Introduction to Gender Discrimination at Work Place
Men and Women are considered as the sporting counterpart for each other, but the major conflict in this systematic support is the term Gender Discrimination.
Gender discrimination is often based on gender stereotypes of a particular society. Considering men physically strong and women as emotional sensitive. It is because of the fact that the term gender is often conflicted with the term sex. Both the terms are used as synonyms of each other in normal context but there a technical difference between the both. Sex is a biological differentiation of individuals categorizing them as males and females this difference of individuals is same in all the cultures while gender is a social differentiation of individuals which categorizes them as masculine and feminine this difference determines the role of individuals in a particular society. The role of individuals in different societies is different and thus role of gender is variable in accordance with the prevailing social setup.
Sex and gender are different in origin but basically the general role of individuals in a particular society is partly based on the physical potentials of individuals. Along with physical requirement individuals must have to use his/ her mental capabilities in order to move in the society. Gender discrimination in its originality is a phenomenon, by which the role of individuals is determined with in a particular society. Gender Discrimination allows the distribution of the social responsibilities among the members of the society in such an effective manner that one can fulfill his /her responsibilities by using his/ her physical and mental capabilities at optimum. The conflict of gender discrimination arises when only physical part of one strength is considered and the mental part is neglected. As a result of such half considered phenomenon individuals are categorized as strong and week emotionally strong and emotionally sensitive competent and incompetent leaders and followers etc. In this case the gender discrimination doesn’t remain in its totality or originality and is considered as a factor deteriorating the process of development of human skills.
To know about the impact of gender discrimination among the women of Pakistan. How they work and live in different society’s
What is the impact of gender discrimination among the women of Pakistan
Theoretical Frame Work
H0 = There is no relationship between gender discrimination and work place
H1= There is relationship between gender discrimination and work place
H0=There is no relationship between sexual harassment and work place
H1=There is relationship between sexual harassment and work place
H0 = There is no relationship between unfair salaries and work place
H1 =There is relationship between unfair salaries and work place
H0 =There is no relationship between less opportunity of promotion and work place
H1 =There is relationship between less opportunity of promotion and work place.
Gender Discrimination at Work Place: Literature Review
Gender refers to the social attributes and opportunities associated with male and female and the relationship between women and men and girls and boys, as well as relations between women and those between men. These attributes, opportunities and relationships are socially constructed and are learned through socialization processes. They are context time specific and changeable.
Gender determines what is expected, allowed and valued in a woman or a man in a given context. In most societies there are differences and inequalities between women and men is responsibilities assigned, activities undertaken, access to and control over resources, as well as decision making opportunities.
Gender is part of broader socio cultural context. Other important criteria for socio cultural analysis include class, Race, poverty level, ethnic group and age.
When you grow up, you can be whatever you want to be. Little girls in the united state hear this all the time, from their mothers to teachers to seamed street characters. Almost everywhere the go, they are encouraged to believe that girls can be just a smart, athletics and successful as boys. Even te picture of spunky women on magazine covers at the checkout stand tell them that when your a girl, anything is possible but for little girls in developing countries, the message is just the opposite. From the day they are constantly reminded of the things they are not allowed to do. The inequality of rights is the main resin of gender discrimination.
Wayne (1995) says that no law has cover attempted to define precisely the term discrimination, in the context of workforce, it can be defined as the giving of an unfair advantages ( or disadvantages) to the members of the particular group in comparison to the members of other group. Narrating the decision of the court, Ivancevich (2003) writes that in interpreting titles seven of the civil rights act and other laws, the United States court have held that both intentional and unintentional acts of covered entities may constitute illegal employment discrimination.
The constitution of Pakistan declares that all citizens are equal protection. It prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex and commits the state to take steps to ensure the full participation of women in all spheres of life. The government has committed using rights based approach towards gender justice and equality and had set out two main objectives for 2005 to 2010 i.e. meeting women’s basic needs and promoting poverty reduction and economics empowerment. Under new initiatives the MTDF directs that legislative reform should specially focus on discriminatory laws. The MTDF also commits to implementing the national policy on development and Empowerment of women.
Sexual Harassment at work place VS freedom of doing things for life
Gender Discrimination and harassment at workplace is common in almost every sector perceived as achievements activity. Women have to face a series of physical and verbal abuses every single day on their way to and from their institution and workplace. The rowdy attitude of the bus conductors, and the frequent pushing and shoving end up instilling a fear of going to the college or workplace.
Sexual harassment can be a form of illegal sex discrimination. Through public awareness of this form workplace discrimination has increased, it remains a sever and pervasive problem for many female workers. According to some national surveys up to 65% of all female workers believes they have been sexually harass at work. In 2004 national partnership of women and families issued a study looking at sexual harassment and found that claims of sexual harassment increased among all major racial/ ethnic group. It is important to recognize that, although women comprise the vast majority of person subjected to sexual harassment at work, men as well as women can be the victims of sexual harassment. Indeed, women as well as men can be the perpetrators of sexual harassment. Moreover, men can harass men and women can harass women. A victim legale option is not narrowed because he or she is the same sex as the harasser. However, the perpetrator of the harassment must be motivated by the victim of sex. If there is just sex and sex then here is no opportunity for women to work with respect. Then women didn’t feel freedom from that type of sexually harassment and she didn’t polish over self. Didn’t develop over self through learning of work place but when she sexuality harassment at workplace she didn’t feel comfort at workplace at the result when she going to home she also face some family problems and also their husband criticize her due to different causes then she feel alone and do something bad it is a big issue in Pakistan. Due to that issue level of divorces is going to high level.
