This paper is about the criteria of evaluating healthcare systems : equity, effectiveness and efficiency.
Equity in the healthcare sector, recognized as the policies objectives, there are the objective of the healthcare system that needed to achieved over the objectives, the objectives could be the efficiency and effectiveness that relates to the attitude of the policy-maker. In the recent studies the equity is seems as the commitment, equity is a normative question, equity may be defined as the specific sense, that has to be achieved or increased within the health sector. The political climate also emphasis on the term equity, there are improvements taking place regarding equity in hospitals and other health care sector.
Various problems are faced in managing the functions of healthcare sectors, the study have shown that there are no equity, many patients are suffered due to the imbalance activities. In healthcare sectors are need to focus on the equity that could result in the efficiency and effectiveness, for the goals achievement, the consumer need to perceive the ethics of equity. Without the equity, the efficiency is not feasible, and without considering, the equity there could be no improvement n the healthcare sector.
Equity Importance in Healthcare Sectors:
The good deal of agreement within the health sector, is also based on principles of equity, there are various theories regarding the concepts of social justice, if we see from the social perspective the equity of access means the equal rights that should be given to all the patients. Regarding the efficiency and effectiveness, the healthcare system, should be appropriate regarding the social, political and economic environment, of its region (Starfield, 2012).
In the healthcare system, the strategies and budget is decided based on the necessity of equity, the decisions about health priorities in the healthcare system are regularly revised, so the sufficient services should be given to all the patients (Andersen, 2011). The identification of the equity necessities is necessary to understand, the legislations also need to support these decisions. From the perspectives of doctors or physicians, the healthcare system, for all the patients, need to be improved with the market technology, the innovative technologies could be helpful or could provide the beneficial results that supports equity concerning efficiency and effectiveness (Allotey, Verghis, Castillo, & Reidpath, 2012).
Equity Relates to Efficiency:
At government level and private sector, there is no guarantee that the services given relates to equity and efficiency, government need to promote the efficiency in the healthcare sector, in equity regarding efficiency there is need to give the high-quality services, the tax-payers, government and other professionals need to make decisions on the complexity of healthcare departments. There is strong interest of government and other institute that how efficiently the services are given to the patients. The large growing demands of healthcare sectors, with the increase in number of patients, the efficiency is lacking somewhere, the healthcare system cannot take this much pressure, to improve the equity and efficiency, there is need to improve the services of healthcare sector. The patients can relay the hospital and the services, the given quality should be managed, there is need of equity, and there are need of large-scale changes for the betterment and development of the health sector. There are need to improve the resources; resources need to allocate by the government, in recent years, government has focus a lot, investing in the resources for healthcare system, so there should be improvements regarding equity and efficiency (Saviano, Bassano, & Clabrese, 2010).
There are various goals reading the importance of efficiency and the equity, which are needed to be balanced, the healthcare system can only be managed and achieve its goals if there are legitimate goals, the goals for the healthcare system, should be seen as equity. The equity should be target or seen as alone, and then there should be goals that seeks to achieve the equity goals with evolving the greatest efficiency (Guindo, 2012). In the healthcare system the goals need to be identified, the meaningful decisions are important to take the primitive steps, the goals need to be examined for achieving the greatest gains, and the concentration of the social group is needed, for the achievement of the traditional healthcare outcomes. For managing the equity and for the efficiency the fairest distribution of health, from the healthcare department is needed, in regards to achieve the proper healthcare services the appropriate balance of the services should be the greatest concern. The outcomes should be evaluated to judge the given services that how much equity is being there, while the distribution of the health. There should be a clear interest with the health equity, so there should be effectiveness in the results, the investigation preferences are needed for identifying the goals of the healthcare system (Carter, Vosb, Moodiec, Habyd, & Anne, 2014).
The term health equity in delivering the health efficiency, need to be maximize for the benefits of the patients, equity for the outcome the efficiency, can be classified in the two groups, the one cost efficiency and the output efficiency (Kim & Porter, 2013). The cost efficiency is needed to achieve with the help of strategies, for the health outcomes and for the lowest level of the use of resources. The strategies need to make by the professionals or the policy-makers, the cost effectiveness, could be helpful for managing the relationship between the cost and accomplishments of the goals. The output efficiency can be used for the applications and intervention of the new strategies, as there are need to make the efficient strategies for the achievement of the equity regarding the result in efficiency or the most productive factors. If there is equity, or the principles are followed by the healthcare sectors, then it will lead to the efficient performance and better outcomes could be achieved. Greater effectiveness means the achievement of the better outcomes, safety and less number of side effects.
