Introduction and Overview
One of the most researched field in the Information Technology is the Internet of Things (IoT). The future of this research is the Internet of Things that have the responsibilities of transforming the real world objects into intelligent virtual objects (Lianos, & Douglas,2000). Internet of Things aims to unify everything in the world under a single infrastructure, granting people control of things around them, and keeping them informed on the state as well as the trends of the elements (Ferguson, 2002). Therefore, this research paper presents a study that addresses the IoT concepts and trends, through the systematic review of scholarly journals, corporate white articles, online databases, and professional discussions with the experts. Furthermore, this paper focuses on some definitions, necessary requirements, geneses, characteristics as well as the aliases of the Internet of Things. The primary objective of this essay is to provide an overview of the Internet of Things, vital technologies, architectures, and their usage in the daily life.
Also Study: Big Data Challenges in IOT And Cloud
According to Mark Weiser, in his central statement of the seminal paper on Scientific American in 1991, he said that the most profound technologies are those that disappear, and wave themselves into the fabric of daily life until they are indistinguishable from it. The human’s everyday living and working conditions are changing in organizations, especially after the arrival of the IT and ITeS technologies, which is becoming a popular concept across many horizontal as well as vertical markets. The establishment of the Internet of Things (IoT) has been driven by the requirement of large corporations that stand to benefit from the predictability and foresight afforded by the capability to follow all the objects through the commodity chains in which they are embedded. Also, the ability to code plus track the objects in the companies have enabled them to be more efficient, reduce error, speed up processes, prevent theft, and also, incorporate the complex and flexible organization systems through the IoT. Therefore, the Internet of Things (IoT) is a technological revolution that represents the entire future of communication and computing. The development of IoT depends on the dynamic technical innovation in some vital and fundamental fields, from the wireless sensors to the nanotechnology, which are going to tag every object form automating, identifying, monitoring, and controlling.
Internet of Things
Internet of Things (IoT) can be termed as a different paradigm shift in the Information Technology arena. The IoT is a coined from the two words, that is, the “Internet” and “Things.” The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that utilize the standards Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve the users all over the world (Nunberg, 2012). It’s a network of networks that comprises of millions of public, private, business, academic, and government networks, from local to global scope, which is connected by a wide array of electronic, optical, and wireless networking technologies. Currently, more than a hundred countries are connected in the data exchange, options, and news through the Internet. On the other hand, “Things” can be any person or object that can be distinguishable by the real world. Every time Items include electronic devices people encounter and use and also the technologically advanced products like gadgets and equipment (Kosmatos, Tselikas, & Boucouvalas, 2011).
Geneses And Requirements
Internet of Things (IoT) is a technological revolution that advocates for the future of communication and computing, and its development is based on the dynamic technical innovations in the various relevant field. It may be from the wireless sensor all over to the nanotechnology. The first appliance of the internet was a Coke Machine at the Carnegie Melon University, back in the 1980s. Programmers and developers who were working on various floors above the venting machine wrote a server program that explained how long it had since a storage column in that device had been unfilled.
Regarding the requirements, for a successful implementation of Internet of Things (IoT), the prerequisites include the Dynamic Resource Demand, Real-Time Needs, Availability of Applications. Also, the Exponential Growth of Demand, Data Protection, and User Privacy, Efficient Power Consumption of Application, Access to an Open and Inter Operable Cloud System and finally, the Execution of the Applications Near to End User are useful. However, many authors have discussed this concept in any dimension. In fact, according to another author, there exist three components, which are needed for the seamless Internet of Things (IoT) computing including the Hardware, which is composed of Actuators, Sensor, IP Camera, Embedded Communications Hardware, and CCTV. The second one is the Middleware, which is on-demand storage and computing tools necessary for the data analytics with cloud and Big Data Analytics. Finally, the author argues on the other component; Presentation, which is the easiest to understand visualization and interpretation tools, that are designed for the different computing applications.
The Gartner’s Hype Cycle
The Garter’s Information Technology Hype Cycle is a technique to represent adoption, emergence, maturity as well as the impact on the applications of the specific technologies. In the graph described in the “Emerging Technologies Hype Cycle 2012”, the X-axis denotes the expectations, and the Y-axis indicates the time factor. Therefore, Internet of Things (IoT) has been identified as one of the most emerging technologies in the Internet of Things, the way Gartner’s Information Technology Cycle noted. It forecast that the Internet of Things (IoT) will take approximately five to ten years for the market adoption. In the definition, we adopt a user-centric vision and do not restrict it to any communications standards protocol (Jayavardhana, Rajkumar, Marusic,& Palaniswami,2013). The user-centric vision will enable for long-lasting applications to be developed and distributed using the available state-of-the-art contracts at any given point in time. Therefore, the definition for the Internet of Things (IoT) in the smart environment is the interconnection of sensing and also the actuating devices, which provide the capability to shares information across the platforms via a unified framework, developing a standard operating picture to allow innovative applications.
Architecture: Internet of Things Technologies
One of the most severe issue with the Internet of Things (IoT) is that it’s vast and such a comprehensive concept that there exists no uniform or proposed architecture. Therefore, for the idea of the Internet of Things (IoT) to function, it must comprise of an assortment of network, sensor, communication, and computing technologies. The European FP7 Research Project is one of the model of Internet architecture that is to be used as a blueprint for the Internet of Things (IoT) detailed architecture design, the Architectural Reference Model (ARM), which is a project partner from the Business considerations, current technologies, and Application-Based Requirements. Also, According to the Internet of Things (IoT) Forum Architecture, the Internet of Things Architecture is typically categorized into three primary forms such as the Transpiration, Processors, and Application (Gigli, & Koo, 2011).