Less salary package/ unfair salary and freedom of developing over self
Salary is the thing that a person has to work for it. It changes the life style of the person who is doing work at different place. Every person doing work for the salary and also doing work very hard for the increment in salary but in different place or different work organization package is different due to different of place its depend on the organization goodwill. If the organization is good then it provides the maximum level of satisfaction to their labor and also their higher level of management. Some organization focus to provide maximums satisfaction to their higher level management they think if the management doing work very well then they will achieve maximum production. In the same hand some organization provides maximums satisfaction to their labor they think if they do that then labor is doing work very hard and they achieve their goals soon. But the problem is that they didn’t offer the maximum salary to the female labor. They also doing equal hard work and also doing hard work in front of male genders. There is inequality of rights. Organizations didn’t behave very well with female gender. Their salary package is too small the organization knows they are not here to do work for long time and also organization didn’t give her to maximum leaves that are also the big issue that Pakistani women face at work place and also they face inequality in rights. When organization didn’t pay fair salary to the female gender then they seem like demotivated and it is a negative impact on female. They didn’t do struggle for more achievements because they know here is nothing for their bright future.
Less opportunity of Promotion V.S Freedom of Developing over self
The dream of promotion, dream of doing things dream of getting love these are the all dream of every person. The person who is going to do work hard to fulfill those dreams. 100% hard working depends on avail the opportunity of promotion. Everybody want promotion in his field when he get the promotion his capabilities of doing everything is rise then the person show the charm in his field is it male gender or female they are all show over capabilities. But in today life women of Pakistan have less opportunity of getting promotion. Organization didn’t give the maximum opportunity of promotion and upgrade their job description. If the organization upgrade their job description and increase their salary then organization didn’t get long term benefit because after the marriage maximum number of women leave the job and got married and their husbands didn’t gave the permission to doing job. This is a big fact of not giving the opportunity to the women. This fact have to going decrease in coming life when the less resources of families and their standard of living style could be going to decrease and their children future is going dark side.
|Frequency||Percent||Valid Percent||Cumulative Percent|
It shows the valid number of genders that is 20. There is no missing gender. Male genders attempt 8forms and the female gender attempt 12 forms out of 20. The valid percentage 40% male attempt and 60% females attempt the form out of 100%.
|Frequency||Percent||Valid Percent||Cumulative Percent|
It shows the qualification of the persons who attempt the questioner. 19 persons attempt or mark the qualification box 1 person not mark the qualification box. The persons who mark the qualification 14 persons marked bachelor and 5 persons mark master level and 1 person not mark any option. Their percentage is 70% person mark bachelor, 25%mark master level and the left 5%not mark any option. Their valid percent is 73.7% are bachelor student and 26.3% are master level student.
|Gender discrimination new|
It is the five figure summary of given data it shows the valid number is 20 there is no missing. Mean is 1.8588, median is 1.8571, mode is 1.86, minimum is 1.36. maximum is 2.43, and the percentiles is 1.7321.
It show in the bar 8 persons who belong to male gender and 12 persons who belong to female gender.
The bar show qualification of the genders who attempt the questioner. 14 are the bachelor student and 5 belong to master student.
The histogram show the gender discrimination. There is the mean value is 1.8588 and the stander of deviation is .2315316.the histogram is of bell shape means it is normally distributed.
It shows the median is 1.8571, the lower quartile is 1.7732, upper quartile is 2.00, the lower wickers 1.43 and upper wickers 2.17, the lower outlier is 3 and the upper outlier is 20. It is the mathematical way of showing data into graphs.
Strongly Disagree = 1
Disagree = 2
Neutral = 3
Agree = 4
Strongly Agree = 5
The above graph shows the graphical representation of all the bars that is showing the response of the respondents regarding gender discrimination, motivation and workplace performance. First variable gender discrimination the response rate of participant’s lies in the option 2 – 3 (2 for disagree and 3 is for neutral). Similarly small numbers of respondents were marked very low and very high options. The bars in the histogram from a distribution (pattern or curve) that is similar to the normal, bell shaped curve. Thus, frequency distribution of the gender discrimination is normal.
Second variable workplace performance the response rate of participant’s lies in the option 2 – 3 (2 for disagree and 3 is for neutral). Similarly small numbers of respondents were marked very low and very high options. The bars in the histogram from a distribution (pattern or curve) that is similar to the normal, bell shaped curve. Thus, frequency distribution of the workplace performance is normal.
