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Estimated Improvement in Structural, Aviation and Thermal Safety in Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV’s)

Estimated Improvement in Structural, Aviation and Thermal Safety in Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV’s)

Abstract

Estimated Improvement in Structural, Aviation and Thermal Safety in Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV’s) explains that The Factor of Safety (FoS) or Safety factor is related to the term describing the material capacity of any mechanical system that undergoes certain expected loads, stresses, and strain. In this research project, this property was ascertained to be related to the behavior of stress and the potential displacement in the form of strain, depicting the resistance or flexibility against any load. The factor of safety defines the material durability, usability and life cycle of a material against different types of loads. The higher factor of safety leads to heavier component with and more upscale material and enhanced design and also involves cost implications. However, each of these safety factors presented a cognitive explanation of stress, strain, and resistive properties against the applied load, predicting the material property against the proposed load, thus supporting in the structural engineering design and determining the overall strength (Baker, 2012). This paper depicted the best possible Safety factor against structural, avionics and thermal stresses applied on materials used on UAVs. The paper describes various elements with regard to the utilized methodologies; the key technologies applied, as well as the perspective of highlighting the ultimate results and recommendations.

Introduction

An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is made up of a material, and a lot of material engineering focus is on strengthening the structure against huge wind pressure and thermal stresses applied on these UAV’s. Unmanned reconnaissance refers specifically to act of obtaining information from military aircraft. The world’s most advanced UAV is Northrop Grumman’s Global Hawk unmanned reconnaissance aircraft. This is for “High persistence Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration” (acid) part of the plan consists of two parts, “Global Hawk” and “Dark Star”, including the “Global Hawk” that was launched in 1995.

Factor of Safety is described by the structural capacity beyond the expected loads and is explained as the strength and safety of the system with an intended load over it. The factor of safety is important to be described as it forms a crucial part of the design process and the various properties such as usability, life cycle are related to it against the applied load. In aerospace engineering, the selection of the safety factor is always a compromise revolving around weight and cost along with increased reliability and safety. Majorly, the aerial vehicles use low design factors as there are high costs involved with structural weights.  There are several techniques for evaluating the Factor of safety for UAVs’ against applied loads, stress, and pressure regarding the improvement in strength. However, only a few described the potential challenges that arise with the solar powered UAV, especially against thermal stresses. These identifications of weak areas would be made possible using estimating Safety factor that is formed on the UAV against the applied load. The high-stress areas that are most likely to reach the Fracture point, thermal expansion or structural failure would be identified, providing the areas that can be most likely to be damaged during the flight (Peterson, 1992). These FoS areas provided the insight for designing, analysis, and engineering for re-strengthening the wing span, leading to evaluation of complete wingspan against applied stress, temperature, and structural loads.

The Stress, Structural, Material, Static and Dynamic analysis are applied to the different parts of many airplanes, and the evaluation of various material properties related to stress, strain and structural load is crucial. Most of these material properties provided us with the valuable information regarding the design of a high strength UAV’s structure, recommendation of the proposed material, design and manufacturing technique in developing these designs (Jun, 2006). Therefore, this paper will show how structural, aviation, and thermal safety is used in solar powered UAVs.

Key Technologies

Solar powered UAVs  are operated with highly sophisticated technologies, considering the fact that the energy or power is only generated at certain times of the day in which a storage element is necessary in this solar power system. The battery technology is one of the most common form of the storage of energy in any stand alone solar power system. This functions to control the charge/discharge of the battery system for the protection of the battery from damaging and to increase the life span of the battery in order to achieve its functional requirements. Other technologies that work in tandem to control the UAV operations include the pneumatic technology, miniaturization, launch and recovery, communications technology, and power technology.

The Pneumatic Technology

Pneumatic technological systems are powered by compressed air or inert gases and are controlled by solenoid valves, acting as an alternative to electric motors. Pneumatics stands as one of the best launching methods for unmanned aerial vehicles and is capable of providing force with quick accelerations. There are special requirements for unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, light performance, such as the US RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned reconnaissance aircraft layout, the radar reflection area as well as the advanced aerodynamic layout technology. Additionally, it is important to note that since unmanned reconnaissance aircraft pilots hardly consider some factors, researchers look for other means of developing reconnaissance aircraft aerodynamic layout such as the highly unstable tailess layout. (“Ingenia, 2015)

Miniaturization

Solar powered UAVs depend solely on miniaturization as one of its enabling technology. This works in relation to the reduction in the cost of various critical components which include aeronautical and electronic subsystems. (“National Research Council) Also, every electronic equipment in the solar powered UAVs is more advanced and miniaturized, such as the use of embedded sensors which achieves cognitive abilities 3600 through the use of synthetic aperture radar, and communications equipment. The low interception rate of some of these electronic equipment may tend to increase the unmanned reconnaissance aircraft for battlefield situations control capability, and increase the anti-jamming. (Oliver, et al., 2007)

