and need of relatedness. To engage in leisure activities, individual enhanced satisfaction from activities and improved their leisure SWB (Newman, Tay & Diener, 2013).
Leisure’s referred to enjoyable and personally important activities in the leisure circumstances. Leisure is often related with a sense of freedom and inherent inspiration (doing something because you want to, not because you have to). Categories of leisure typically include: social (e.g., spending time with friends), creative or expressive (e.g., artistic pursuits), cognitive (e.g., reading), spiritual (e.g., meditation) or physical (e.g., walking, gardening) (Hutchinson, 2011).
Hutchinson (2011) suggested two types of leisure activities.
Structured Leisure Activities are naturally deeply engaging in such activities (i.e., require an investment of effort and attention) that maintain personal expression and occur in the free time context that refers to relaxation or exercise activities, for example “willingly participation in activities, sports or club activities”. This is occasionally also called to as “active leisure.” Structured free time activities are considered as to be developmentally favorable because they offer adolescents with opportunities to,
Achieve, attain and practice specific social, physical and intellectual abilities that may be useful in a variety of situations, including school; build up and grow up a sense of personal responsibilities to be a member of that society and donate to the well-being of their society; belong to a socially accepted, valued and recognized social cluster; help to deal with challenges, get experiences, find cooperative social networks of both peers and adults that can also helpful in the present as well as in the future (Eccles & Templeton, 2002).
Structured activities in a society also increase likelihood to have practice to expected social standards and moral values, form interactions with normal peers who are non deviant and boost up individual’s skills and competency (Eccles & Barber, 1999).
Unstructured leisure’s in general define as to “do nothing” or engage in inactive and reflexive types of activities that demand low levels of involvement/commitment and mostly occur outside of planned and structured activities or leisure circumstances (i.e., hang out, watch television, listen to music in room, go to the shopping mall, and go to the Movie Theater or cinema). See below for an explanation of unstructured play.
Unstructured activities or free-play generate not only physical growth and development like fine and gross motor skills, but cognitive (like problem-solving skills and artistic thoughts), moral (“correct and incorrect”), social (teamwork skills and working alliance) and emotional development (self-stating) (Erickson, 1963).
Individuals who participate in well-planned extracurricular activities enhance vital chances and opportunities for social, emotional, and community development during adolescence (Mahoney, Larson, Eccles, & Lord, 2005). Some researchers have compared structured free time activities with unstructured free time activities. At the point when appeared differently in relation to unstructured activities, organized and well-planned activities and exercises have each time been discovered to be all the more developmentally beneficial. Case in point, school evaluations and higher test scores are connected with less time to stare at the TV and more of a chance use in extracurricular exercises (Cooper et al., 1999). Time in organized exercises is also related to better associate connections and emotional change at school, while unstructured free time is connected with poorer emotional conformity and work propensity (Posner & Vandell, 1994).
Play followers argued that there is no division in the middle of play and learning. Learning can’t occur without play and play direct toward learning (Pramling-Samuelsson & Johansson, 2006). So, Leisure activities can also offer and give chance to append and attach with love ones and additionally with other people who may be experience or encounter comparable backgrounds (Hutchinson et al.; 2006).
Practitioner’s personal leisure theory presented by Iso-Ahola (1980) according to theory, individual experience referred to a singular’s recreation encounters both as a member and as a trained and expert. Individual leisure experiences and practices are incorporated on the grounds that an individual’s personal leisure experiences most probably shape and form his or her understanding of the importance, estimation and worth of leisure, and this understanding would, on the other hand, impact his or her particular recreation and his or her expert activities identified with recreation and leisure administration conveyance. Case in point, an expert may comprehend and understand the social and mental benefits and profits of playing on a softball group from the viewpoint of a player who has gotten these profits, from the viewpoint of a teacher or an administrator of a softball association and from learning of human conduct picked up through scholarly coursework.
Feminist leisure theory varies from alternate theories as it is focused on the idea of gender disparity (Rojek, 2005; Rojek, Shaw, & Veal, 2006). Women’s leisure time was not as isolated from act and work as men’s were because of their part as the homemaker and guardian (Rojek, 2005). As a result, women were not able to take part in comparable activities as men (Rojek, 2005). Women were also limited to participate in activities due to the expectation of society. They have to regard with womanliness and the responsibility of motherhood (Rojek, Shaw, & Veal, 2006).
Theory of Planned Behavior was developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) and the TPB emphasizes behavioral objectives as the result of a mixture of a few convictions. Intentions are fundamentally ‘plans of activity in quest for behavioral (Ajzen and Madden 1986) and are after effects of the following convictions;
First attitude towards a behavior either positive or negative, second subjective norm that is social pressure and motivation and the third is Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy and possible barriers. For example if an individual evaluate that exercising (like walking, jogging, swimming etc) is fun and will improve his/her health and also evaluate others attitude about it who are important to him that they will approve him/her if lose weight and He/she wants their approval. Being having that believe individual take participation in physical activities and after getting approval he/she will feel satisfaction from his/her decision.
Deci and Ryan (1985) proposed the theory of Intrinsic Motivation and suggested four approaches to study of intrinsic motivation. These are free selection or decision, attention or investment, test and needs. Concentrating on characteristic inspiration through the appraisal of free decision considers behavior to be assessed. In the absence of outward remunerates, those naturally persuaded will be the individuals who decide to take part in their own particular time (free decision). Inherently motivated behavior is additionally performed out of investment and interest, and challenge. Finally, Deci and Ryan outline the imperative role of mental needs recognized about whether through constructs, for example, ‘effectance’, ‘individual causation’, and “capability” and ‘determination toward oneself’. Deci and Ryan (1985) recommend that three key psychological needs are identified with inherently motivated behavior. These are the needs for competence, autonomy and social relatedness. Competence refers to strivings to control results and to encounter dominance and effectance. People look to see how to create desired results. Autonomy is identified with determination toward oneself. It is like have sentiments of expected control and to feel activities drive from the self. At long last, relatedness alludes to strivings to recognize with, and look after others; to feel that others can identify with oneself; ‘to feel a fulfilling and reliable inclusion with the social all the more for the most part. So above variables satisfy through contribution in relaxation exercises.
1.2 Emotional State
From psychology and neurophysiology point of view, majority of the existing human emotion identification methods endeavor to identify some prototypic feelings. The most paramount and generally acknowledged set of estimation is supposed ”six-essential” feelings: bliss, pity, displeasure, fear, astonishes, and hatred, which were spearheaded (Ekman, 1991).
There are numerous ways that people show their feelings, for example, voice, hand and body signals, and facial declarations. The vision built works fundamentally center with respect of facial expression analysis due to the essentialness of face in passionate outflow and observation (Emkin, 1982), which gives a regular and essential route for conveying the quality and nature of feelings. Each of the six essential emotions is compared to an interesting facial articulation (Guo, 2005; Kotsia, 2007). Most passionate outflow based techniques utilize the dispersion of facial appearance as inputs into a grouping framework, and the conclusion is one of the passionate and expressive state classes.
Emotional state can be divided into two continuums: valence (Positive versus negative) and arousal (high versus low) (Revelle & Loftus, 1992).
Many researchers (Watson, Clark & Tellegen, 1988; Watson, Clark, 1995; Watson, Clark, 1988) demonstrate that there are two general measurements of Affect (states) that impact a singular’s association with their surroundings: Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA). Watson, Wiese, Vaidya, and Tellegen (1999) pointed out that positive and negative influences are generally characterized by the initiation of emphatically and adversely valenced influences, separately. Tomkins (2008) identified that emotional states are classified into two main broader categories of Positive and Negative Affects that constitute most of the human emotional experiences. To feel different kinds of good emotions is known as the “Positive Affect”. The feelings of different kinds of unpleasant emotions are known as “Negative Affect” and also experiences of affect tell us only that something needs our attention (Nathanson, 2008).
There are, as well, social aspects of emotions. It would additionally predict well for emotional statement and feeling identifications; in any event in unpredictable social species like people, to be firmly included and engaged in social collaboration and social perception (Ekman 1984; Ekman & Davidson 1994).
Many developmental psychologist believe that at birth, infant exist in a state of relative emotions diffuseness. At birth emotion is aroused, but infant soon gain the ability to express positive and negative arousal. Discrete positive and negative emotions are cognitive elaboration of positive and negative arousal. As the infant gain the cognitive ability to understand distinguished between self, other, internal, and external, discrete emotions emerge (Ellis & Newton, 2000).
1.2.1 Positive Affect
Positive affect reflect the co-occurrence of positive emotional states, such as optimism, energy, liveliness and confidence. Individuals high in PA are more prone to feel energetic, cheerful and alarm while encountering pleasing events more regularly (Watson et al,. 1988).
Positive emotions serve as indicator of prosperous and prospering, or best possible well-being. Absolutely moments in individual’s lives portrayed by encounters of positive feelings for example, happiness, interest, delight, satisfaction, adoration, and the like are moments in which they are not weighed around negative feelings, for example, tension, trouble, misery, outrage, and gloom. Steady with this knowledge, the general equality of individuals’ positive and negative feelings has been indicated to anticipate their judgments of subjective prosperity (Diener, Sandvik, & Pavot, 1991).
