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COVID-19 Pandemic Housing Facility and Hospital Planning

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T-161 Problem Statement Covid-34

“Necessity and requirement of low cost economical and rapid housing facility during COVID pandemic.”

Abstract

This report showcase why there is a necessity and requirement of low cost economical and Rapid housing facility during covid pandemic,  in this report  we shall cover  what are the problem faced by Indian government regarding Rapid housing for Corona patients ; solution adapted by  several countries and what are the ideas we have taken from it and innovatively implemented in our rapid shelter  for Indian conditions.

Our report consists mainly of three topics

1st: Facts and problem faced

2nd: Necessity and requirements

3rd:Unique Solutions to our problems and  business idea

This temporary structures are being built to house PUIs (persons under investigation) and keep them from spreading the infection. This can be built on any open space like College and school Grounds, government open areas, party plots, gardens, etc.  

Key Features of our Shelter
  1. use of locally available material to save the cost of transportation of different material to build a shelter.(with all plans of shelter)

Which will enhance the growth of local market like wood industry , cement industry, etc.

  1. It will serve dual purpose of giving shelter to stranded migrant workers or  give shelter to  covid patients. Don’t get a wrong idea the shelter are not supposed to be used by both together at a time only  if shelter  is not occupied by the migrant worker and the Corona patients are more ..  then and then only the shelter should be converted for covid patient and vice-versa with proper sanitation.
  2. All the basic requirements which my friend told like sanitation ,proper hygiene , good ventilation, fire safety, multiple entry points, and enough space to move around are included  in this shelter.

The 3 main materials which can be used to build frame of our shelters are bamboo, cement, and timber.

we have made a flow chart of business idea for material distribution and transportation (in different states) With minimum cost of building a frame for our shelter. 

Index

 

 

Sr.No. Description
1 Introduction
  Ø About HACKATHON
  Ø ABOUT COVID-19 (INDIA) AND OUR TOPIC
2 Problem Statement
  Ø  Needs And Problems Faced 
3 Solution
  Ø Rapid building facilities adopted by several countries
  Ø Key features of our rapid shelter.
4 Pitching Idea / Business Model
5 Discussion 
  Ø Fundamentals like Dimensions , Estimation ,         No of Units , etc.
6 Conclusion
7 Acknowledgement

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Introduction

  • About Hackathon

Hackathon is an event in which a large number of people meet to engage in collaborative programming/ solutions. The purpose of a Hackathon is a for a group of programmers to work together on a collaborative project. Most Hackthon are competitions where several teams are competing to create prototypes that innovate on a theme or improve upon an existing project.

Skilled Developed In Hackathon are:
  • Learning Technology
  • Networking
  • Research
  • Try out the different solutions
  • Goals set
  • Presentation skills
  • Leadership skills
  • Fluency while communicate and many more

About Covid-19 In India And Facts Related To Our Topic

  • The current global Corona virus pandemic is of urgent concern with its high transmission rate and rapid spread throughout the world. The current reported death rate is 2-3% and there currently is no antiviral drugs or vaccine available to the public. Structurally, this virus is not unique and is similar to other corona viruses such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and can be addressed with existing disinfection methods such as chemicals and new technologies such as Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UGI)which is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (ultraviolet C or UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms.
  • COVID-19 is the respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that has caused outbreaks worldwide. The SARS-CoV-2 is a new variant in the beta corona virus family (Fisher 2020). It transmits by direct contact or contact with fomites and can be suspended in air as well, as are the related beta corona viruses SARS, MERS, and the four known Human corona viruses – OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU1. The majority of infection transmissions are believed to be by droplet spray from coughing and sneezing and by direct contact or contact with fomites.
  • SOME FACTS OF COVID-19…
  1. You may already have been infected — Some people never develop symptoms. And some people who had what they thought was a “bad cold” or the flu may have actually had COVID-19.
  2. Anosmia (loss of smell) is a symptom.
  3. People who don’t have symptoms can spread the virus.
  4. People with type A blood may be more susceptible to infection.