Launch Recovery

It is required that unmanned reconnaissance aircraft launch and recovery is easier and do not have to rely on the runways; unmanned reconnaissance aircraft usually have greater competition. Therefore, a large unmanned reconnaissance aircraft zero-length launching technology and safety technology can make a breakthrough recovery for the launch and recovery significance. However, the launch and recovery is not significant in relation to the flight time, but requires a different approach. (Goodier, 2010)

Communications Technology

Broadband data link technology, big data traffic can make long-range unmanned reconnaissance aircraft to transmit information quickly. Implementation of super-tough lick giant control is the development of key technology unmanned reconnaissance aircraft. If you cannot communicate in real time or cannot work reliably in remote or enemy interference, the information cannot be sent to the command and control center, the instruction cannot be issued under reconnaissance unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, people will not be able to play a role in them, and unmanned reconnaissance machine will lose its advantage (Haftl, 2007).

Power Technology

Generally, the unmanned reconnaissance aircraft of the 21st century goes through a long voyage; it is necessary to use high-efficiency power technology. Also, it can also develop new lightweight fuel-efficient, such as the efficient use of aviation kerosene and solar power. For instance, this can be seen in the United States in which the test flight, “Helios” solar unmanned reconnaissance aircraft uses a new aerodynamic layout and can cooperate with the body of the thrust vector and split aileron flight controls, it is also provided with multi-axis thrust vectoring technology using a jet, that is, to control the flight altitude and direction of the jet direction by controlling the engine vents. This approach tries to eliminate the conventional mechanical moving parts, thrust vector devices. However, it’s not limited to this function of making the fixed nozzle lighter in its appearance, but can also reduce the radar cross section, as well as quickly reduce nozzle temperature in order to weaken the infrared signal.

The Concepts Behind the UAV Technologies

The UAVs, otherwise known as a drone are being controlled with the technologies listed above and many others unlisted. The flight of the UAV is being controlled and managed using different types of autonomy and this is based on a given degree of remote by an operator, or independent with respect to onboard computers. The focused UAV in this paper is the unmanned reconnaissance aircraft which provides battlefield intelligence, and other related features. The UAV systems comprise of sophisticated engineering and technology and hints at some complicated multilayer systems including the above listed technologies, as well as physical structure, flight controls, autonomous planners, etc. The physical structure is made of the fuselage and wings used in planes, helicopters’ tail rotor, frame, canopy and arm for multiroto, and the flight control uses control and automation, plane flight dynamics, helicopter flight dynamics and controls, as well as multirotor flight dynamics. All of these and many others are developed to achieve the safety of the UAVs.

Human Interventions – The Safety Operations

Humans are faced with different challenges managing and controlling these technologies to suit the purposes they are meant for. And a less knowledge in the operation of the UAVs is not acceptable in the airspace policy system. According to Hobbs & Herwitz (2006), any mistake performed by human will pose a threat to the UAVs’ operation similar to other aviation fields. And if UAVs is allowed to be operated in the National Airspace System (NAS), then understanding all human factors related to these vehicles become a necessity. The human intervention plays a significant role in emergence response and coordination required between Air traffic and management (Johnson and Shea, 2008).Moreover, UAVs have to be maintained by maintenance personnel who must ensure that the entire system that incorporates the vehicle, ground station, as well as the communication equipment are reliable. Some issues relating to this system include hardware issues, battery risks, software/documentation issues, and environmental issues. (Hobbs & Herwitz 2006) Maintenance personnel must be fully knowledgeable and skillful in carrying out any maintenance operation on any of these issues or others that may emerge.

Critical Analysis

The gathering of information and critically examining the knowledge from various resources with regards to the high-stress regions in the solar powered UAV structures has helped in understanding the subject more closely. Alternatively, it was ascertained that with the assistance of the Finite Elements Methods (FEM) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) approaches, the high-stress structural UAV elements against the applied loads are detrimental (Oliver et al., 2004). The resultant perspective mutually assists in the identification of the high-stress areas and FOS for the complete structure, as well as the potential areas that are most likely to get fractured or deformed after few times or additional load on the UAV’s structure.