It is clear that Internet of Things (IoT) was initially inspired by the member of the RFID community, who based their argument to the possibility of discovering information on a tagged object through browsing the Internet Address or database entry that correspond to a specific RFID or Near Field Communications technologies (Shao, & Li, 2009). It is a new wave of Information Technology industry because the application of the computing sector, communication network, and global roaming technology is applied (Razzak, 2012). It involves a small addition to the sophisticated techniques of computer and the communication network outside, and also including most of the new supporting technologies of IoT like collecting Information Technology, Remote Information Transmission Technology, Remote Communication Technology, Sea Measure Information Intelligence Analyzes, among others (Li, & Yu, 2011).
The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
This is a system that is responsible for transmitting the identification of an object or an individual wirelessly using the radio waves in the form of a serial number (Jayavardhana, Rajkumar, Marusic,& Palaniswami,2013). The first application of the RFID was identified in the second world war in Brittan, and it was also used for the identification of Friend or Foe, back in 1948. Later, the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology was founded at the Auto-ID center, in MIT, back in the year 1999. This technology plays a significant role in the Internet of Things (IoT) for solving the identification issues of objects around the public in a cost of efficient manner. It is classified into some categories depending on the technique of power supply provision in Tags: Passive RFID, Active RFID, and the Semi-Passive RFID (Sun, 2012). The main components of the RFID are the reader, tag, antenna, access controller, serve, and software. It is efficient, reliable, secure, accurate and inexpensive. It comprises of an extensive range of wireless applications like tracing, distribution, patient monitoring, as well as the military Apps (Aggarwal, & Lal Das, 2012).
Electric Product Code (EPC)
This is a 98 or 64-bit code that is electronically recorded on the RFID tag, and the primary purpose of the EPC is to design an improvement in the EPC barcode system. The code can store data about the types of Electronic Product Codes, its specifications, unique serial number of the product, manufacturer Information, among others (Butler, 2010). It has four elements which include the Object Naming Service (ONS), EPC Information Service (EPCIS), EPC Discovery Service (EPCDS), and the EPC Security Service (EPCSS). On the other hand, the barcode is a different way of encoding letters and numbers, using the varying width of the spaces and the bars together.
Internet of Things (IoT) has been gradually bringing a sea of technologies adjustment in the daily lives of people, which assist in making the experience more straightforward and comfortable, by various techniques and also applications. As discussed in this research paper, there are the innumerable uses of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications into all the domains such as medical, manufacturing sectors, transportation, industrial, governance, education, habitat, and mining sectors (Arampatzis, et al. 2005). However, though it has a lot of benefits, there are also some flaws in the Internet of Things (IoT) governance and the level of implementation. In this literature, the principal observations include that there is no a standard definition worldwide. In the architectural level, it needs some Universal Standardization, and the technologies used vary from one vendor to the other, so it requires being interoperable.
- Aggarwal, R. and Lal Das, M. (2012). RFID Security in the Context of “Internet of Things”. First International Conference on Security of Internet of Things, Kerala, 17-19 August 2012, 51-56. https://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2490428.2490435
- Arampatzis, T., et al. (2005). A Survey of Security Issues in Wireless Sensors Networks, in Intelligent Control. Proceeding of the IEEE International Symposium on, Mediterrean Conference on Control and Automation,719-724.
- Butler, D. (2010). Computing: Everything, Everywhere. Nature, 440, 402-405. https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/440402a
- Ferguson, T. (2002). Have Your Objects Call My Object. Harvard Business Review, June, 1-7.
- Gigli, M. and Koo, S. (2011). Internet of Things, Services and Applications Categorization. Advances in Internet of Things, 1, 27-31. https://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ait.2011.12004
- Jayavardhana, G., Rajkumar, B., Marusic, S. and Palaniswami, M. (2013). Internet of Things: A Vision, Architectural Elements, and Future Directions. Future Generation.
- Kosmatos, E.A., Tselikas, N.D. and Boucouvalas, A.C. (2011). Integrating RFIDs and Smart Ob-ject into a Unified Internet of Things Architecture. Advances in Internet of Things: Scientific Research, 1, 5-12. https://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ait.2011.11002
- Li, B.A. and Yu, J.J. (2011). Research and Application on the Smart Home Based on Component Technologies and Internet of Things. Procedia Engineering, 15, 2087-2092. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.08.390
- Lianos, M. and Douglas, M. (2000). Dangerization and the End of Deviance: The Institutional Environment. British Journal of Criminology, 40, 261-278. https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjc/40.2.261
- Nunberg, G. (2012). The Advent of the Internet: 12th April, Courses.
- Razzak, F. (2012). Spamming the Internet of Things: A Possibility and its probable Solution. Procedia Computer Science, 10, 658-665. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2012.06.084
- Shao, W. and Li, L. (2009). Analysis of the Development Route of IoT in China. Perking: China Science and Technology Information, 24, 330-331.
- Sun, C. (2012). Application of RFID Technology for Logistics on Internet of Things.