Fermentation, Granulation & Storage of Honey
Fermentation of Honey
- Fermentation of honey means is the process of converting carbohydrates (sugars) into an alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms — yeasts or bacteria — under aerobic and anaerobic.
- Protecting honey from fermentation is important to both humans and bees.
- High moisture content cause fermentation and cause low quality Beekeepers can reduce the moisture content of honey by placing it in a ‘hot room’ and/or with a dehydrator to decrease the water content.
- If honey starts to ferment in the hive, the honeycomb cells are filled with bubbles and an odor of yeast can be smelled. Sometimes foam oozes out and collects under the frames. In a controlled circumstance fermentation of honey can be purposefully utilized to produce an alcoholic drink known as mead.
In controlled condition fermentation productions are;
Honey wine is also taken as a health tonic drink as it has a good level of antioxidants from honey.
Because of the high sugar content of honey, it is easily fermented into an alcoholic, honey-wine beverage known as mead.
You can also ferment honey into a lactic acid bacteria-containing beverage or condiment.
Factors Affecting the Fermentation
- Such as floral origin of the honey and its natural sugar and microorganism contents, must water percentage, pH, additives used, and strain of yeast, among others.
- Although supplementation of the must with nitrogen, salt or vitamins has been tested to improve mead qualities, there is no evidence that adding nutrients reduced fermentation time or improved quality
Granulation of Honey (сrуѕtаllіzаtіоn)
- It is “misunderstood” that honey crystallization (granulates) due to poor quality, bad storage
- Does not change honey quality only external features changes
- Glucose separates from water, after which glucose remains in the form of crystals
- 1-2 months to more than 2 years crystallized honey’s color is paler than liquid
- Crystallization process start if a spoon of crystallized honey is added to the liquid honey
- Two types of sugar in honey
- Fructose ranges from 30 to 44%, and glucose from 25% to 40%
- Bаlаnсе bеtwееn two mоnоѕассhаrіdеѕ dеtеrmіnеѕ that honey would crystallize fаѕtеr оr ѕlоwеr.
Temperature for Granulation
Storage of Honey:
- Honey doesn’t spoil quickly. Bacteria doesn’t grow easily in honey
- Glass jars are the preferred containers
- Suitable airtight container
- Avoid non food-grade plastic or metal containers
- Store at dry and also cool place
- Avoid placing containers with honey near your stove or oven.
- Suitable temperature for honey is 10-20 degree Celsius
- Amino acids and vitamins destroyed at 0 degree Celsius
- Worse taste at 45 C and flavor, color also lost
- Stainless steel containers also used for large level storage
Shelf-life of Honey:
- Honey stored in sealed containers can remain stable for decades and even centuries
- Physical and chemical changes occur during storage
- With passage of time its color Darker and loses its aroma and flavor
- Storing honey in the refrigerator accelerates the honey’s crystallization.
- Honey gets older, it may solidify and crystalized
- Crystallization is the natural process of glucose sugar molecules aligning into orderly arrangements
- Crystallization varies for the different types of honey e.g. Tupelo honey and Acacia honey,
- Whereas Dandelion, Clover and Lavender honey rush to crystallize.