Computing the Factor of Safety (FOS) requires the application of some mathematical models and software. The simulators such as ANSYS, CATIA, or COMSOL, Multi-physics and stress analysis, structural analysis, static or dynamic analysis, and thermal analysis can also be incorporated against the applied loads. (Degarmo, 2004) An example of software that can be used to achieve this is the CAE software; other factors to consider will need to incorporate in-depth research, including information and data gathered together from various primary and secondary source, as well as relevant incorporated and documented source material. (Zdobyslaw et al., 1999)

The Safety Issues

Air transportation had been facilitated by the National Airspace System, and various rules have been put in place to guide the operation of aircraft. The structural, aviation, and thermal safety are an important aspect of the solar powered UAVs, and the national air transportation system of the United States of America is composed of the accumulation and grouping together of regulations, procedures, aircraft, infrastructure, as well as personnel. (Wiebel and Hansman, 2005) Ever since the UAVs came into play, there had been a number of safety issues and this also incorporates ground collisions, potential air collisions, and system reliability.

Avoiding collisions imply that the unmanned vehicle must be developed in such a way that it can detect the presence of any aircraft and can avoid them while maintaining its movement through the air. (Carr) This is an effect developed from the control and traffic avoidance system and they are made to function differently. There are other methods of vehicle control that have been tested, ranging from totally autonomous flight to a particular input by an operator and also the use of traffic surveillance approach, including plain eyesight or ATC (Wiebel & Hansman 2005) midair collisions are considered a great risk to the UAVs. So many avoidance systems had been put in place, and irrespective of these avoidance systems put in place, there are tendencies that all UAVs that operate inside the airway boundaries and on one flight levels as a major current traffic at high and low altitude will be required. This provision may be put in place by the air traffic control or by a kind of active collision avoidance in relation to the UAV system. (Weibel & Hansman, 2005)

Avoiding this level of risks implies that UAVs reliability must be increased. Although, the UAV community and aircraft manufacturers ensure that reliability is improved by enhancing the integrity of the system and its components, and also creating redundancy. (DeGarmo, 2004) This approach will help to achieve a level of safety.

Affirmatively, safety in aviation refers to a term that encompasses the theory, categorization, and investigation of the flight failures, as well as the prevention and sustainability of such kinds of failures through education, training, and appropriate regulations. It can, on the other hand, be applied within the campaign context that tends to inform the entire public on the safety with regards to the air travel. Aviation Safety also refers to an organization that is responsible for production approval, certification, and the continued aircraft airworthiness; as well as the pilot certifications, mechanics, and many other safety-related situations (Girard & Howell, 2004). The Aviation Safety, on the other hand, is responsible for certifying all the maintenance and operational enterprises regarding local civil aviation, operations of civil flights, and the development of adequate regulations.

UAS operation inside the aviation authority framework (ATC) contrasts from the set up kept an eye on the flight framework in that unmanned vehicle control and movement shirking are practically diverse. In a conventional airship, ATC will issue a charge for the pilot by radio and the pilot will conform to keep away from the impact. Notwithstanding ATC, pilots have two techniques for spotting and keeping away from airship: either by outwardly recognizing a potential crash or the Car accident and Avoidance System (TCAS), which looks at neighborhood air activity transponders to the unit’s elevation and cautions of potential crashes (Harlem 2012). Keeping in mind the end goal to stay away from crashes, UASs should possess similar the capacity to identify and keep away from as other airship while traveling through the air. Distinctive strategies for vehicle control have all been tried, from total self-sufficient flight to direct information by an administrator, and an assortment of movement observation systems including ATC, on the other hand, plain visual perception.

In experimental tests it has been demonstrated that TCAS essentially brings down the danger of midair crashes for the Global Hawk, an extensive UAS conveyed basically by the Air Force and Navy. Notwithstanding the evasion framework utilized, it is “liable to be required for all UAVs that work inside of the limits of aviation routes and on the same flight levels as current activity at both high and low heights (Embry Riddle, 2015).

This may either be given via airport regulation or by a type of dynamic impact evasion by the UAV framework”. The prerequisite directing the see-and-stay away from capacity must be interpreted into a Minimum Performance Standard (MPS). “This MPS ought to be touchy to and sufficiently adaptable to represent the scope of UAV sorts, missions, and working situations.” Since UAS flights will cross worldwide fringes, it is imperative that the regulations be embraced by a global administrative office to guarantee consistency. The ICAO also termed as the  International Civil Aviation Organization is the body directing common unmanned automatons and it has reasoned that presently unmanned flight is reasonable inside of the built up “standards of the street” in the universal airspace. Potential contacts with the ground can be similarly as unsafe as midair impacts. On the off chance that a UAV framework comes up short, affects a populated zone and the flotsam and jetsam infiltrates covers, it is conceivable that the general population on the ground could be lethally harmed.