Individuals appear to encounter a positive temperament when they have a clean state, have had a good rest, and feel no feeling of anxiety in their life. Great disposition is normally viewed as an uprooted state; individuals can’t pinpoint precisely why they are in a decent temperament. There have been numerous studies done on the impact of positive feelings. A few studies have expressed that in constructive disposition let individuals think and do imaginatively, openly and more innovative, however not done imaginative in negative inclination (Argyle, 2001 as cited in Carr, 2004).
Feelings like joy, pride, and affection comprehend an alternate sort of adaptable issue that how to act when a circumstance that doesn’t present clear requests of its own. As opposed to being joined to particular activity tendencies, positive feelings lead to broaden and more stretchy collections of considerations and activities (Fredrickson, 1998). Pleasure and joy make the urge to play and be innovative, both physically and in the circle of plans. Interest develops the urge to learn and uncover, heading individuals to take in new, unordinary data and use energy in new encounters (Silvia, 2001). Gratification does not make a urge for activity, yet rather for appreciating, dig out full pleasure from one’s past encounters and coordinating them into another perspective of the self and the world (Bryant, 2003; Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005). The evaluation scope that are special to constructive feelings, for example, interpersonal relationship, authority, and most profound sense of being like spirituality (Tong, 2006), can likewise be seen as distinctive ranges in which individuals can think or act with less limitation and fewer restrain than common.
A theory was developed by Barbara Fredrickson (1998), the it postulates that positive emotions broaden people momentary thought-action repertoires (for example, some emotions increase the tendency for cognition activities and some for physical actions) and consequently, create openness to new ideas, new courses of actions and promote improved emotional well being in the future (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001, 2006; Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002). According to this theory, negative emotions narrow one’s attention and thinking, heighten compassionate activity and prepare one for specific action. In contrast, positive emotions increase one’s attention, heighten ordinary ways of thinking and behaving, and in this way loosen the harmfulness of negative emotions. Thus, in the long run, positive emotions develop resources which can be personal, physical, intellectual, and social in their nature.
1.2.2 Negative Affect
NA depicts subjective issue, anguish, abuse and dissatisfaction and is made up out of negative passionate states, for example, anger, uneasiness, sadness, and hatred. Individuals with high NA view danger and threat related uncertainty more optimistically (William, Zainuba, Jackson, 2003).
Experiences of negative feeling are unavoidable and now and again valuable. Indeed in this way, when compelling, stretched or relative inappropriate, negative feelings can trigger an extensive variety of problems for people and for society (Ohman, 1993).
Negative feelings for the most of time happen when the individual punch into a problem. The problems our feelings create to manage range from realistic life or death threats (e.g., being pursued by a pirate), to outright dangers to survival (e.g., rare nourishment supplies and a need to safeguard vitality), to evolutionarily critical dangers to generation or status (e.g., being socially dislodged or offended) (Tooby & Cosmides, 1992). Depressed mood decreases vitality using, encourages social escape, and internationally reduces inspiration, which may have at first been an adjustment to disagreeable, asset poor, or unsatisfactory situations (Keller & Nesse, 2005).
Independently proposed by psychologist William James and physiologist Carl Lange (1890), the James-Lange theory of emotion recommends that feelings happen as an outcome of physiological responses to occasions. As indicated by this hypothesis, you see an outside boost or external motivating force that prompts a physiological response. Your passionate responses are subordinate upon how you explain and describe those physical responses. For instance, assume you are strolling in the forested areas and you see a grizzly, unsafe bear. You start to tremble and shudder and your heart starts to race. The James-Lange hypothesis expects that you will translate your physical responses and reasons that you are startled like “I am trembling, consequently I am on edge and feeling frightened” (Myers, 2004).
The dominance theory of emotion for the half century ago was the cognitive appraisal theory. This theory determined from research that settled the James-Cannon over the beginning of feelings in favor of Cannon. James (1934) figured that sentiments are the consequence of physiological feedback from response to external force (Lazarus, 1991). Cannon, referring to scientist that psychological feedback is excessively abating a methodology to impact emotions, contended that feelings are the aftereffect of assigning a meaning to physiological arousal (Mandler, 1984). According to contemporary cognition appraisal theories emotion of comprises two standard components (arousal and cognitive interpretation).
Psychological arousal, started by supposed events, is known definite phenomena that set the quantitative parameters of emotional actions and experience. As per Miller (2008) the particular quality of feeling is determined totally by the cognitive explanation of the external forces that got up the current mental state. Essentially expressed, arousal gives the force of the passionate state and cognition gives it quality.
Cognitive appraisal happens mechanically and involuntarily with every each apparent occasion. These occasions may be happening in the outside world or inside a life form, including its own particular activities and practices (Ellies & Newton, 2000). Cognitive developments are shaped by understanding the current occasion to the mental build call an outline that holds and characterizes to prior experience in the comparative circumstances (Schachter & Singer, 1962). It was concluded that leisure activities recommend so many benefits to human being. The major benefits those are included in leisure activities that it improved health, social connection, physical strength, mental health, improved life satisfaction, and increased personal growth and development as well as emotional growth and development like it increased feeling of joy and interaction of human beings but also decreased isolation and sadness. Certain psychological mechanisms had activated in leisure, which can directly promote the different domains of SWB in leisure like detachment-recovery, autonomy, mastery, meaning, and affiliation.
This study was conducted to explore leisure activities and to determine the link between leisure activities and emotional state of adolescent, therefore previous literature mentioned to show link between leisure activities and emotional states.
Elisheva (2004) conducted a research on adolescent Internet use and hypothesized that gender predicts usage, i.e., that young men pay out more of a chance web, surfing the web and playing savage and forceful games, while young ladies have a talk or shop online; (2) that Internet utilization causes social quiet, social disconnection and sadness, particularly for adolescents; and (3) that teenagers utilize the Internet for unnamed personality experimentation. By means of greatly comprehensive everyday reports of teenagers’ home Internet usage and peer related adjustment, the present exploration needed to contrast these needs with the genuine and exact encounters of premature and mid youngsters in 2000 and 2001. Members were (261) seventh and tenth graders from suburban California State funded schools who finished four continuous end-of-days investigates their school-based alteration and Internet movement (counting definite logs of texts). Results challenged prevailing expectations regarding gender, well-being, and identity play. Generally, young men and young ladies comparable portrayed their online social cooperation or connection as 1) happening in individual or private settings, for example, email and immediate messages, 2) with companions who are also component of their day by day, disconnected from the net lives, and 3) gave to quite daily life yet personal matters (e.g., companions, tattle). No affiliations were found between web utilization and well-being.
Robert, Edward, Amanda, and Leslie (2006) conducted a longitudinal study to check the relationship between change in time used staring TV and playing video games with reoccurrence of leisure time physical action over a 2-year period among teenagers boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modeling showed that a reduction in time used sitting in front of TV was connected with an expand in frequency of leisure time physical activities. That association was strong in size and autonomous from sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, and the worth members put on well-being, appearance, and accomplishment. The results encourage the design of interventions that reduction in TV watching as a promising resources of increasing teenagers’ physical activity.
Hutchinson, Baldwin and Oh (2006) conducted a study about middle school adolescents (aged 11-15) and hypothesized that structured leisure activities were related with a more proactive approach to deal with pressure ad anxiety. While more inactive unstructured activities (sitting in front of the TV and listening to music in their rooms) were connected with escaping from adapting. The results revealed that there was a positive relationship between three unplanned or passive activities (hang out, going for shopping and going to the cinema for movies) and proactive approaches to deal with pressure and strain. Researcher recommended that teenagers may still obtain important implications from these unstructured activities (e.g., supposed control, self-government) and experience positive affect by having the chance to detach themselves from abrupt stress and to take part in something pleasurable.
In an Australian study, Jorm, Morgan and Wright (2010) gave youth (ages 12-25) with a vignette around a youngster with a mental health issue (sadness, sadness with alcohol misuse, social fear, early psychosis) and asked members to recognize things that this individual could do to diminish his danger of developing the problems. They found that in excess of 80% of the youngsters supported the accompanying for all problems: to keep them physically active, keep in touch with family and friends, avoid and prevent substances and make time for relaxing activities as most probably to be useful. The results revealed that the public are open to the likelihood of prevention, including at age when there is a high risk of first onset. These results support the advancement of health promotion programs about what youngster can do to diminish their threat.
Graham and Brad (2012) conducted a research and researchers’ hypothesized that Adolescent adjustment increase with involvement in activities characterized. Adjustment was also forecasted to differ with gender, age, with the interaction of gender and free time involvement. These intentions were tested in a questionnaire based study of 433 Australian adolescents. Findings exposed that majority support for hypotheses related to the positive effects of the leisure proportions, for gender differences and age in leisure involvement and adjustment. Results revealed that as the age increased, leisure participation also increased which provided help for adjustment. Results were also obtained of gender differentiated effects of free time on adjustment, with social leisure predicted adjustment more strongly in girls than boys.