Problem Statement

“Necessity and requirement of low cost economical and rapid housing facility during COVID pandemic”

  • Problems Faced By India

On Tuesday 9th of june, Delhi’s Deputy Chief   Minister Manish Sisodia said the city will need 80,000 hospital beds to tackle the spike.

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

Conditions at the Civil Hospital in Ahmedabad, where 377 COVID-19 patients have  died till Friday, is “pathetic” and the hospital is “as good as a dungeon, may be even worse”, the Gujarat High Court observed in an order made available on Saturday.

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

Costly beds for covid patients with more facilities

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

 Low cost beds for covid  patients with less facilities 

 Low cost beds for covid  patients with less facilities 

Necessity And Requirements

“Of low cost economical and rapid housing facility”

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

Solution

Rapid Building Facilities Adopted By Several Countries

In 2020, the world is suddenly faced with an unprecedented global need for temporary emergency structures to accommodate the overwhelming cases of the COVID-19 pandemic and to address the urgent need for medical facilities. In Asia especially, we are no strangers to quick-built, modular, resilient structures in times of emergencies such as earthquakes, floods and droughts. The following projects,   serve as key examples in facilitating the provision of emergency architecture/infrastructure during times of crisis.

1.Makeshift hospitals built in under two weeks, China

By using prefabricated units, makeshift medical facilities were constructed with great speed. Fabricated off-site in a factory at the same time that the foundations were being prepared on-site, the units were brought in via cranes.

In addition, ‘Fangcang’ shelter hospitals4 are a novel public health concept. Implemented for the first time in China in February 2020 to tackle the COVID-19 outbreak, they were large-scale, temporary hospitals that were built rapidly by converting existing public venues, such as stadiums and exhibition centers, into healthcare facilities. Their three key characteristics are: rapid construction, massive scale and low cost. These shelter hospitals could be powerful tools for future epidemics and public health emergencies.

2. New COVID-19 emergency hospital built on uninhabited island, Indonesia

Prioritized for migrants returning home, the hospital is being built on a 16-hectare former Vietnam war refugee campsite and comprises three zones. Zone A serves as the dormitory for medical workers and the management of the hospital equipped with 158 beds, laundry facilities and sterilization facilities, while zone B is used as a patient ward with 20 isolation beds and 340 observation beds. The third zone is assigned for the future development of the hospital. The construction started on 11 March 2020 and was completed and opened on 6 April 2020.

New COVID-19 emergency hospital built on uninhabited island, Indonesia

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

3.Sekolah Indonesia Cepat Tanggap: Fast response building for post-disaster recovery, Indonesia

This project’s design idea was launched immediately after the earthquake on Lombok Island in August 2018 and completed in December 2018. This is a quick, modular prototype that could be replicated easily, quickly and cheaply to respond to other post-disaster situations. The modular units were developed as a plug-and-play configuration that could respond appropriately to different learning space requirements, availability of material components and various site conditions. The simple assembly details helped local craftsmen to construct the units effectively.

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

4. RISHA technology for fast-built housing, Indonesia

RISHA is a technology that answers various residential development needs. It can also be used for disaster management, in the form of temporary and permanent housing, as has been done in the aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh and North Sumatra in 2004. RISHA is a house with the knock-down concept, combining concrete panels with bolts so that the construction process does not require cement and brick, which quickens the construction process and enabling the house to withstand earthquake shocks due to its flexibility.

Fabrication construction with modular components is needed in disaster management, both natural disasters and other disasters, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. RISHA technology answers the need for accelerated development with a limited budget. The technology combines steel construction, a fabrication method with concrete, to produce modular spaces that can be applied to various building functions.

RISHA technology for fast-built housing, Indonesia

5.  Emergency isolation tents for COVID-19, the Philippines

The Emergency Quarantine Facilities by WTA Architecture + Design Studio are temporary structures meant to augment and increase the capacity of hospitals. Offering speed and scalability, the structures are simple enough that it can be built quickly in five days. It uses materials that are readily available and understood so most workers can work with it and can be scaled up not just throughout the city but also nationwide. Each facility measures 6 by 26 metres and will have 15 beds and two toilets. Doctors will have their own external testing box to check patients without having to go inside the facility. Airflow is directed one way from the front to the rear with side vents that discharge air away from each bed and prevent recirculation.