All flights, kept an eye on or unmanned, are connected with some danger. However, Weibel and Hanson’s ground effect model predict a safe of calamitous mischance in the wake of representing populace, trash size, unwavering vehicle quality and the past rate of disappointment (Weibel and Hanson 2005, 68). Of course, they take note of a higher danger around all the more vigorously populated urban communities like New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. They close that littler UAVs could fly more than 95% of the nation with little hazard while bigger UAVs could fly more than 20% of the nation and meet the current built up levels of danger if the vehicles could work around 100,000 hours between mischance, the present standard for aeronautics wellbeing. According to experts, “the CBP mischance rate is 52.7 mishaps for each 100,000 flight hours. This mischance rate is more than seven times the general aeronautics mischance rate (7.11 mishaps/100,000 flight hours) furthermore, 353 times the business aeronautics mishap rate (0.149 mischances/100,000 flight hours)” While mischance don’t as a matter, of course, anticipate impacts with the ground or other airborne items, the high mishap rate among CBP Predator Bs recommends the requirement for current wellbeing levels to be expanded before full incorporation into the national airspace (Dankwort & Weidlich et al., 2004).

Aviation operations and management encompass various business perspectives with regards to the air transport industry. The aviation managers often work for airlines and airports and have the responsibility of ensuring that the overall business transactions and operations run smoothly. Averagely, a competent aviation manager might be involved in the perspectives of fleet planning, safety enforcement, revenue management, as well as the employee hiring. The managers also have the sole responsibility of ensuring that their firms adhere to the set federal safety rules and regulations.

The application of redesigned model of solar powered UAVs in light of the factors of Safety (FOS) is the major outcome of this project. Therefore, the presentation and illustration of the management and controlling of different aspects led to the suggestion of measures that leads to better management of aviation operations. In these operations, special considerations were provided to the safety measures that were considered in the entire Management operations. Such measures include the adoption of real-time online ticketing systems and the acquisition of modern and bigger planes (Civil Aviation Authority, 2015).

Conclusion

All in all, unmanned reconnaissance aircraft of the 21st century will be important supplement reconnaissance satellites and manned reconnaissance aircraft and enhanced means. Compared with satellites, low cost, flexible control area reconnaissance, ground targets and high resolution; compared with someone reconnaissance aircraft it can continue day and night reconnaissance, regardless of pilot fatigue and injuries and other issues, especially in When an important area of the heavily fortified enemy reconnaissance, or in the case of manned reconnaissance aircraft inaccessible, use unmanned reconnaissance aircraft to reflect better its superiority (Mouawad, 2014). Unmanned reconnaissance aircraft has become important aerial reconnaissance equipment.

From the research study, it can be asserted that any sophisticated issues surround the ultimate integration of the unmanned aerial systems within the national and international airspace, thus necessitating the need for significant regulatory efforts towards meeting the minimum privacy, safety, and security standards. To ensure adequate operational safety, the subjected technological innovations should be in a position of enabling the UAS’s operator in detection of other aircraft so as to avoid various instances of midair collisions (Dai, 2006).  On the other hand, lack of universal training procedures calls for appropriate regulatory attentions that work towards guaranteeing the operators’ competencies.

To guarantee greater security levels of the unmanned aerial structures, exploitable weaknesses within the civilian operational frequencies and GPS technology should be gotten rid of through the ultimate introduction of the contemporary technologies in a very cost-effective manner. So, while technology is catalyzing the aircraft sector that allows for the development of UAVs into the operable machinery, human determination, and ingenuity hence tend to facilitate the UAVs integration standards within the navigable airspace (Kang, 2015).

Recommendations

The first recommendation is that further research should be conducted on the traffic avoidance apparatus so as to come up with the most lucrative methodology that will essentially lower the mid-air collisions probability. The development of new technology is required for making virtual cockpits more realistic through provision of extra sensory cues adding up to the UAS operator’s capability of controlling the machine safely. There should be great focus on proficiency with regard to control of the unmanned craft as well as the interaction with many other aircraft within the international and national airspace along with minimum values for the aspect of operator training. There are also higher investments required at the verge of upgrading the control systems of Air Traffics for the next generations and a more detailed analysis regarding the UAS’s safety performance and rates of accidents should be mutually conducted to develop a baseline for insurance rates and improvements.

The research on new security models is also required and implementation should be carried out with such models so as to allow for the adoption of appropriate GPS technologies for eliminating the GPS spoofing possibility. It is important the UAS operational frequencies should be protected, as well as the common video and data links through the implementation of transparent electromagnetic hardening, counter-jamming technologies, and spectrum management. The UAS transparency should be facilitated through creation of state and national UAS databases, with inclusion of the operators, the operation’s purpose, flight statistics and information, and the established security policies, among other relevant information (Fahlstrom & Gleason, 1998). The development of federal privacy guiding principles for the UAS operations that tends to state both the private operators and local agencies is also required and the FAA’s expertise within the aeronautical segment, as well as the relegation of the authority of drafting privacy guidelines, should be realized within the Homeland Security Department.