Patrick and Fabrice (2004) conducted a research to examine the association between cannabis use, sports practice and other free time activities during the teenage years, to check the sociological theory of deviant opportunities. Sample was consisted of 12,512 French adolescents with the age of 18 responded to an unrevealed self reported questionnaire in March 2001. Three logistic models (for occasional cannabis use, recent cannabis use and regular cannabis use) were assessed for young ladies and young men independently. Outings and other peer-oriented activities were strongly associated with cannabis use but this association relied on upon which levels of utilization were considered. Irregular utilization was more common among respondents who took an interest or helped in numerous diverse outside exercises. Regular use was connected with a choosier lifestyle, concentrate on music oriented tips and time used at a companion’s home at night. So the results provided practical support for the theory of deviant opportunities. Further research will be required to examine how drug use is formed by lifestyle, and on the other hand, how drug use reshapes lifestyle.
Unni, Inger, Geir and Don (2010) conducted a cross-sectional study and explored gender differences in areas of stress, self-respect and emotional states (sadness and nervousness) as well as the relationship between stress, self-respect and emotional states using a sample of Norwegian teenagers (N = 1508). The findings revealed that girls had significantly higher mean scores on all anxiety domains and on emotional states contrasted with boys. On the other hand, boys get significantly higher scores on self-respect. Statistical analysis (hierarchical multiple regression) explained a significant relationship between higher stress related to peer pressure, school performance, home life, and adult responsibilities and higher levels of emotional states. Beside, the connectedness and relationship among stress and emotional states were not controlled by gender. A solid, opposite relationship was found between self-respect and emotional states. A weak moderation effect of self-respect was found on the association between stress associated with peer demand and pressure, romantic relationships, school performance and emotional states.
Dunton, Huh, Leventhal, Riggs, Hedeker, Spruijt-Metz, and Pentz (2013) conducted a research used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to bidirectional observe that how emotional and physical feeling states are linked to objectively measured physical activities taking place in natural settings during the course of youngsters daily lives. Participant’s age was 9 to 13 and sample was 119, accomplished 8 days of EMA monitoring, which measured positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and feeling fatigued, and feeling energetic and active up to 7 times for each day. EMA responses were time matched to accelerometer assessed moderate to vigorous physical activities (MVPA) in the 30 mint before and after every EMA survey. Higher ratings of feeling vigorous and lower ratings of feeling exhausted were related to more MVPA in the thirty mints after the EMA prompt. More MVPA in the thirty min before the EMA prompt was connected with higher evaluations of PA and feeling vigorous and lower evaluations of NA. Between-subjects analyses demonstrated that mean hourly leisure time MVPA was connected with less intra singular variability in PA and NA. Physical feeling states infer consequential physical activities levels, which in turn, predict consequent and later emotional states in adolescents. Active and vigorous adolescents showed higher positive and negative emotional constancy.
Hertting and Kostenius (2012) conducted a research to examine that how the levels of involvement in structured free time activities associated to teenager’s psychosocial well-being. Information accumulation happened in school areas in the northern part of Sweden from 7 schools. 391 Children, from ages 12-14, were welcome to complete the World Health Organizations’ Health Behavior in School-Aged youngsters’ self-completion survey. Autonomous variable was developed to measure youngsters’ contribution in structured leisure activities at three levels: low level (LL), medium level (ML), and high level (HL). Findings showed that the medium level group gets higher scores on life contentment and fulfillment, had a lot of friends, and felt less strain and pressure in school than the other two groups, while the low level and high level groups had small number of friends and felt more stress. Conclusion from the findings is drawn that a medium level of contribution in structured leisure activities was most constructive and suitable for youngsters’ health and well-being.
Mahoney and Stattin (2000) conducted a research to study that how the structure and social circumstance of teenagers’ leisure activities associates to antisocial behavior. The representative sample of 703 participants’ with the age of 14 year and their parents were appraised with the regards of adolescent participation in community based free time activities, adult and peer social associations, and disruptive or unsociable behavior. Findings revealed that involvement in highly organized and planned free time activities was associated to minimal levels of unsociable behavior; while involvement in activities with less planned (i.e. youth recreation center) was associated with high levels of unsociable behavior. Overall the findings were the same for men and women; however, the combination of participation in a less organized activities and the lack of highly organize participations showed up especially problematical for boys’ unsociable and disruptive behavior. Participants of less organized activities were also portrayed by unusual and unexpected peer relations, poor parent–child relations, and they get low assistance from their activities contrasted with teenagers’ connected to more organized community activities.
Kaprio, Rose, Pulkkinen, and Ressinan (2009) conducted a research to examine relationship between individual leisure activities (video watching, television watching, computer games, listening to melody or music, board games, playing musical gadget/instrument, reading, arts, crafts, hanging out, sports, outside activities) and being overweight, at age 11, 12, 14, and 17 years old adolescents. The sample size was consisted of 5184 participants. They also examined activity patterns “Active and sociable”, “Active but less sociable”, “Passive but sociable”, “Passive and solitary” thought to signify dissimilar lifestyles. Among boys, activity patterns did not predict getting to be overweight, yet sports and playing an instrument or gadget to reduce the danger and arts and listening to music expanded it. Among girls, few individual’s spare time activities forecasted to become overweight. On the other hand, girls in the “Passive and solitary” cluster carried the greatest risk or possibility of getting to be overweight in late youth. Examining leisure activities related to overweight may help to pay attention particularly for interventions on high risk groups.
Trainor, Delfabbro, Anderson and Winefield (2010) examined the association between well-being and leisure involvement in adolescents. 947 participants; with the age range 15- 19 from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were selected. Contributors accomplished a questionnaire regarding contribution in social, non social and unplanned leisure activities as well as measures of personality. Personality variables were also indicators of teenager’s well-being, despite the fact that engagement in less organized free time activities was connected with poorer psychological well-being and substance use. Gender differences were found on structure leisure activities while there were no differences on family system and participant’s education. The allegations of these results for school strategy and future research concerning the associations between leisure participation and psychological well-being are discussed.
Garton and Pratt (1991) conducted a research to investigate the rate of recurrence of participation and levels of curiosity in more than 60 free time hobbies were checked with a survey regulated to 1248 teenagers of high school learners. The association among participation and levels of curiosity was measured by correlation and by asking the learners to recommend three activities they might want to take part in however can’t and to show the explanation behind their non-interest in those activities. Multiple regressions were conducted; sex was the significant indicator of participation in games and vocational activities and of interest in sporting and sociable activities. Age and SES were lesser indicators for groups of activities for example, the social and outdoor leisure activities. t-test analyses were showed that there were insignificant difference on school location and background of participants.
Brunet, Bamett, Chaiton, and Sabiston (2013) conducted a research and the purpose of this research was to inspect depressive symptom track throughout adolescence as indicators of physical activities (PA) in later life. Adolescents lived in Montreal; Canada reported their depressive symptoms of each 3 to 4 months during high school. The sample was consisted of 860 participants. After passing of three years, participants reported involvement in reasonable and vigorous intensity in physical activities and team sports participation. Routes of depressive symptoms were approximated by using covert growth modelling and inspected as an indicator of physical activities results. Three depression symptom trajectory groups were recognized during adolescence: low and diminishing depressive’s symptom scores (group 1; 37.8%); moderate and stable depressive symptom scores (group 2; 41.6%); and high increasing depressive symptom scores (group 3; 20.6%). In multivariable analyses, group 2 and group 3 took part in less moderate-intensity PA and were less likely to take part in group activities contrasted with group 1. The importance of investigating strength and type of physical activities as results of depressive symptoms was highlighted. Targeted approaches were required to encourage adolescents with moderate to high depression symptoms to involve in physical activities and group activities to get better their health and well-being.
Pickett, Kendrick, and Yardley (2012) conducted multiple mediation analyses to assess whether positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), physical activity, self-efficacy, coping self-efficacy and exercise induced feelings cross-sectionally mediated the connection and the comparative significance of each of these. Researcher also investigated whether free time time, non leisure time or total physical activities were more powerfully connected or linked with depression. Members (N= 164) experiencing sadness or low mood accomplished a survey holding measures of physical activities, sadness, the potential mediators and covariate variables. Elevated levels of free time time and total, but not non leisure time, physical activities were appreciably related to lower level of sadness. Enhancement of positive affects that’s mean pleasurable emotional states, NA that’s mean levels of physical collapse and fatigue defiantly mediated the relationship between free time activities and total, but not non leisure time, physical activities and sadness. Statistical (Post-hoc) analyses indicated that improvement in physical activities, self-efficacy mediated the free time time physical activities and lower sadness linked through enhanced positive affect. Coping self-efficacy was not a statistically considerable mediator.
Hausenblas and Giacobbi (2005) conducted a study to assess relationship between everyday life events, positive and negative mood states, and exercise and the modest function of personality for the exercise and mood relationship. 106 College students (age 16-19) completed the NEO-FFI and every day evaluations of mood, exercise, and appraisal of everyday life events for eight successive days. Results established the hypotheses that expended level of exercise would bring about huge expand in positive mood states and reduction in negative temperament. Even when positive and negative everyday life incidents were restricted, important relationships among exercise and positive mood were examined. It was also examined that there were noteworthy decreases in negative mood when members exercised more. At last, characteristics of personality were found to direct the exercise and mood relationship; however these connections and affiliations were generally small.
