With the introduction of Operating System (OS), the 21st century saw the emergence of a new age of technological progress. OS lets applications users interrelate with a computer system’s hardware configurations. OS runs a software platform that allows to use the application programs in a convenient way. OS comprises of certain characteristics which are briefly explained as the multiuser functionality helping two or more users to execute the program simultaneously. Multiprocessing function, as a major feature of OS, supports a process which is running on more than one computer. In addition, Oss ‘ multitasking function also helps one or more programs run simultaneously, rewarding the virtues of the real-time function that enables users to get answers instantly for the input. The goal of OS in the modern scenario has developed to promote the workload for end-users of computer systems, which includes software coating that takes place into account the technical aspects of computer operations. Notably, variants of OSs occur in the current scenario (Foster & Bachmann, 2005).
The OSs like iOS, Android and Palm OS have been briefly explained in the context of this research study. Thus, the scheduling, processes involved, and security aspects of these OSs were discussed from now on. The analysis also represents a brief overview of these three OSs with respect to their implementation and uses. The research also represents the future of the OSs considered in this report, in relation to the current scenario.
Broader Description of Mobile Device OSs iOS, Android, Palm OS
iOS is an operating system developed and sold by Apple Incorporation, one of the world’s leading consumer electronics organisations. This specific OS was marketed as an expanded mode of application for promoting Apple’s numerous innovative products, such as iPad and Apple TV iOS is also noted as iPhone and iPod compatible. In context, the OS tends to manage the device’s hardware and to offer technologies needed to implement the applications (Apple Developer, 2013). As for iOS systems, including three stages of development processes can be observed. In the initial phase, to test functionality, design efficiency and bug testing, the applications required for iOS development are accumulated and encumbered to devices for multiple times. The phases involved in the development phase are commonly represented in the following flow chart (Apple Developer, 2013). In the second phase, i.e. The optimized iOS, known as the AdHoc process, is used to check the application downloaded from the Apple product application store. AdHoc’s next phases focus compiling the applications and deploying them for further testing in the units. Subsequently, the last step involves the process of shipping the goods already installed with the applications and reviewed for the ultimate customers (Apple Developer, 2013).
The iOS applications have been built especially in conjunction with iTunes in this context (Apple Developer, 2013). The fundamentals for automatically scheduling iOS comprises of certain stages which mainly encompass the ‘jail broken iOS device’, elementary knowledge of Secure Shell (SSH) and its applications, focus on Being familiar with terminal commands and knowledge of “bundle identifier” names for applications to be appropriately executed (Apple Developer, 2013). It is possible to identify another important feature of any OS as its memory. The management of memory, in an OS, is a process that involves memory allocations during program’s runtime. It is in this sense that as little memory as possible is used by a well designed system such as iOS (Apple Developer, 2013). In the same context, the aspects relating to boot chain security, runtime process and code signing during iOS application help to confirm that only reliable code and applications can be implemented on a device. In addition to this context, the iOS developed by Apple possesses certain security characteristics to protect user data (Apple Developer, 2013).
The OS, patented as Android, is based on the Linux OS which has been designed mainly for touch-screen mobile phones (Android Developers, 2013). Android system has been developed to maintain an application process for a longer period. One of its major limitations in this context is that, intending to maintain the process efficiently for a longer period, it needs to erase the previous data in order to make a space for the application of new data. The processes are placed on the basis of “importance hierarchy”. The hierarchy level comprises of foreground process, visible process, service process, background process and empty process. These stages are placed according to their priority in the Android OS (Android Developers, 2013). Furthermore, lock applications provide widespread locking processes that can be obtained using synchronized approaches and statements in the Android OS. Lock synchronization can be identified as an equipment that switches access to a common resource by numerous threads. In Android OS, all lock operations must impose the same ‘memory synchronization’ semantics as given by the ‘built-in monitor’ lock, as illustrated in ‘The Java Language Specification’ (Android Developers, 2013).
Correspondingly, the schedule stages in Android OS create the tasks with numerous delays and then return a task article that is used to stop or check implementation. The schedule with a fixed rate and fixed delay approaches as used in Android OS, create and implement the task that runs on periodical basis until it is cancelled (Android Developers, 2013). When assessing the memory systems of Android, it can be observed that Android accomplishes and guards the share of internal memory storage where systems, applications and data related to the applications are stored. Android also manages the execution of RAM with the use of various applications (Android Developers, 2013). Additionally, Android, being an open platform, requires vigorous security architecture and demanding security programs. Notably, this particular design feature of Android has considerably reduced the probability of viral attacks in the technology products and this causing less security hazards for its users. Hence, it can be affirmed that Android offers an exposed source stage and application situation for mobile devices (TechRepublic, 2013).
Palm OS, can also be identified as a promising OS developed by Palm Incorporation for ‘Personal Digital Assistants’. It is used to manage the personal information with the use of basic software applications (TechRepublic, 2013). Contextually, Palm OS uses a single mode of process called as ‘Kernel’. Notably, the process used in Palm OS continues to run until it has completed or has received a stop notation from the event manager. Although, Kernel lacks the functionality of handling multiple threads, it runs multiple kernel threads. It is worth mentioning in this regard that it is not possible for thread in one process to access thread of the different process (TechRepublic, 2013). When assessing its synchronization, Palm OS ‘Hot Sync’ design allows one-button synchronization of information between the handheld computing systems and desktops. Its applications are fundamentally based on user friendly approach on the basis of the current consumer requirements (TechRepublic, 2013).