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APPENDIX

Appendix I: Approved Project Proposal

Estimated Improvement in Structural, Aviation and Thermal Safety in Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV’s)

 Abstract

The current proposal will focus on analyzing the best possible Safety factor against structural, avionics and thermal stresses applied on the solar-powered UAV. TheFactorof Safety (FOS)is related to the term describing the material capacity of mechanical systems that undergo certain expected loads, stresses, and strain in solar powered UAVs. This property is related with the behavior of stress and the potential displacement in the form of strain, depicting the resistance or flexibility against a load. The factor of safety defines the material durability, usability and life cycle against different types of loads. However, each of these safety factors presents with the explanation of stress, strain, strength and resistive properties against applied load, predicting the material property against the proposed load. This paper will analyze FOS effects on solar powered UAV’s and how factors of safety will improve the structural, aviation and thermal properties of vehicles. This study will focus on the purpose of evaluating the strength of UAV’s against structural and thermal pressures.

Statement of the Project

The aim of conducting this proposed study is to present a novel approach in re-evaluating the strength of UAV’s against structural and thermal pressure. This study would be validated with the help of existing literature on Material Engineering (ME), Finite Element Analysis (FEA), Finite Element Methods (FEM) and so that airplane manufacturers or other aeronautical engineers can have the insight regarding the development of a strengthened Solar-powered UAV with increased FOS. The purpose of this research would be to estimate the FOS where most chances of breakage, fracture, deformation and thermal expansion will arise in UAV.

Introduction

An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is also made up of such kind of material which aviation engineering focuses on for strengthening the structure against huge wind pressure and thermal stresses applied on UAV’s. Ever since the early commencements of aeronautics, one of the tasks of engineers have been functioning on is the advance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in order to carry out armed operations to mitigate the risk of human harm.  Northrop Grumman as well as General Atomics is the leading manufacturers in the production of the Global Hawk as well as Predator and Mariner systems. The world’s most advanced UAV is Northrop Grumman’s Global Hawk unmanned reconnaissance aircraft. This aircraft is based on  “High persistence Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration” (acid) part of the plan which consists of two parts, “Global Hawk” and “Dark Star”, including the “Global Hawk” that was launched in 1995.

In order to encounter and surpass acceptable levels of threat, the consistency of UAVs must be augmented. “Refining reliability is a documented objective of the UAV community and is being aggressively followed by aircraft producers. There are fundamentally two ways to increase reliability: 1) increase the integrity of constituents and structures and/or 2) figure in severance” (DeGarmo 18 2004). Currently, there are several techniques used to increase reliability and evaluate the Factor of safety for the UAV against applied loads, stress, and pressure that provides insights regarding improvement in strength. However, only a few describe the potential challenges that arise in solar powered UAV, especially against thermal stresses. These identifications of weak areas would be made possible using estimating Safety factor that are formed on the UAV against the applied load. The high-stress areas that are most likely to reach the Fracture point, thermal expansion or structural failure would be identified, providing the areas that can most likely to be damaged during the flight (Peterson, 1992). These FOS areas would provide the insight to inform designing, analysis, and engineering to re-strengthen the wing span, leading to evaluation of complete wingspan against applied stress, temperature, and structural loads.

Stress, Structural, Material, Static and Dynamic analysis are always applied to the different parts of any airplane, evaluating the various material properties related to stress, strain and strength. Most of these material properties provide valuable information in designing the high strength UAV’s structure, recommending the proposed material, design and manufacturing technique in developing of these designs (Jun, 2006). Considering solar powered UAV’s, their material holds the primary evaluation of above mentioned analysis that present with the complete Factor of Safety against the applied pressure. Primarily the need of time is validating its Safety factor and most liable mechanical properties so that a perfect Solar-powered UAV can be manufactured which can withstand the maximum applied load and temperature (Shanyi, 2007). A slight deformation, crack or fracture can lead to devastating results on not only the wings but the complete body of the airplane.

Normally the gust loads are one of the maximum severe masses for the mechanical project of the vehicles. The gust loads are generally modeled for physical design presentation in different means. The complication of the wind model is contingent on the part of the design. Numerous types of wind outlines are practiced: statistical, stochastic as well as synthetic models. Moreover, throughout the ascent stage, critical aerodynamic stacking is predictable to action on the vehicle external. This is owing to the extreme dynamic pressure met at an altitude amongst 10-15 km, by where the blend of high velocity of the promoter through air and thick atmosphere arises. The pressure dissemination (pressure as well as drag coefficient distribution) throughout ascent was attained through the resources of CFD (Computation Fluid Dynamics) recreations. The airframe is designed to endure compression loads owing to drag as well as acceleration over the atmosphere, and winding stresses owing to adjacent wind velocity. Therefore the compressive power represents the power needed to endure the hindrance on the vehicle as well as the speeding up of the airframe. Concerning the thermal pressures at the nose segment, it is predictable to be close towards the maximum permissible stress owing to the large sum of material offered in this section. A resolution to this feature is to remove the middle of the nose in directive to decrease these stresses, yet in this state the temperatures at the joining between the nose as well as the body will more upsurges for which a temperature delinquent exists already.