Abu-Omer and Rutten (2008) had been investigated associations between physical activities in various domains (i.e., free time time, job-related, household and traveling) and health predictors (i.e., self-rated health, body mass index). The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and extra inquiries on domain particular physical activities were submitted face-to-face at 29,193 participants with the age of 15 years and older in the 27 states of the Europe Union, 2 affiliated nations (Croatia, Turkey), and Cyprus North in 2005. Results indicated that free time time physical activities were absolutely related with self-rated health and negativity related with obesity. Gender-specific impacts were examined for different domains of physical activities. Analysis on national levels for the study showed marked associations of free time physical activities to health indicators.
Shaw, Caldwell, and Kleiber (1996) conducted a research through survey and interview studying of grade 10 students from schools in Ontario, Canada, examined the occurrences of boredom, time pressure and lack of option in the everyday lives of teenagers, and particularly in their leisure activities. Data was collected from 73 participants through survey and from 20 participants through interview. The results pointed out that while leisure activities were common everyday events, a large number of the students (mainly females) reported elevated amount of time pressure, which influenced out of school and also in school circumstances. Many of students were also reported an extensive amount of boredom and dullness in their everyday life activities. Boredom linked not only to lack of choices, but also to involvement of grown up people in planned leisure activities. Likewise, some students reported that at times they took part in free time activities to gratify others instead of to give pleasure to them. The results were placed within the context of social control theory, with specific concentration to the degree to which teenagers’ free time is restricted or organized by the leading adult culture. It was concluded that social control mechanisms do influence the leisure activities of teenagers, and that those mechanisms had a stronger impact on the lives of female contrasted to male teenagers.
Iso-Ahola, Seppo, Crowley, and Edward (1991) examined the relationship between substance abuse, leisure boredom, and leisure participation in substance abusers adolescent (SAs). Sample was consisted of 39 SAs and 81 non-SAs, age rang was 15 to 18 year. SAs had a tendency to take an interest more frequently in free time activities in general and physical leisure activities in particular. Nonetheless, SAs were fundamentally more uninterested with free time than non-SAs. Results were interpreted as evidence that SAs had a personality tendency toward sensation seeking and a low patience for regular experience. If free time activities not succeed to satisfy their need for optimal arousal, free time boredom results and drugs may be used as an option.
Pratt, and Garton (1987) conducted a study to examine the relationship between levels of participation and levels of interest in leisure activities was investigated via analysis of a comprehensive 77 item questionnaire administered to 247 adolescents. Factor analytic techniques were used to summarize or sum up the data, so as to be able to make comparisons between boys and girls. Adolescents were found to involve in and be interested in such activities that were characterized by their sex stereotyped nature, although in general none of the popular and well-liked pursuits or activity was, either physically or mentally, demanding. There was a high correlation between participation and interest, with adolescents participating in activities that were interested for them.
Leversen, Danielsen, Birkeland and Samdal (2012) conducted a research to inspect the association between adolescents’ satisfaction of the psychological needs for competency, relatedness, and independency in their involvement in free time activities and their supposed or apparent life satisfaction. The objective of the study was to recognize the degree to which satisfaction of the three needs described the connection between involvement in free time activities and life satisfaction and were tested in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian teenagers (N = 3,273) with the age of 15 and 16 years old (51.8 % boys). The analysis revealed that competence and relatedness satisfaction completely arbitrating the relationship between involvement in activities and life fulfillment. Satisfaction of independency to choose leisure activities had a positive influence on life fulfillment but did not reveal any interference impact. The positive procedure of mental need of fulfillment and particularly the requirement for competence and affiliation/association experienced the free time activity domains subsequently appear to be important for youths’ prosperity. These results add to the past researches to investigate the positive effect of need of satisfaction in other paramount domains in the lives of youngsters and teenagers.
Rana and Ajmal (2011) conducted a research on the importance of music on Pakistani youth, data was collected from 1000 Pakistani postgraduate students which indicated that 98.1% enjoyed listening to music; average exposure was 1.45 hours per day; the most popular styles were Pakistani classical music, Western pop music, and ghazal (8.9 %) played a musical instrument with average 1.69 hours per day; listening to music was preferred to all indoor activities considered and to two outdoor activities; playing music was preferred to all but one of the indoor and one of the outdoor activities; preference for listening and playing music relative to other indoor and outdoor activities varied significantly between boys and girls and listening and playing music had different perceived benefits that could be grouped into six and seven factors respectively. Further results of MANOVA revealed that there were significant gender and overall differences of reasons of listen to music, Compared with boys, girls were more likely to listen to music ‘To create or enhance a mood’.
Faran (2013) conducted a research which was aimed to investigate the relationship among music preferences, emotional regulation and psychological well-being in youth. It was hypothesized that music preferences are likely to be significantly related with emotional regulation and psychological well-being. Also music preferences are likely to predict emotional regulation and psychological well-being; while time spent in listening music is related to emotional regulation and psychological well-being, significantly. Within group research design was used in the study. The sample comprised of 100 participants (N= 100), 50 males and 50 females. Data was collected through non-probability purposive sampling technique. Results showed that the association mid time expanded in listening music and psychological well-being was also significant. The importance of this study lies in revealing significant relationships and predictions are helping in music therapy to employ technique corresponding to the preference of music and the regulation strategy.
Rana, Akhtar, and Charles (2011) investigated the relationship between music and both health and happiness. The sample comprised of 895 students, 594 were Pakistani students (boy = 346 and girls = 248) from University of the Punjab and the other sample of 301 British students (boy = 161 and girls = 145) from University of Leicester. All of them were 18 to 24 years of age. The three measurements including GHQ-28 (The Health Questionnaire), Measurement of Happiness Questionnaire (MOH-45) and Interest in Music Questionnaire (IMQ) were used collect data. The results indicated that 81.7% participants were listen to music 18.3% were not moreover the mean time of music listening was 58.03 minutes; 50.5% reported that they listen to music at their own while 22.3% were listen with friends though 2.2% listen with family; and 2.2 % reported in public place. Further 21.2% liked pop music while 16.0% preferred classical music which was most popular; however jazz and reggae were the least popular music style with the percentage of 1.2 and 0.6 respectively. Further results of correlation revealed that interest in music and time send in listening to music were positively and significantly related with health and happiness. The results of further t-test analysis revealed that there were significant difference between Pakistani and British students but the Pakistani students were healthier and happier than that of British moreover the students either Pakistani or British, interested in music were more healthy and happy than that of not interested. Consequently there were positive relationship among British and Pakistani students between interests in music, time spent listening to music and each of health and happiness.
Previous researches revealed that there was relationship between leisure activities and emotional states. Researches also showed the relationship between leisure activities and psychological well-being. The previous findings disclosed that participation in leisure activities especially in physical leisure activities enhanced the positive emotional states, decreased stress, depression and participation in social leisure activities helped adolescents to make them easily adjusted in different situations. Literature also showed that through leisure activities individuals’ fulfilled their psychological needs i.e., autonomy, mastery, relatedness etc.
This study was conducted to explore leisure activities and to determine the link between leisure activities and emotional state of adolescent. This study would help about the better understanding of the relationship of leisure activities and emotional state of adolescents. The study will also help to determine the positive effect of leisure time activities on mental health through emotional states and to understand that how can emotional state influenced by leisure time activities.
2.2 Aims and Objectives
The aim of this research was to explore leisure activities and to ascertain the relationship between leisure activities and emotional state of adolescents. Objective of the study was to find out the differences on the basis of gender, family system, residential background and current residential statues. It was also the objective of the research that to observe the relationship between leisure activities, emotional states, age, birth order and parents education. The main objective of the study was to determine either the leisure activities as the predictor of emotional states of adolescents.
- There is likely to be a difference in leisure activities and emotional states in adolescence on the basis of gender, family system, residential background and current residential states.
- There is likely to be correlation between leisure activities, emotional states and demographic variables.
- Leisure activities are likely to predict emotional states of adolescents.
3.1 Research Design
In the present research, co-relational research design was used. This research design was used to determine the relationship between leisure activities and emotional states of adolescents.
3.2 Sampling Strategy and Sample
Convenient sampling strategy was used in the research for collecting data; the participants who were easily accessible were recruited for the study. For the present research sample of 100 was taken i.e. (n=55) boys, (n=45) girls, sample (n=50) was taken from private schools and (n=50) colleges of Sheikhupura.
3.2.1 Inclusion criteria
- The participants from age range 13-19 years were included in the study.
- Both male and female participants were taken for the study.
Descriptive Statistics of Demographic Variables (N=100)
Demographic Variable M (SD) f (%)
Age 16.20 (1.89)
Male 55 (55)
Female 45 (45)
First born 28 (28)
Middle born 71 (71)
Last born 1 (1)
Joint 43 (43)
Nuclear 57 (57)
Family Income 44850(233.82)
Father Education (in year) 10.22 (4.48)
Mother Education (in year) 7.7 (5.20)
Urban 72 (72)
Rural 28 (28)
Current residential statues
Day Scholar 86 (86)
Hostelite 03 (03)
With Relatives 14 (14)
Note: M= Arithmetic Mean of Demographical Variables, SD= Standard Deviation of Demographical Variables, f= frequency, %=percentage
3.3 Operational Definitions of Variables
3.3.1 Leisure activities
The most preferred activities practiced during free time for individual’s own sake, fun, entertainment, or self-improvement (Argyle, 1996).