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

6.  Vo Trong Nghia, Vietnam

With the purpose of helping residents in flood-stricken areas in Vietnam rebuild their lives through the construction of temporary houses, schools and commercial establishments, the initial model of the Wind and Water Bar9 was proposed. Made structurally of bamboo, the roof covering is made from sheets of leaves that are highly fire resistant.

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

Key Features Of Our Shelter

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

Pitching Idea / Business Model

Among the solutions that different countries applied for this pandemic, we found the idea of Philippines very convenient to build a housing facility in India.

It has a very simple outlook and infrastructure and doesn’t even need a lot of materials for building it.

The main problem that we found was what type of foundation we should apply, and thus, for that we have suggested some solutions in the report itself.

As India and the world are facing a shortage in healthcare infrastructure, the Philippines is proposing an effective solution that can be manufactured and deployed as soon as possible and has the potential of scaling up. In fact, they created a structure that can act as a quarantine hospital unit or quarantine shelter for an individual. The effectiveness of the design is at less cost, less skillset required, minimum site operations, easily available materials, efficient logistics and minimum installation time.

The structures feature a simple enough design that can be built in five days with readily available materials. each facility measures 6 x 26 m and will have 15 beds and two toilets. patients and healthcare workers will have different entrances with doctors having their own external testing box to check patients without having to go inside the facility. airflow is directed one way from front to rear with side vents that discharge air away from each bed and prevent recirculation.

Floor Plan ( 1:75 Mm)

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

Elevation of Shelter ( 1:75 Mm)

Elevation of Shelter

Frame Structure of Shelter

Frame Structure of Shelter

Section Details

Materials Which Can Be Used As Per Different States To Build Shelters

Materials Which Can Be Used As Per Different States To Build Shelters

How The Foundation Should Be Done If The Ground Is Uneven(North- East Region)

Necessity and Requirement of Low Cost Economical and Rapid Housing Facility During COVID Pandemic

  • Check Your Local Building Codes

Depending on the local building codes where we are, we may need to build our corner posts on concrete pads or even on deck blocks or concrete blocks. Some areas will allow us to build directly on the ground using pressure treated lumber.

  • Step By Step Instructions
  1. Using 2×6’s make a square in the exact dimensions of the building.
  2. Use deck screws with washers to assemble the foundation frame.
  3. Measure corner to corner to make sure the frame is square. Adjust the frame until the measurements are the same.
  4. Use some plywood to lock the frame in place so it stays square. Leave an opening in the plywood so that you can drive spikes into the ground to mark the locations.
  5. Set corner post into the opening in the plywood and attach them with clamps. Adjust the frame until it is level before tightening the clamp.
  6. Mark where the frame is on the post before loosening the clamp to adjust the frame to level. This gives you a good reference point.
  7. Check diagonally across the frame to ensure it is level.
  8. Use deck screws and lag bolts to lock the frame to the post.
  9. Build up the corner posts for extra stability and strength.
  10. Paint the boards on all sides and ends with all weather roofing cement to prolong the life of the wood.
  11. Place floor joists at 16″ center. Mark the frame by going to the 16″ boundary then go back 3/4″ of an inch and mark your frame,
  12.  Use the square to mark the frame where the floor joists go.
  13. Clamp a small length of 2×4 to the frame so that you can set the floor joist on it for support while you attach it to the frame with the deck screws.
  14. Fill the open space between the floor joists with rocks, chunks of concrete, broken glass and other materials to keep animals from making their home under the shed.
  15. Add some pressure treated 2×4’s next to your floor joists on the inside of the frame. These will be used to help keep the apron in place so that the rocks and chunks of concrete stay underneath your shed.
    16. Use pressure treated plywood for the apron and paint it with the roofing cement to prolong its life

  • Additional Thoughts

We’d like to add some notes to this method.  First off, we would recommend using a concrete pad, block or deck block under the corner posts. We would also anchor the posts so that the shed can’t move or be blown by the wind.