Engineers of UAVs have used numerous methods to determine part failure vulnerability. Some have used Non-Electronic Parts Reliability (NPRD) of 2011 as of the Defense Systems Info Examination Center, whereas others have consumed TelcordiaSR332. Consuming these actuarial apparatuses designated that the failure degrees for commercial goods was characteristically 2-3 times advanced than if armed grade fragments were consumed. This is upsetting when seeing that these similar actuarial approaches are numerical tools whose estimates do not characteristically take into interpretation the effects of the atmosphere on design arrangements or material contacts.

Key design concerns addressed in this project will include the ecological arrays that UAVs can endure to include  temperatures, stresses, vibration in flying, shock on arrival, and turbulence due to lack of acquiring an electrical letdown(Whitlock, 2014). As with new technologies, letdown analysis shows a critical part in accepting why a failure ensues, at the constituent as well as material level, in addition delivers the information obligatory to mitigate upcoming failures.

The atmospheres that the commercial UAV may meet could comprise of: temperature arrays of -40°C towards 70°C, shaking, shock, dampness, pressure as well as storage. Accepting the effects of these numerous pressures in the design stage would be helpful towards the commercial applications to evade the issues by crashes and workers safety. Actions to improve reliability for manufacturers can include a critical constituent analysis and a physics of letdown based design examination.

Though, most operators of commercial UAVs will substitute vehicles versus pay the charges to analyze the letdown of failures. However, A UAV dropping out of the sky or striking personnel becomes a liability for the industry. Additionally, lack of reliability and increased public risk would likely result in stricter directives that limit capabilities of industry growth. Thus the costs of failure examination become a reasonable cost to provide sustainable operations and to reduce risk.

This paper will discuss and compare the identified FOS’ that are currently in use to improve future UAV development. Also this paper will discuss how FOS would assist in better analysis and improvement of UAV’S structure and ensure better resistance against high wind loads, ambient temperature, and thermal stresses.

Program Outcomes

Critical Thinking

This project will display the application of knowledge at a synthesis level to define and solve problems within Professional and personal environments”

This project outcome assists in increasing the knowledge and understanding of the concept and thereby helps in improving the quality of the project and study. In this project critical thinking will be applied in order to gather and assess knowledge regarding the high-stress areas in the structures of solar powered UAVs. Also, with the help of Finite Elements Methods (FEM) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) approaches, the high-stress areas in the structure of UAV against applied loads will be studied and evaluated. This project outcome will help in identifying the high-stress areas and FOS for the complete structure and the potential areas that are most likely to get fractured or deformed after few times or additional load on the UAV’s structure (Oliver et al., 2004). Primary sources used to support the outcome will come from Embry_Riddle, (2015). Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research. The document has resourceful information concerning solving problems within Professional and personal environments.

Quantitative Reasoning

The project will be a demonstration of the use of digitally-enabled technology (including concepts, techniques and tools of computing), mathematics proficiency & analysis techniques to interpret data for the purpose of drawing valid conclusions and solving associated problems”

This project outcome will utilize different mathematic models and software in order to calculate the Factor of Safety (FOS). This project will select a simulator like ANSYS, CATIA or COMSOL Multi-physics and present stress analysis, structural analysis, static or dynamic analysis, thermal analysis against applied loads. The project outcome will focus on calculating the Factor of Safety (FOS) using CAE software’s and available mathematical equations (Haftl,  2007). U.S. Department of Transportation (2015), will be an ideal source for primary information as it has information relating to diverse digitally-enabled technology ranging from computing techniques, concepts and tools.

Information Literacy

“The student will conduct meaningful research, including gathering information from primary and secondary sources and incorporating and documenting source material in his or her writing

This project outcome will assist the researcher in conducting a research in such a way that it will be more meaningful and useful for the aviation industry and also for the students and researchers who are interested in the topic of factors of Safety (FOS) in the solar powered UAVs. This project undertakes the evaluation of past studies in order to determine the resistive forces involved in the application of solar-powered UAV (Zdobyslaw et al., 1999).