3.3.2 Emotional states
There are two general dimensions of Affect (states) that influence an individual’s relationship with their environment: Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) (Watson, Clark & Tellegen, 1988; Watson, Clark, 1995; Watson, Clark, 1988).
126.96.36.199 Positive Affect (PA)
The feelings of different kinds of good emotions are known as the “Positive Affect” such as “joy, happiness and optimism, etc” (Nathanson, 2008).
188.8.131.52 Negative Affect (NA)
To feel different kinds of unpleasant and unlikeable emotions is known as “Negative Affect” such as “anger, disgust and fears, etc” (Nathanson, 2008).
3.4 Assessment Measures
3.4.1 ISSP 2007 “Leisure Time and Sports” Questionnaire
To measure the leisure activities an already structured scale International Social Survey Program (ISSP) 2007 Leisure Time and Sports Questionnaire (Haller, Hadler, Hollinger & Ressler, 2007) was modified after getting permission from the authors It has six subscales including social type leisure (12 items), creative type leisure (2 items), spiritual type of leisure (2 items), physical type leisure (6 items), cognitive type leisure (3 items), and relaxation type leisure (5 items). Each item is rated on a 5-point likert scale ranging from 1 = Never to 5 = very often. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for this study were .70 for social leisure activities, .35 for creative type leisure activities, .40 for spiritual leisure activities, .59 for physical leisure activities, .24 for cognitive leisure activities, and .61 for relaxation leisure activities and .83 for total scale of leisure activities. Tool was translated into Urdu according to the MAPI guideline of tool translation with forward and backward translation.
3.4.2 Satisfaction from Leisure Activities Questionnaire
A self constructed questionnaire was used to measure the satisfaction with leisure activities which was based on psychological mechanism derived from the theoretical model on leisure activities of David et al. (2013). It consisted of 8 items that measured to which extent the participants experience the relaxation, mastery, affiliation, autonomy, meaningfulness, boredom, feelings of rushed and thinking about work in leisure time. Each item is rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 = very slightly or not at all to 5 = extremely. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for this Scale was .54 for the present study.
3.4.3 Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)
To measure the emotional state, the 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used (Watson et. al, 1988). It has two subscales, Positive affect scale with 10 items and Negative affect scale with 10 items. Each item is rated on a 5-point likert scale ranging from 1 = very slightly or not at all to 5 = extremely. Watson et al. (1988) reported Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the various time reference periods ranging from .86 to .90 for the Positive Affect scale and .84 to .87 for the Negative Affect scale. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for this study are .59 for Positive Affect Scale and .43 for Negative Affect Scale.
3.4.4 Demographic Information Questionnaire
A demographic information questionnaire was filled by students. It was consisted of information related to their age, class, gender, family system, no of siblings and birth order. It also asked information related to their parents such as their mother education, their father education, family income, residential background and their current residential place, etc.
First of all, prior to the data collection permission to use the questionnaires was taken from their authors through mail. Authors were assured that the questionnaires usage would be purely for research purpose. Permission was taken from concerned authorities to collect data. Sample of students was recruited from different school and colleges of Sheikhupura. All the participants were informed about the purpose of the research. 120 questionnaires were distributed but only 100 were collected from the participants, remaining 20 questionnaires were not returned by them. Each questionnaire was filled within 10 to 15 minutes. Consent forms were signed by the students for the participation in research. Some questionnaires were filled by the participant at very time when the questionnaires were given to them, while the remaining questionnaires were handed over to them and were collected later on.
3.6 Ethical Consideration
In order to conduct this research some ethical considerations were kept in mind, that are described below;
- Permission was taken from concerned authorities for the data collection by using the permission letter provided by the institute of Applied Psychology, University of Punjab.
- The consent was taken from the participants and the nature of the study was explained to them before administration of the questionnaire.
- The participants had a right to withdraw from participation and terminate at any time they wish.
- The researcher told the participants that the information acquired from them would be confidential and used only for research purpose.
3.7 Statistical Analysis
Psychometric properties were assessed by Cronbach alpha.
t-test was performed to find out gender differences, family system differences, residential background and current residential statues difference in leisure activities and emotional states of students.
Pearson product moment correlation was performed to find the relationship between demographic variables, leisure activities and emotional states.
Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore if leisure activities predict emotional states of adolescents.
The present research aimed to investigate relationship between leisure activities and emotional states of adolescents. A sample of 55 boys and 45 girls was taken from different schools and colleges. It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a relationship between leisure activities and emotional states of adolescents.
To find out the reliability of scales, reliability analysis was used. t-test analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis were run; Results of the analyses are given below;
Descriptive Statistics of study Variables
Variables M SD α
Social LA 36.21 7.34 .70
Creative LA 4.65 2.04 .35
Spiritual LA 6.94 1.66 .40
Physical LA 16.69 4.26 .59
Cognitive LA 9.76 2.04 .24
Relaxation LA 13.94 3.85 .61
Total LA 88.95 15.06 .83
Satisfaction with LA 26.39 4.30 .54
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
Positive Affect 40.35 4.03 .59
Negative Affect 20.84 4.17 .43
Highest reliability was found on total leisure activities and remaining scales and subscales had poor to moderate reliability.
Comparison between Boys and Girls on Leisure Activities and Subscales of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (N=100)
Variables Boys Girls 95% Cohen’s
M SD M SD t p LL UL d
Social LA 3.09 .72 2.92 .44 1.48 .00 -.05 .40 .28
Creative LA 2.45 .97 2.18 1.08 1.30 .58 -.13 .67 .26
Spiritual LA 3.55 .88 3.38 .78 1.00 .76 -.16 .50 .20
Physical LA 2.93 .74 2.60 .63 2.31 .17 .04 .60 .48
Cognitive LA 3.27 .63 3.20 .75 .51 .26 -.20 .34 .10
Relaxation LA 2.95 .79 2.59 .69 2.33 .04 .05 .64 .49
Total leisure Activities 3.07 .58 2.84 .35 2.44 .00 .04 .41 .02
Satisfaction with LA 3.27 .56 3.20 .50 1.53 .53 -.04 .37 .13
Positive Affect 4.11 .39 2.09 .44 2.06 .14 .00 .33 .48
Negative Affect 2.08 .39 2.09 .43 -.16 .64 -.18 .15 4.86
Note: M= Arithmetic Mean of Variables, SD= Standard Deviation of Variables, LL= Lower Limit, UL= Upper Limit, LA= Leisure Activities
The results indicated significance differences on social, relaxation and total leisure activities between girls and boys. Boys have higher score on social, relaxation and total leisure activities than girls. However there were no significant differences on spiritual, physical, creative, cognitive, satisfaction from leisure activities, positive affect and negative affect.
Comparison between adolescents from Joint and Nuclear Family System on Leisure Activities and Positive and Negative Affect (N=100)
Variables Joint Nuclear 95% Cohen’s
M SD M SD t p LL UL d
Social LA 2.99 .70 3.03 .54 -.35 .07 -.29 .20 .06
Creative LA 2.45 1.04 2.22 1.00 1.09 .82 -.18 .63 .22
Spiritual LA 3.33 .90 3.57 .77 -1.38 .23 -.56 .09 .29
Physical LA 2.74 .80 2.80 .63 -.40 .08 -.34 .22 .08
Cognitive LA 3.12 .63 3.33 .77 -1.57 .66 -.48 .06 .29
Relaxation LA 2.75 .81 2.81 .74 -.33 .20 -.36 .25 .07
Total leisure Activities 2.94 .57 2.98 .44 -.77 .88 -.30 .13 .07
Satisfaction with LA 3.31 .49 3.28 .57 .24 .35 -.19 .24 .05
Positive Affect 4.07 .37 4.00 .42 -1.79 .79 -.33 .01 .17
Negative Affect 2.12 .40 2.06 .42 -1.11 .34 -.28 .07 .14
Note: M= Arithmetic Mean of Variables, SD= Standard Deviation of Variables, LL= Lower Limit, UL= Upper Limit, LA= Leisure Activities
The results indicated that there were no significance differences on social, relaxation, spiritual, physical, creative, cognitive, Satisfaction, and total leisure activities, positive affect and negative affect in adolescents who live either in joint family system or in nuclear family system.