The memory on this OS is configured on the basis of logical constructs which is known as “cards”. The memory manager of Palm OS plays an important role in maintaining memory storage in its user devices by using scarce resources. Palm OS acts as a bridge for the programmer to operate memory applications. Unlike the Android OS, the data manager in Palm OS exploits the memory manager so that certain space could be allocated for database records rather than erasing previous data. Additionally, the memory of Palm OS can be automatically defragmented (Curtis & Wagg, 2004). The scheduling applications in Palm OS comprise of ‘big red pack2.2’, ‘VIAeSchedule1.0’, ‘Flight itinerary 1.4’ and ‘Trip boss 3.01’. Contextually, these applications have been developed with due significance towards the requirements of the end users (Curtis & Wagg, 2004). Palm OS follows simple stages to secure its data. These stages comprise of assigning a password, setting up of the device for periodical lock and hiding the confidential records of the users from anonymous sources. However, in many instances, it has been witnesses that the security system of Palm OS cannot prevent the hackers from leaking the confidential records (Curtis & Wagg, 2004).
Comparison between iOS, Android and Palm OS
The advent of OSs has created an era of technology advancement in the consumer electronics sector. Contextually, iOS, Android and Palm OS have their merits and disadvantages (TechRepublic, 2013). For instance, iOS- iOS is the modern post PC created by Apple. The hardware present within the OS is characterized to be attractive and advanced. It comprises of a huge capacity library for substances and applications. It is often regarded as the perfectly designed device for the end users based on their conveniences. However, it has certain disadvantages too. To be illustrated, the content with regards to formation and productivity is the frailest in this particular OS. iOS applications are of least useful for working professionals as it rendered insignificant consideration towards creativity. In comparison with Android, the applications of iOS are simple on the basis of user interface. In addition, Apple iOS allows the user to work upon one application at one time. There is a special feature known as ‘find my phone’ in which, if the device is lost, it could be recognized easily on a map (Foster & Bachmann, 2005).
In comparison to iOS, Android has positioned itself as the most dominant tablet in the modern context. In comparison to other OSs, the android devices offer flexibility with regards to its applications. Android has taken into account the power of user’s playground rather than consumer appliances. In comparison to iOS, it can be affirmed that Android is neither stable nor designed properly (Curtis &Wagg, 2004). Android acts as an open source which has been developed by Google. It has an additional application related to communication technology ‘NFC’ other than Bluetooth unlike other OSs. Contextually, all the three OSs are identified as multitasking in nature (Foster & Bachmann, 2005).
One of the major dissimilarities between Android and iOS is that Android, being an open source OS, can be installed in any hardware whereas iOS runs only on Apple devices. The software of Apple’s mobile is available only with its devices which results in excellent compatibility of hardware with the firmware. Bugs and Patches fixes is released only by Apple in Apple iOS, whereas in comparison to iOS there are loads of modified versions from third party designers with instant fixes in Android (Curtis & Wagg, 2004). Comparatively, it can be argued that Palm OS is generally not window compatible which results in conversion of documents into the concerned Palm format before using the user attempts to use the application. Palm OS comprises the features such as Garnet and Linux which allows the applications to run properly in selected devices (Saif, 2005).
Future of Operating Systems
According to the modern researchers, there are three major problems related to OSs. For instance, modular construction of OSs which comprise of the techniques used in software engineering is improper to be applied universally. Additionally, being related to distribution and mobile systems only these OSs lack wider application. In this context the better method is to design basic software components that are usable to any computing system at large. It has also been argued in this regard that the influence of other technologies over OSs can create a problem for these OSs in future. In the modern scenario, computer users often have to face difficulties during the installation of software and hardware resulting from technical issues. Hence, there is a significant probability identifiable that the future application of mobile OS comprising context- sensitive, personalized and adaptive systems will be reconfigurable (TechRepublic, 2013).
In modern day context, there has been a rapid growth in the interest of analyzing human errors caused due to technological development. The growth in the intricacy of technical connections makes it furthermore difficult for the operators to infer the internal functions of the system. On the other hand, operations based on large scale to cope up with competitive production do not accept human errors and thus indicate a major flaw in the currently used OSs. This has resulted in analyzing the human errors as a part of system design in computing technology. Undoubtedly, the advent of operating system has resulted in the execution of convenient user programs with minimized hazards. Consequently, it has become easier for the end users to use the computer conveniently and also the usage of computer hardware in a well-organized manner.
- Apple Developer. (2013). Apple’s iOS Development Process Summary. iOS Dev Center. Retrieved from https://www.swfhead.com/AppleiOSDevelopmentProcessSummary.pdf
- Android Developers. (2013). Processes and Threads. Develop. Retrieved from https://developer.android.com/guide/components/processes-and-threads.html
- Android Developers. (2013). Class Overview. Retrieved from https://developer.android.com/reference/java/util/concurrent/locks/Lock.html
- Android. (2013). Optimize Memory Usage: Android OS. Retrieved from https://support.google.com/android/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=1665504
- Curtis, J. & Wagg, A. (2004). Palm OS- Memory Management. Retrieved from https://www.sporc.org/docs/uni/comp3300/Palm%20OS.pdf
- Foster, R. L. & Bachmann, G. (2005). Professional Palm OS Programming. Canada: Wiley Publishing.
- Saif, U. (2005). Opportunistic File Association for Mobile Operating System. Retrieved from https://people.csail.mit.edu/umar/publications/OFA-WMCSA.pdf
- TechRepublic. (2013). Beware Of A Back-Door Security Hole in Palm OS. Mobile Development. Retrieved from https://www.techrepublic.com/article/beware-of-a-back-door-security-hole-in-palm-os/5028344