Effectiveness and Efficiency:
The effectiveness and efficiency could be achieved through equity, it is the logical process, the effectiveness is relate to the efficiency and efficiency is relate the effectiveness, both the factors could be achieved by focusing on the one. The goals cannot be reached or can be wasted with the inefficiency in the measurement of the goals (Atkinson, 2010).
The healthcare organizations are facing the challenges, to improve the results and the quality of safety, the quality within the healthcare need to be improved, the effectiveness and efficiency are related to each other, by reducing the unnecessary hospitalization and by maximizing the number of the professionals the equity could be possible. The primary care need to be strengthened, after testing of the drugs or medicines, which is cheaper and effective for the patients, should be encouraged, in this way effectiveness and efficiency could be achieved. With the equity health sector could be improved across the world, there is need to access the conditions; the evaluation of the performance should be done regarding or by using the modern technology. The modern technology need to be part of every healthcare sector, cost-effectiveness could also be achieved in this way. From the effectiveness and efficiency, better decisions could be take place in the health care sectors, there could be achievements from the medical and economical perspectives (Bevan, Helderman, & Wilsforda, 2010).
Interaction between efficiency, effectiveness and equity regarding healthcare sector
Efficiency and effectiveness play important role in the health care system. Efficiency along with effectiveness defines the performance of the system. Efficiency of the system can be defined as the allocation of important required resources that help the organization or health department to achieve the desired goals (HUTCHISON, 2011). Resources in the health care department are very limited that means people working in the health care department are required specific skills to manage the scarce resources effectively. Equity that is performance of the health care department, from the economic point of view can be measured for example; if the health care department is utilizing the resources and without wasting, using the resources in minimum amount and producing output (operation of the heath care department) then the performance of the health care department is good. Due to Scarce resources, healthcare department need to have proper skills and knowledge to utilize the scarce resources. people who are managing the health care department are required to develop criteria that is which sector need improvement and which sector need low allocation of resources or money so that important resources can be divided by a fair means in order to get and achieve the desired goal ( good performance) of the health care department (Weinstein, 2010).
From the economist point of view, three types of efficiency are required in the health care department that are; technical efficiency, economical efficiency and social efficiency. Technical efficiency can be defined as the production of health by the heath care department of the hospital. For example; specific amount of nurses are required to manage the specific amount of patients. Nurses play an important role in the health care department. Department allocate nurses in different sector of the department and a lot them different shifts according to the load of patients. For the effective utilization of nurses, department need to allocate nurses in the emergency department because patient in the emergency require more care and support from the nurses, as compared to the patient in other sector of the health care department.
Technical efficiency is related to the physical inputs of the health care department but economical efficiency is the use of effective cost by the health care department of the hospital. For example; if the hospital has 20 nurses working in the emergency sector of the health care department and department is providing them pay more than their work then it is not cost efficient. But if the department is providing pay to the nurses as well as doctors according the required work then the department is cost efficient. Social efficiency can be determined by the output that is if the patients are getting accurate service, support and help y the nurses then it means the department id socially efficient (Yu-Chuan, 2011).
Equity plays an important role in the health care department. Equity means fair distribution of health care services and support between the people (healthknowledge, 2016).
Government Can Promote Policies:
In the healthcare sector, the government can promote the policies for the effectiveness and efficiency of the equity, the Australian government can promote the funding for the healthcare sectors, so the strategies make effectively. There is no direct control on the patients; the patients relay on the professional to make the best decision for them. However, at government and private level, the patients typically have to bear the problematic situations. The government needs to set the policies, which promote the equity policy effectively, the healthcare system is very large and the organizations are full of responsibilities, there are need of funding, services, rules and regulations, the healthcare facilities could be improved in the in this way and cost could also be reduced. (Joumard, Andre, & Nicq, 2010) (Brouwer, Exel, Stolk, & Wetering, 2013).
The health cannot be directly measured, the ethical principles, and the concepts of equity need to focused, for the achievements of effectiveness and efficiency, and if the principles of equity is followed then there, healthcare sectors will automatically get the effectiveness and efficiency. With respect to the healthcare, there should be equal opportunities for all the patients, as the patients trust professionals, there should be no inequality across the social groups. To follow the equity principles, professional and government need to make the policies regarding the achievements of effectiveness and efficiency, there should be cost effectiveness, and resources need to provide by the government to the public and private healthcare sectors.
The unfair distribution of the resources can affect the one health, the policies and programs for the social justice need to implement for the betterment of the patients. The advocacy for the health equity can increase the awareness among the professionals, and they can learn how to manage the knowledgeable practices, there is need to evaluate the framework that what targets are achieved and what are needed. Equity can play a significant role in managing the effectiveness and efficiency, in the healthcare sectors.
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