Comparison between adolescents from Urban and Rural Residential background on Leisure Activities and Positive and Negative Affect (N=100)
Variables Urban Rural 95% Cohen’s
M SD M SD t p LL UL d
Social LA 2.98 .62 3.10 .56 -.85 .52 -.38 .15 .20
Creative LA 2.40 1.03 2.10 .95 1.33 .59 -.14 .75 .30
Spiritual LA 3.36 .86 3.77 .68 -1.98 .26 -.72 -.00 .47
Physical LA 2.71 .69 2.94 .74 -1.40 .45 -.53 .09 .32
Cognitive LA 3.21 .65 3.32 .75 -.67 .29 -.40 .19 .15
Relaxation LA 2.82 .77 2.69 .75 .76 .78 -.20 .47 .13
Total leisure Activities 2.94 .50 3.02 .50 -.77 .88 -.30 .13 .16
Satisfaction with LA 3.32 .55 3.23 .49 .71 .53 -.15 .32 .17
Positive Affect 3.99 .39 4.15 .40 -1.79 .79 -.33 .01 .40
Negative Affect 2.06 .42 2.12 .37 -1.11 .34 -.28 .07 .25
Note: M= Arithmetic Mean of Variables, SD= Standard Deviation of Variables, LL= Lower Limit, UL= Upper Limit, LA= Leisure Activities
The results indicated that there were no significance differences on social, relaxation, spiritual, physical, creative, cognitive, satisfaction, and total leisure activities, positive affect and negative affect, (subscales of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) in adolescents who lived either in urban areas or in rural areas.
Comparison between Day scholar or Not on Leisure Activities and Positive and Negative Affect (N=100)
Variables Yes No 95% Cohen’s
M SD M SD t p LL UL d
Social LA 2.99 .60 3.16 .64 -.94 .51 -.51 .18 .27
Creative LA 2.26 1.03 2.67 .91 -1.40 .53 -.99 .16 .40
Spiritual LA 3.43 .83 3.71 .80 -1.18 .84 -.76 .19 .34
Physical LA 2.74 .69 3.02 .79 -1.38 .25 -.68 .12 .37
Cognitive LA 3.20 .65 2.90 .78 -2.05 .29 .01 .38 .55
Relaxation LA 2.73 .75 3.08 .80 -1.56 .75 -.78 .09 .45
Total leisure Activities 2.93 .49 3.16 .51 -1.63 .57 -.51 .05 .45
Satisfaction with LA 3.31 .54 3.17 .50 .90 .87 -.16 .44 .26
Positive Affect 4.01 .39 4.16 .46 -1.29 .32 -.38 .07 .35
Negative Affect 2.06 .41 2.25 .37 -1.64 .23 -.42 .04 .48
The results indicated that there were no significance differences on social, relaxation, spiritual, physical, creative, cognitive, total leisure activities, and satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect (subscales of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) of adolescents who either day scholar or not.
Pearson Product Movement Correlation between Study Variables and Demographic Variables (N=100)
Variables Age Birth Order Father Mother Family
Education Education income
Social LA .28** -.54 -.00 -.02 .04
Creative LA .34** .07 -.05 -.05 .02
Spiritual LA .43** -.11 -.03 .02 .13
Physical LA .29** -.10 -.02 -.03 .19
Cognitive LA -.10 .13 .05 -.05 .02
Relaxation LA .22* -.06 .04 .11 .03
Total LA .39** -.06 .03 .04 .11
Satisfaction LA .18 .14 -.01 -.07 .06
Positive Affect .09 -.16 .04 .04 .14
Negative Affect .18 .09 -.21* -.08 -.14
Results demonstrated the correlation between leisure activities (subscales), (PANAS) positive and negative affect schedule (subscales) and demographic variables. Social, creative, spiritual, physical, relaxation and total leisure activities have significant positive correlation with Age. However there was no significant correlation on social, creative, spiritual, physical, relaxation and total leisure activities with other demographic variables (birth order, father education, mother education and family income). There was no significant correlation between positive affect and demographic variables but negative affect had significantly negative correlation with father’s education.
Pearson Product Movement Correlation between Leisure Activities (subscales) and Positive and Negative Affect in Adolescents (N=100)
Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
- Social LA – .18 .35** .52** .03 .61** .89** .35** .17 .16
- Creative LA – – .02 .36** -.01 .14 .39** .17 .00 .32**
- Spiritual LA – – – .27** .19 .23* .44** .23* .21* .09
- Physical LA – – – – -.03 .40** .75** .25* .30** .11
- Cognitive LA – – – – – -.16 .02 -.15 -.09 -.05
- Relaxation LA – – – – – – .74** .20* .10 .06
- Total LA – – – – – – – .35* .23* .19
- Satisfaction – – – – – – – – .09 .04
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
- Positive Affect – – – – – – – – – .00
- Negative Affect – – – – – – – – – –
LA= Leisure Activities, PANAS (PA) = Positive Affect and PANAS (NA) = Negative Affect, *p<0.05, **p<0.01
The results indicated that there was a positive significant correlation of total leisure activities, spiritual, and physical leisure activities with positive affect but no significant correlation with other subscales of leisure activities, and creative leisure activities had a significant positive correlation with negative affect but no significant correlation with other subscales of leisure activities. While social leisure activates had significant positive correlation with spiritual, physical, relaxation, satisfaction and total leisure activities. Creative leisure activities had a positive significant correlation with physical and total leisure activities. Physical leisure activities had a positive significant correlation with all subscales of leisure activities except cognitive leisure activities and positive affect. Cognitive leisure activities had no significant correlation with positive affect and negative affect and other subscales of leisure activities.
Regression Analysis to examine Leisure Activities as a predictor of Positive Affect and Negative Affect (N=100)
Positive Affect Negative Affect
R2 β R2 β
Step 1 .04 .03
Step 2 .11* .10*
Social LA .04 .16
Creative LA -.10 .32*
Spiritual LA .18 .06
Physical LA .29* -.08
Cognitive LA -.16 -.07
Relaxation LA -.13 -.07
Step 3 .00 .00
Satisfaction LA -.04 -.07
Total R2 .15* .13*
Two hierarchical regression analyses were carried out to infer whether leisure activities are predictors of emotional states i.e. positive affect and negative affect. Emotional states (Positive and Negative Affect) is outcome variable while leisure activities are predictor variables. The analysis was conducted after controlling for variables of gender and age. Findings revealed that at step 1, control variables (gender, age) did not significantly contribute to the regression model, for positive affect (PA) F (2, 95) = 2.42 and for negative affect (NA), F (2, 97) = 1.70.
With positive affect (PA) as DV, leisure activities at step 2 significantly contributed to the regression model, F (8, 91) = 2.28, p<.05. Physical leisure activities were significant predictor of positive affect (PA). At step 3, entering satisfaction with leisure activities did not significantly contribute to regression model (PA), F (9.90) = 2.02. Over all model explained 15% variance at positive affect (PA).
For negative affect (NA), leisure activities at step 2 significantly contributed to the regression model, F (8, 91) = 1.78, p<.05. Creative leisure activities were significant predictor of negative affect (NA). At step 3 contribution of satisfaction with leisure activities was insignificant to regression model at (NA), F (9.90) = 1.68. Overall model explained 13% variances.
4.9 Summary of Findings
Results showed that a significant difference between girls and boys on social, relaxation ant total leisure activities. There was no significant difference on the basis of family system on leisure activities and emotional states. The results revealed that there was a relationship between leisure activities and emotional states of adolescents. Result also showed negative significant relationship between negative affect and father education. Age and all type of leisure activities positively related except cognitive leisure activities that were found unrelated. There was significant relationship between leisure activities and emotional states. Physical leisure activities were the only predictor of positive emotional states while creative leisure activities were the only predictor of negative emotional states.
The present study was conducted to investigate leisure activates and emotional state of adolescence. The objective of the study was to explore leisure activities and to determine the link between leisure activities and emotional states of adolescents. The sample was drawn from different schools and colleges of Sheikhupura.
It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a difference in leisure activities and emotional states of adolescents on the basis of gender, family system, residential background and current residential status. The results of the present study showed that there was a significant difference on social, relaxation and total leisure activities among male and females. A research support the findings of present research, Shaw, Caldwell, and Kleiber (1996) conducted a research in Ontario, Canada, examined the occurrences of boredom, time pressure and lack of option in the everyday lives of teenagers, and particularly in their leisure activities. The results pointed out that while leisure activities were common everyday events, a large number of the students (mainly females) reported elevated amount of time pressure. Many of students were also reported an extensive amount of boredom and dullness in their everyday life activities. Boredom linked not only to lack of choices, but also to involvement of grown up and older people in planned leisure activities. Likewise, some students reported that at times they took part in free time activities to gratify others instead of to give pleasure to them. The results were placed within the context of social control theory, with specific concentration to the degree to which teenagers’ free time is restricted or organized by the leading adult culture. It was concluded that social control mechanisms do influence the leisure activities of teenagers, and that those mechanisms had a stronger impact on the lives of female contrasted to male teenagers. The results are supported with this research that the adolescents especially females free time is under controlled by the dominant adult culture which persist them to engage in leisure activities.
Feminist leisure theory supports the findings of present study on significant gender differences. Feminist leisure theory varies from alternate theories as it is focused on the idea of gender disparity (Rojek, 2005; Rojek, Shaw, & Veal, 2006). Women’s leisure time was not as isolated from act and work as men’s were because of their part as the homemaker and guardian (Rojek, 2005). As a result, women were not able to take part in comparable activities as men (Rojek, 2005). Women were also limited to participate in activities due to the expectation of society. They have to regard with womanliness and the responsibility of motherhood (Rojek, Shaw, & Veal, 2006).