Scientific Literacy

“The student will be able to analyze scientific evidence as it relates to the physical world and its interrelationship with human values and interests”

The results of this research study will be attained at the moment when the precedent equations and models that were defined by most authors. It will be done and chosen for the sole purpose of establishment and structuring of the esteemed processes on the basis of various FOS insights for ascertaining further FOS optimization and enhancement. The inherent scientific evidence will help in the perspective of remodeling the contemporary FOS approaches. The information will then used in identifying faults related to the industry. All crucial information will be collected from US and UK aviation archives and databases such as Civil Aviation Association of UK (CAA, 2015). This will ensure that the study reflects on human values and interests as far as the industry is concerned. Schwartz theory of basic values of human being will be a central consideration with regards to this evaluation (Boyle et al 2014).

Cultural Literacy

“The student will be able to analyze historic events, cultural artifacts and philosophical concepts”

The entire project will encompass the establishment of a contemporary methodology with regards to the application and use of the cognitive solar-powered UAV’s. The ultimate development framework would push the researcher towards undergoing various periodic and historic events while evaluating various techniques meant for the design and establishment of an improved structure. It will largely integrate the extensive analysis of the most appropriate historic approaches such as FEM and FEA (New York Times, 2015). Information relating to development of the new models of UAVs will be confidently fetched from Ingenia (2015) database. Historic and periodic events evaluating these models are also available in the same website.

Lifelong Personal Growth

“The student will be able to demonstrate the skills needed to enrich the quality of life through activities which enhance and promote lifelong learning”         

This project will assist in enhancing the skills, both writing and critical imagination, which would help in the upcoming years. The factors of Safety is a detailed concept and therefore review of past studies on the topic will enhance an understanding about the concept and also provide better focus on more important aspects of modeling the solar powered UAVs. This will enhance student in understanding skills required in enriching the quality of life.. Sources will come from Sciencedirect.com, (2015). This will be backed by the scientific directory Sizing and preliminary hardware testing of solar powered UAV.

Aeronautical Science

The student will demonstrate an understanding and application of the basic and thus advanced concepts of aeronautical science as they apply to the aviation/aerospace industry for solving problems”.

This project outcome will present comprehension and utilization of the essential and propelled ideas of presenting models that would help in the betterment and advancement in the Factor of Safety (FOS) in aviation industry and thereby help in solving major problems of material reliability. This project outcome presents designing or re-engineering processes based on the insights from FOS, to further optimize FOS. This outcome would assist with assessment of different strategies that can re-strengthen the UAV by applied load, based on the insight and learning gained the demonstration of the project (Gundlach, 2004). The UK Approach to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Author, 2015), will be fundamental in collecting all information relating this outcome.

Aviation Legislation and Law

“The student will engage and discuss to present an understanding and application of basic concepts in National and International Legislation and Law as they pertain to the aviation aero space industry”

This project outcome will enable the understanding of the basic legalities related to the development and implementation of new solar powered UAVs. The legal aspects pertaining to the national and international laws of the aviation industry and aerospace industry would provide the guidance in the application of different models in this project (Shalal-Esa, 2013). Students alongside other stakeholders in the industry will learn institutions related to aviation aerospace industry, thus enhancing cooperation with the law. The project will also enhance awareness in reference to aviation aerospace industry.  Students will also learn of the impacts of legislation with respect to technology in improving human beings’ livelihoods (Gundlach, 2004).Sources to support this outcome will come from basic concepts in National and International Legislation evident in the article , FAA Drone Laws  Start to Clash With Stricter Local Rules (Kang 2015).

Aviation Safety

“The student will compare and discuss in written and spoken formats about the understanding and application of basic concepts in aviation safety as they pertain to the aviation/aerospace industry”

The outcome of this program will estimate and list the resistive forces that are applied on the solar powered UAV structural load, pressure, and thermal stresses. A thorough comparison will be made of different applications of resistive forces on the solar powered UAVs so as to depict the best possible Safety factor against structural, avionics and thermal stresses applied on the solar-powered UAV. Therefore, a large UAV zero-length launching technology and safety technology can make a breakthrough recovery, which would be significant (Girard et. al, 2004). The project outcome will help in presenting the design of the solar powered UAV structure in CAD simulator. Auto-CAD, Autodesk inventor, PRO-Engineering 5.0, Solid Works or any CAD designing software will be used to design a simple UAV. During the designing process, the listing of maximum structural stress, thermal stress, and other ambient radiated pressure would describe the inputs on the design. Data will be collected from interviews of aviation engineers and other practitioners as well as historical records such as magazine and journals such as Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research by Embry_Riddle University. This will ensure that ideas and thoughts from different people are inclusive in the design.

Aviation Management Operations

“The student will present and illustrate an understanding and application of management activities as they apply to aviation/aerospace operations”

The application of redesigned model of solar powered UAVs in light of the factors of Safety (FOS) is the major outcome of this project therefore the presentation and illustration of the management and controlling of different aspects, will lead to the suggestion of measures that will lead to better management of aviation operations. In these operations, special considerations would be provided to the safety measures that are to be considered in Management operations. Such measures could include the adoption of real-time online ticketing systems and the acquisition of modern and bigger planes as seen in Mouawad’s writing “Oversize Expectations for the Airbus A380″ in New-York Times News Paper.