Second, we would add some vents to the apron so that there is less of a chance of the trapped air creating a moisture or mold issue underneath the shed.

Third, we are not wild about filling the void between the joists with rocks and glass. We understand the reasons for doing that, we just feel like most rodents will still find voids in between the filler and make a home there anyway. Maybe just broken glass would be enough to discourage rodents from trying to live under there.

Discussion 

Description
Details
Shelters
ü 15 beds available in one shelter

ü Dimensions : 6 x 26 m

ü Doctors will have their own external testing box to check patients without having to go inside the facility

ü Airflow is directed one way from front to rear with side vents that discharge air away from each bed and prevent recirculation.

ü Foundation is optional depending upon weather conditions and type of terrain.

ü material cost depending upon state:

                          i.          TIMBER

(exported from Jammu and Kashmir , Kerala )  yellow Sal wood – Rs 250/ feet

                          ii.         CEMENT

       ( produced in MADHYA PRADESH AND RAJASTHAN) OPC – Rs 245/ Bag

                        iii.        BAMBOO

          (grown in Assam) – Rs 6.5/ Kilogram

v ALL THE COST OF MATERIAL MAY VARY UPON QUANTITY OF MATERIAL BOUGHT BY DIFFERENT STATES

ü Cement material can also be used to make precast frame for our shelters and can be delivered to different states by companies like:

·       Ultracore Solutions PVT. LTD. (Hyderabad)

·       BLOKS precast  Pvt.Ltd. ( Pune – Maharashtra)

·       VME Precast ( Tamil nadu)

·       Urbanaac  (Ahmadabad , Gujarat)

Conclusion

Buildings with spacious interiors should be designed to be easily converted into temporary medical facilities to ease the beleaguered healthcare systems from being overwhelmed with the surge in cases, says Wang Chen, a respiratory diseases expert and vice-president of Chinese Academy of Engineering, as published in The Lancet medical journal.

In denser cities, we see such facilities converted to address the need for community isolation:
• Convention halls and resorts (Singapore)
• Asian Games Athlete’s Village (Indonesia)
• Railway carriages and sport stadiums (India)

As we steer uncharted waters with crippled tourism and aviation sectors, governments are trying to cushion the brunt of tumultuous economies, which some are now in limbo. Amongst catalysts for recovery are unilateral agreements and the hope for a vaccine. In the meantime, firms have to remain viable, strategic and sustainable—risk-informed facilities that consider a wide range of shocks and stresses will strengthen the region’s infrastructure and better serve occupants.

ideal location to build our shelters are:

  • Government gardens and parks (such as amul)
  • Party plots could be rented
  • Open government properties
  • Closed government and private schools and colledges
  • Stadiums and courts
Acknowledgememt

This report of hackathon which is based on the “covid-19” , has  been finished with the  help of lots of people. So, we here by extend our sincere thanks to all those whose contribution helped us to complete the report.

We are grateful to Petroleum University for giving us such a wonderful opportunity and making us a part to give best solution as possible in a time of pandemic.

We would like to express our deep gratitude towards the IIC and it’s team for providing the opportunity and making us a part of solution to overcome the various problem during the time of Covid-19.

We would like to express our sincere gratitude to our advisor/mentor for the continuous support of our hackathon problem, for his motivation, patience, enthusiasm and immense knowledge and coordinator/advisor. Their guidance helped us in all the time of research and searching for a suitable solution.

We are highly indebted to all the faculty as well as HOD of the Civil Department for giving us such innovative problem statements, so that we could think out of the box and do some research in depth for the same.

At last a sincere thanks to all the team members for the continuous support and cooperation, inspiration, guidance during the preparation of this report.

Finally, it is indeed with a great sense of pleasure and immense sense of gratitude that we acknowledge the help of these individuals.

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