Kaprio, Rose, Pulkkinen, and Ressinan (2009) conducted a research to examine relationship between individual leisure activities (video watching, television watching, computer games, listening to melody or music, board games, playing musical gadget/instrument, reading, arts, crafts, hanging out, sports, outside activities) and being overweight with different activity patterns (“Active and sociable”, “Active but less sociable”, “Passive but sociable”, “Passive and solitary”). Among boys, activity patterns did not predict getting to be overweight, yet sports and playing an instrument or gadget to reduce the danger and arts and listening to music expanded it. Among girls, few individual’s spare time activities forecasted to become overweight. On the other hand, girls in the “Passive and solitary” cluster carried the greatest risk or possibility of getting to be overweight in late youth. In the light of this research, the present study also revealed that there was a significant difference to engage in leisure activities.
Present study revealed that there was insignificant difference on family system, residential background and current residential status. Garton and Pratt (1991) conducted a research to investigate the rate of recurrence of participation and levels of curiosity in more than 60 free time hobbies were checked with a survey regulated to 1248 teenagers of high school learners. The association among participation and levels of curiosity was measured by correlation and by asking the learners to recommend three activities they might want to take part in however can’t and to show the explanation behind their non-interest in those activities. Multiple regressions were conducted; sex was the significant indicator of participation in games and vocational activities and of interest in sporting and sociable activities. Age and SES were lesser indicators for groups of activities for example, the social and outdoor leisure activities. t-test analyses were showed that there were insignificant difference on school location and background of participants.
Trainor, Delfabbro, Anderson and Winefield (2010) examined the association between well-being and leisure involvement in adolescents. 947 participants; with the age range 15- 19 from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were selected. Contributors accomplished a questionnaire regarding contribution in social, non social and unplanned leisure activities as well as measures of personality. Personality variables were also indicators of teenager’s well-being, despite the fact that engagement in less organized free time activities was connected with poorer psychological well-being and substance use. Gender differences were found on structure leisure activities while there were no differences on family system and participant’s education.
The second hypothesis of the present research was that, there is likely to be correlation between leisure activities and demographic variable of age. Findings of the present research also revealed that there is a correlation between and age and leisure activities. Graham and Brad (2012) conducted a research and researchers’ hypothesized that Adolescent adjustment increase with involvement in activities characterized. Adjustment was also forecasted to differ with gender, age, with the interaction of gender and free time involvement. Findings exposed that majority support for hypotheses related to the positive effects of the leisure proportions, for gender differences and age in leisure involvement and adjustment. Results revealed that as the age increased, leisure participation also increased which provided help for adjustment. Results were also obtained of gender differentiated effects of free time on adjustment, with social leisure predicted adjustment more strongly in girls than boys. This research supports the Findings of the present study that revealed that there was a correlation between age and leisure activities.
The third hypothesis was that leisure activities are likely to predict emotional states of adolescents i.e., positive affect and negative affect separately. Regression analysis was performed for the present study to see the predictor from leisure activities for positive affect, the result indicate that physical leisure activities as a predictor of positive affect. A research by Abu-Omer and Rutten (2008) supported the findings of present study, who had been investigated associations between physical activities in various domains (i.e., free time, job-related, household and traveling) and health predictors (i.e., self-rated health, body mass index). Results indicated that free time physical activities were absolutely related with self-rated health and negativity related with obesity. Analysis on national levels in Sudan as indicated by Abu-Omer and Rutten (2008) showed marked associations of free time physical activities to health indicators. So the findings of present study also indicated that physical leisure activities as a predictor of positive affect.
Hausenblas and Giacobbi (2005) conducted a study to assess relationship between everyday life events, positive and negative mood states, and exercise and the modest function of personality for the exercise and mood relationship. Results established the hypotheses that expended level of exercise would bring about huge expand in positive mood states and reduction in negative temperament. Even when positive and negative everyday life incidents were restricted, important relationships among exercise and positive mood were examined. So it supports the findings of the present study that also indicated that there was a positive correlation between physical leisure activities and positive mood affect.
Another regression analysis was performed to find the predictor from leisure activities for negative affect, the result indicated creative leisure activities as a predictor of negative affect. Deci and Ryan (1985) proposed the theory of Intrinsic Motivation for creativity and suggested four approaches to study of intrinsic motivation. These are free selection or decision, attention or investment, test and needs. Concentrating on characteristic inspiration through the appraisal of free decision considers behavior to be assessed. In the absence of outward remunerates, those naturally persuaded will be the individuals who decide to take part in their own particular time (free decision). Inherently motivated behavior is additionally performed out of investment and interest, and challenge. As the findings revealed that creative leisure activities significantly positive correlated with negative affect, in the light of intrinsic motivation theory the result depicted may be due to the less intrinsic motivation toward creative leisure activities that’s why the participants experience high negative affect to engage in creative leisure activities. However, it needs further exploration.
The main contribution of the present research was to explore and investigate whether there is a relationship between leisure activities and emotional states of adolescents. The results indicated that there is a significant correlation between leisure activities and emotional states, and physical leisure activities are the only predictor for positive affect, while creative leisure activities as a predictor for negative affect. The major implication of these results is that the teenagers (students) must engage in leisure activities, especially physical leisure activities to have positive emotional states, which increase their positive affect and make them happy and healthier. However, link between creative leisure activities and negative affects needs further exploration.
Following are the limitations of the present study,
- The time limit was short for the present research work.
- Only private school and colleges students were included for the present research.
- As the sample size was not so large, therefore the results cannot be generalized to the population.
- Reliabilities of most of the scales and the subscales were poor to moderate. It might affect results.
- As the researcher was not enough trained, lack of training and experience can be termed as a limitation.
Following are the suggestions for the present study,
- A large sample should be taken to get more reliable and generalizable results.
- Data should be collected from more schools and colleges from different cities so generalization of the results can be increased.
- In regression analysis, interaction between gender differences and leisure activities was not analyzed, thought significant gender differences in leisure activities were found.
As physical leisure activities are found as a predictor for positive affect, so it may be helpful for students that they must be engaged in physical activities for enhancing positive emotional states. School and colleges must arrange physical activates for students. Similarly physical leisure activities can be used as a mood enhancer in counseling therapy process as well.
As creative leisure activities were found a predictor for negative affect, and it is a finding that is difficult to directly explain with the help of theory/literature, it warrants further research conform the findings.
Also see this:
- Abu-Omer, K., and Rutten, A., (2008) Relation of leisure time, occupational, domestic, and commuting physical activity to health indicators in Europe: Preventive Medicine, 47 (3), 319-323.
- Ajzen, I., & Madden, T. J. (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behavior: Attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 453-474.
- Aristotle. (1980). Nichomachean ethics. (W. D. Ross, Trans.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Aristotle. (1998). Politics. (C. D. C. Reeve, Trans.). Indianapolis: Hackett.
- Argyle, M. (1996). The social psychology of leisure. New York: Penguin Books
- Cummins, R. A., & Nistico, H. (2002). Maintaining life satisfaction: The role of positive bias. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 37–69.
- Brunet, J., Bamett, T., Chaiton, M., & Sabiston, C. M., (2013), Linking depression symptom trajectories in adolescence to physical activity and team sports participation in young adults: Preventive Medicine, 56(2), 95–98.
- Bryant, F. (2003). Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savouring. Journal of Mental Health, 12, 175-196.
- Bradley G.B & Inglis B.C, (2012).Adolescent leisure dimensions, psychosocial adjustment, and gender effects; Journal of Adolescence, 35,(5), 1167-1176.
- Cooper, H., Valentine, J. C., Nye, B., & Lindsay, J. J. (1999). Relationships between five after school activities and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 369 378.
- Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M. (1985) Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press
- Dunton, G. F., Huh, J., Leventhal, A. M., Riggs, N., Hedeker, D., Spruijt-Metz, D., & Pentz,A. (2013, May 13). Momentary Assessment of Affect, Physical Feeling States, and Physical Activity in Children. Health Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0032640
- Edginton, C. R., Jordan, D. J., DeGraaf, D. G., & Edginton, S. R. (2002). Leisure and life satisfaction:Foundational perspectives. New York, NY: McGraw Hill
- Ekman, P. (1971). Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion, Proceedings of Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 207–283.
- Ekman, P., Dalgleish, T., Power, M.E (1991). Basic Emotions, Handbook of
- Cognition and Emotion, Wiley, Chichester, U.K.
- Ekman, P. (1982). Emotion in the Human Face, second ed., Cambridge Univ. Press.
- Emkan, P., & Davidson, R. J. (1994). The nature of emotion. Oxford: Oxford university Press.
- Ellis, R. D., & Newton, N. (2000). The caldron of consciousness: Motivation, affect, and self recognition: An anthology. Amsterdam: J. Benjamin Publisher.
- Erickson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.
- Fabrigoule, Colette, Letenneuer, L., Dartiges, J. F., Zarrouk, M., Commenges, D., & Gateau, P., G. (1995). Social and Leisure Activities and Risk of Dementia: A Prospective Longitudinal Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 43: 485-490.
- Faran, M. (2013). Music preferences, emotional regulation and psychological wellbeing in youth (unpublished master thesis).Institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
- Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300-319.