Third variable work place motivation the response rate of participant’s lies in the option 2 – 3 (2 for disagree and 3 is for neutral). Similarly small numbers of respondents were marked very low and very high options. The bars in the histogram from a distribution (pattern or curve) that is similar to the normal, bell shaped curve. Thus, frequency distribution of the work place motivation normally distributed.
To check the linearity assumption scatter plot applied on gender discrimination, lack of motivation and work place performance the difference between r square quadratic and r square linear is less than one then one and Pearson correlation applied just gender discrimination and work place performance have linear relationship and gender discrimination and lack of motivation, lack of motivation and work place performance have no linear relationship
Correlation is used to check the mutual relationship among variables. For checking the relationship we will make two hypotheses: null (H0) and alternative (H1). We interpret the findings on the acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis. We used correlation matrix to check the mutual relationship of different variables. The hypothesis which we developed are given below
|Gender discrimination||Work place performance|
|Gender discrimination||Pearson Correlation||-.177|
|Work place performance||Pearson Correlation||-.177||1|
Above table represents the correlation. Gender discrimination are negatively correlated to and work place performance (r= -.177, p = .454). The magnitudes of the above discussed two correlations are less than 0.33 in the absolute terms, which shows the weak correlations between the said pairs of the variables but the correlation of and correlations is statistically significant at above than five percent level of significant. In the case correlation the null hypothesis that were stated above of no correlation are accepted as the P-values are above than 0.05.
|Gender discrimination||Lack of motivation||Work place performance|
|Spearman’s rho||Gender discrimination||Correlation Coefficient||1.000||-.313|
|Lack of motivation||Correlation Coefficient||-.313||1.000||.499*|
|Work place performance||Correlation Coefficient||.499*||1.000|
|*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).|
Spearman correlation was applied if we see the mutual relationship of perceived Gender discrimination, Lack of motivation and
(r= -.313, p = .180) then there is no relationship exist between both variables and the value of r= -.313 which shows that both variables are weak and negative associated related to each other.
Spearman correlation was applied if we see the mutual relationship of perceived Gender discrimination, work place performance and(r= -.499, p = .025) then there is relationship exist between both variables and the value of r= .499 which shows that both variables are moderate and positive associated related to each other.
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate|
|a. Predictors: (Constant), lack of motivation, gender discrimination|
|Model||Sum of Squares||Df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|b. Dependent Variable: work place performance|
The value of the coefficient of determination (R2) is .191, which shows that 19% variations in work place performance The value of F-statistic is statistically not significant at above than five percent that shows model is not good fit.
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients||t||Sig.|
|lack of motivation||-.027||.232||-.025||-.117||.908|
|a. Dependent Variable: work place performance|
The coefficient table presents the results of the regression analysis. The objective of the regression in this study is to find such an equation that could be used to find the impact of gender discrimination and lock of motivation on work place performance. The specified regression a the fag form:
Work place performance = C + gender discrimination X1+lack of motivationX2
Work place performance = 1.06+(-.027) X1+.771 X2
The results show that the independent variables less significantly affect the lack of motivation as shown by the values of the t-statistic and the corresponding P-values. T-test is used to test the significance of the multiple regression coefficients.
Gender Discrimination At Work Place ‘A PERSPECTIVE OF PAKISTANI WOMEN.
In this project we know point of view of different peoples. They all say that something is wrong that women have to give the opportunity to survive in the life. Organizations also do something bad with women so that’s why she feel that they have to live in house not to do wok in organizations. Sexual harassment also play a big role not doing wok in the field. But Government has to play a role to save the women from sexual harassment and unfair salary. So in today’s life women have to play a big role to do something for the country and also for the lifestyle of the family. So we conclude that women face different problem
- It is concluded that there exist gender discrimination in Public sector organizations. None of the Ministries had female employees as per quota decided by Government. But for this situation a no. of factors are responsible.
- It is also concluded that there was not much of difference in the replies on survey form obtained from three levels of official
- The competent authorities of Planning Commission and of Ministries should take this matter seriously and bring the change by implementing the recommendations of this study and make the organizations gender balance
- This study may be shared with all the participating Ministries and also with remaining Ministries to take action accordingly.
- Provincial Planning and Development Departments may also be advised to take advantage of this study and conduct the similar type of study in their respective Province
- In the end it is stated if there is any mistake it may be taken in the spirit of ―to err is human
|Gender Discrimination at work place|
|Gender: Qualification: Name:|
Please complete the following questionnaire with specific regard to the Above inquiry, by placing a CROSS in the appropriate box
|Strongly agree||Agree||Neutral||Disagree||Strongly disagree|
|1||Women are given less opportunities of promotion.|
|2||Women do not get equal rights|
|3||Single women should work|
|4||Married women should work|
|5.||Women of our society should be educated.|
|6||Pakistani women have equal rights in the society|
|7||Males are favored over females|
|8||The environment of Pakistani organization is suitable for females at work|
|9||Women in Pakistan face sexual harassment at work place|
|10||Women in Pakistan feel secure about their self respect|
|11||Women have the ability of being a leader|| |
|12||Women face gender biasness in our society|
|13||Women are given less opportunities of promotion|
|14||The male dominant society stops the female to bring out their capabilities|
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