References;
  • Baker, A. J. (2012). Bonded Repair of Aircraft Structures. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff
  • Boyle, G. J., Saklofske, D. H., & Matthews, G. (2014). Measures of personality and social psychological constructs. London: Academic Press.
  • Civil Aviation Authority, (2015).The UK’s specialist aviation regulator.Retrieved 29 December 2015, from https://www.caa.co.uk/home/
  • Dai, L. (2006). Carbon Nanotechnology: Recent Developments in Chemistry, Physics, Materials Science and Device Applications. Dayton: Elsevier.
  • Dankwort, C., Weidlich R., Guenther B., and Blaurock J. E. (2004) Engineers’ CAx education-it’s not only CAD. Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 36, pp. 1439–1450
  • Degarmo, M. T. (2004) “Issues Concerning Integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Civil Airspace.” MITRE, Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. Accessed July 1, 2012, at http://www.mitre.org/work/tech_papers/tech_papers_04/04_1232/04_1232.pdf
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  • Girard, A. R., Howell, A. S., & Hedrick, J. K. (2004, December). Border patrol and surveillance missions using multiple unmanned air vehicles. In Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on (Vol. 1, pp. 620-625). IEEE.
  •   Gundlach, J. F., (2004). Multi-disciplinary design optimization of subsonic fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles projected through 2025, PhD Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Feb, 9,  Blacksburg, Virginia.
  • Haftl, L., (2007) “3D CAD has become a must have.” American Machinist, Vol. 151,No. 4,  pp 26-28.
  • Hobbs, Alan; Herwitz, Stanley; “Human Challenges in the Maintenance of Unmanned Aircraft Systems, May 2006, Interim Report to FAA and NASA
  • Ingenia.org.uk,. (2015). Articles – Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Retrieved 29 December 2015, from http://www.ingenia.org.uk/Ingenia/Articles/903
  • Jun, S. (2006). Recent Progress In Study And Application Of Composite Materials For Aeronautical Engineering.China National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI , 72-81.
  • Kang, C. (2015). F.A.A. Drone Laws Start to Clash With Stricter Local Rules. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 29 December 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/28/technology/faa-drone-laws-start-to-clash-with-stricter-local-rules.html?_r=0
  • Mouawad, J. (2014). Oversize Expectations for the Airbus A380.Nytimes.com. Retrieved 29 December 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/10/business/oversize-expectations-for-the-airbus-a380.html
  • Oliver, J. A.,  Kosmatka,. J. B., Hemez, F. M., and Farrar, C. R. (2007). Finite Element Model Correlation of a Composite UAV Wing Using Modal Frequencies. Proceedings of SPIE. 6532, no. 1.
  • Peterson, C. R. (1992). Mechanics and thermodynamics of propulsion. SAO/NASA journal papers, 764-771.
  • Sciencedirect.com,. (2015). Sizing and preliminary hardware testing of solar powered UAV. Retrieved 29 December 2015, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110982313000112
  • Shalal-Esa, A. (2013) FAA Unveils Plan for Integrating Drones into U.S. Airspace, Reuters.com , http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/11/07/us-faadrones-idUSBRE9A61H220131107.
  • Shanyi, D. (2007). Advanced Composite Materials snd Aerospace Engineering. NCKI , 81-90.
  • The UK Approach to Unmanned Aircraft Systems. (2011). Joint Doctrine Note 2/11. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/33711/20110505JDN_211_UAS_v2U.pdf
  • Times, T. (2015).Celebrating the Flyby. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 29 December 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/summer-of-science-2015/latest/celebrating-new-horizon-s-flyby
  • U.S. Department of Transportation, (2016). Federal Aviation Administration: Aviation Data & Statistics.  Retrieved 29 December 2015, from https://www.faa.gov/data_research/aviation_data_statistics/
  • UAV Systems, Inc.
  • Whitlock, Craig, “When Drones Fall From the Sky,’ The Washington Post. 20 June 2014
  • Zdobyslaw Goraj, Andrzej Frydrychiewicz, Jacek Winiecki, (1999). Design Concept of a High-Altitude Longendurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Aircraft Design 2, 19-44

Appendix II: The detail projection of conducted literature review

Estimated Improvement in Structural, Aviation and Thermal Safety in Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV’s)

Appendix III: Process flow of Proposed Methodology

Estimated Improvement in Structural, Aviation and Thermal Safety in Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV’s)

Figure 1: Process flow of Proposed Methodology

Also Study:

Commercial Space Flight Project Report

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