- Fredrickson, B. L., (2001).the role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The Broaden and-Build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226.
- Fredrickson, B. L., & Joiner, T., (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13, 172-175.
- Gross E.F., (2004).Adolescent Internet use: What we expect, what teens report; Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,25, (6), 633-649.
- Guo, G. & Dyer, C.R, (2005), learning from examples in the small sample case: face expression recognition, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B 35 (3), 477– 488.
- Garton, A. F., & Pratt, C. (1991). Leisure activities of adolescent school students: predictors of participation and interest; Journal of Adolescence, 14, (3), 305-321
- Haworth, J. T., & Veal, A. J. (2004). Future of work and leisure. London: Routledge.
- Hutchinson, S. L., Baldwin, C. K., & Oh, S-S. (2006). Adolescent coping: Exploring adolescents’ leisure-based responses to stress. Leisure Sciences, 28(2), 115-131.
- Herzog, A.R., Markus, R. H., Franks, M. M. & Holmberg, D.(1998). Activities and Well Being in Older Age: Effects of Self-Concept and Educational Attainment. Psychology and Aging 13:179-85.
- Hertting, K. & Kostenius, C. (2012), Organized Leisure Activities and Well-being: The Cyber Journal of Applied Leisure and Recreation Research, vol 15 (2), 13-28.
- Hausenblas, H. A., & Giacobbi, P.R, (2005), A naturalistic assessment of the relationship between personality, daily life events, leisure-time exercise, and mood: Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6 (1), 67-81.
- Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1997). A psychological analysis of leisure and health. In J. T.
- Haworth (Ed.), Work, leisure and well-being, London: Routledge, 131-144.
- Iso-Ahola, Seppo E., Crowley, and Edward D, (1991), Adolescent substance abuse and leisure boredom: Journal of Leisure Research, 23 (3), 260-271. Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1980). The social psychology of leisure and recreation.
- Idson, L. C., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). Distinguishing gains from non-losses and losses from non-gains: a regulatory focus perspective on hedonic intensity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 252-274.
- Kotsia, I. P.,(2007), Facial expression recognition in image sequences using geometric deformation features and support vector machines, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 16 (1), 172–187
- Coan, J.A. & Allen J.J.B, Handbook of Emotion, Elicitation and Assessment, Oxford Uni. Press, 2007.
- Kuo, A., Chew, W. H., & Hooi, W. C. (2007). Occupations of healthy Asian
- retirees: Impact on quality of life. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 31(3), 1–12.
- Kelly, J. R., Steinkamp, M. W., & Kelly, J. R.(1986). Later Life Leisure: How They Play in Peoria. The Gerontologist 26:531-37.
- Keller, M. C. & Nesse, R. M. (2005). Is low mood an adaptation? Evidence For Subtypes With Symptoms That Match Precipitants. Journal of Affective Disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 86, 27-35.
- Kaprio, J., Rose, R. J., Pulkkinen, L., & Ressinan, A. (2009), Leisure activity patterns and their associations with overweight: A prospective study among adolescents: Journal of Adolescence, 32 (5), 1089–1103.
- Leversen, I., Danielsen, A, G., Birkeland, M, S., & Samdal, O. (2012), Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Leisure Activities and Adolescents’ Life Satisfaction: Journal youth Adolescence, 41. 1588-1599.
- Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. A. (2005). Pursuing Happiness: the architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111-132.
- Lazarus, R.S. (1991). Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Myers, D. G. (2004) Theories of Emotion. Psychology: Seventh Edition, New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
- Miller, M. B., & Glenceo publishing Co. (1989) the emotionally engaged analyst 1; Theories of affect and their influence in therapeutic action. Psychoanalytic psychology, 25(1), 3-25
- Mahoney, J. & Stattin, H. (2000), Leisure activities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of structure and social context: Journal of Adolescence, 23(2), 113-127.
- Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R., Eccles, J. S., & Lord, H. (2005). Organized activities as developmental contexts for children and adolescents. Organized Activities as Contexts of Development: Extracurricular Activities, After-School and Community Programs. Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum.
- Menec, V. H. & Chipperfield, J. D. (1997). Remaining Active in Later Life, the Role of Locus of Control in Seniors’Leisure Activity Participation, Health, and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Aging and Health 9:105-125.
- Nathanson, D. L. (2008). Prologue: Affect imagery consciousness.
- Newman, D. B., Tay, L., and Diener, E. (2013). Leisure and Subjective Well-Being: A Model of Psychological Mechanisms as Mediating Factors; DOI 10.1007/s10902-013-9435-x.
- Ohman, A. (1993). Fear and anxiety as emotional phenomena: Clinical phenomenology, evolutionary perspectives, and information-processing mechanisms. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 511–536). New York: Guilford Press.
- Passmore, A., & French, D. (2001). Development and administration of a measure to assess adolescents’ participation in leisure activities. Adolescence, 36(141), 67–75.
- Pieper, J. (1952). Leisure: The basis of culture. New York: Pantheon Books.
- Pramling, S. I., & Johansson, E. (2006). Play and learning—inseparable dimensions in preschool practice. Early Childhood Development & Care, 176(1), 47-65.
- Patrick Peretti-Watel and Fabrice Olivier Lorente. (2004).Cannabis use, sport
- practice and other leisure activities at the end of adolescence; Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 73,(3), 251-257.
- Pettry, D. W. (2006). Learning about leisure through activities; United State of America.
- Posner, J. K., & Vandell, D. L. (1994). Low-income children’s after-school care: Are there beneficial effects of after-school programs? Child Development, 65, 440-456.
- Pickett, K., Kendrick, T., and Yardley, L., (2012), Physical activity and depression: A multiple mediation analysis: Mental Health and Physical Activity, 5(2), 125–134.
- Pratt, C. and Garton, A. F., (1987), Participation and interest in leisure activities by adolescent schoolchildren: Journal of Adolescence, 10 (4), 341–351.
- Rana, S. A & Ajmal, A. A. (2011). Importance of Music for Pakistani Youth: Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 27-35.
- Rana, S. A., Akhtar, M. A. and Charles, A. C. (2011). Relationship between interest in music, health and happiness.Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21, 1.
- Revelle, W., & Loftus, D. (1992). The implications of arousal effects for the study of affect and memory, Handbook of emotion and memory (pp. 113–150).
- Hillsdale, NJ: Erlebaum.
- Roberts, K. (1999). Leisure in contemporary society. Wallingford: CABI
- Robert, W. M., Edward M., Amanda S. B. & Leslie A. L., (2006).Naturally occurring changes in time spent watching television are inversely related to frequency of physical activity during early adolescence; Journal of Adolescence, 29, (1).19-32.
- Rojek, C. (2005). Leisure Theory: Principles and Practices. New York: Palgrave Macmillian. Rojek, C., Shaw, S. and Veal, A. (2006). A Handbook of Leisure Studies. New York:Palgrave Macmillian.
- Schachter, S., & singer, G. E. (1962). Cognitive , social and psychological determinants of emotional state. Psychological review,69, 379-399.
- Sarah Trainor, Paul Delfabbro, Sarah Anderson and Anthony Winefield. (2010). Leisure activities and adolescent psychological well-being; Journal of Adolescence, 33,(1),173 186.
- Silvia, P. J. (2001). Interest and interests: They psychology of constructive capriciousness. Review of General Psychology, 5, 270-290.
- Shaw, S. M., Caldwell, L. L., and Kleiber, D. A. (1996), Boredom, stress and social control in the daily activities of adolescents.; Journal of Leisure Research, 28 (4), 274-292.
- Sonnentag, S. (2001). Work, recovery activities, and individual well-being: A diary study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 196–210.
- Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). The recovery experience questionnaire: Development and validation of a measure for assessing recuperation and unwinding from work. Journal of Occupational Health Psy-chology, 12, 204–221.
- Tomkins, S. S (2008). Affect imagery consciousness: The complete edition: 1New York Springer Book.
- Tong, E. M. (2006). The cognitive phenomenology of positive emotions: An Extensive Profiling of the Differences and Nature of 14 Positive Emotions. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
- Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (1992). The Psychological Foundations of Culture. In J. H. Barkow, J. Tooby, & L. Cosmides (Eds.), The Adapted Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Unni, K., Inger E.O., Geir A. E., & Don G. B(2010); The association between stress and emotional states in adolescents: The role of gender and self-esteem; Personality and Individual Differences ,(49); 430-435.
- Viviane, D. C, Timothy, F., Richard, J., & Hermano, T. (2007), A comparison of craving and emotional states between pathological gamblers and alcoholics: Addictive Behaviors 32 , 1555–1564.
- Vittersø, J. (2011). Recreate or create? Leisure as an arena for recovery and change. In R. Biswas Diener (Ed.), Positive psychology as social change (pp. 293–308). New York: Springer.
- Watson, D., & Clark, L.A. (1997). Extraversion and its positive emotional core. In R. Hogan, J. & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp 767-793). San Diego: Academic press.
- Watson, D., Clark, L.A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of measure of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of personality and social psychology,54, 1063-1070.
- William, S. Zainuba, M. Jackson, R.(2003). Affective influence on risk perception and risk intention. Journal of managerian psychology. 18, 126-137