Pakistan ranks eight worldwide in farm output, according to the list of countries by GDP sector composition.
The most important crops are wheat, sugarcane, cotton, and rice, which together account for more than 75% of the value of total crop output.
Pakistan’s largest food crop is wheat. In 2005, Pakistan produced 21,591,400 metric tons of wheat, more than all of Africa (20,304,585 metric tons) and nearly as much as all of South America (24,557,784 metric tons), according to the FAO. The country is expected to harvest 25 to 23 million tons of wheat in 2012.
Pakistan has also cut the use of dangerous pesticides dramatically.
Pakistan is a net food exporter, except in occasional years when its harvest is adversely affected by droughts. Pakistan exports rice, cotton, fish, fruits (especially Oranges and Mangoes), and vegetables and imports vegetable oil, wheat, pulses and consumer foods. The country is Asia’s largest camel market, second-largest apricot and ghee market and third-largest cotton, onion and milk market.
The economic importance of agriculture has declined since independence, when its share of GDP was around 53%. Following the poor harvest of 1993, the government introduced agriculture assistance policies, including increased support prices for many agricultural commodities and expanded availability of agricultural credit. From 1993 to 1997, real growth in the agricultural sector averaged 5.7% but has since declined to about 4%. Agricultural reforms, including increased wheat and oilseed production, play a central role in the government’s economic reform package.
Outdated irrigation practices have lead to inefficient water usage in Pakistan. 25 per cent of the water withdrawn for use in the agricultural sector is lost through leakages and line losses in the canals. Only a limited amount of the remaining water is actually absorbed and used by the crops due to poor soil texture and unlevelled fields.
Much of the Pakistan’s agriculture output is utilized by the country’s growing processed-food industry. The value of processed retail food sales has grown 12 percent annually during the Nineties and was estimated at over $1 billion in 2000, although supermarkets accounted for just over 10% of the outlets.
The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued major crop yields at Rs.504,868 million in 2005 thus registering over 55% growth since 2000 while minor crop yields were valued at Rs.184,707 million in 2005 thus registering over 41% growth since 2000. The exports related to the agriculture sector in 2009–10 are Rs 288.18 billion including food grains, vegetables, fruits, tobacco, fisheries products, spices and livestock.
According to the Economic Survey of Pakistan, the livestock sector contributes about half of the value added in the agriculture sector, amounting to nearly 11 per cent of Pakistan’s GDP, which is more than the crop sector. The leading daily newspaper Jang reports that the national herd consists of 24.2 million cattle, 26.3 million buffaloes, 24.9 million sheep, 56.7 million goats and 0.8 million camels. In addition to these there is a vibrant poultry sector in the country with more than 530 million birds produced annually. These animals produce 29.472 million tons of milk (making Pakistan the 4th largest producer of milk in the world), 1.115 million tons of beef, 0.740 million tons of mutton, 0.416 million tons of poultry meat, 8.528 billion eggs, 40.2 thousand tons of wool, 21.5 thousand tons of hair and 51.2 million skins and hides.
Fishing in Pakistan:
Fishery and fishing industry plays a significant part in the national economy of Pakistan. With a coastline of about 814 km, Pakistan has enough fishery resources that remain to be developed. Most of the population of the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan depends on fisheries for livelihood. It is also a major source of export earning.
Fishing industry is the managed by the Fisheries Development Commissioner (FDC) under the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (MFAL) of Government of Pakistan. The office of the FDC is responsible for policy, planning and coordination with provincial fisheries departments and other national and international agencies such as Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission. The marine subsector is overlooked by Marine Fisheries Department (MFD).
About only 4% of land in Pakistan is covered with forest. The forest of Pakistan are a main source of food, lumber, paper, fuelwood, latex, medicine as well as used for purposes of wildlife conservation and ecotourism.
The forests of Pakistan are a main source of lumber, paper, fuelwood, latex, medicine as well as human and animal food. Other minor products include resin (a fluid in tissue of Chir pine plant that becomes solid on exposure to the air) and ‘mazri’ (used for making baskets). The forests also provide for ecotourism and wildlife conservation purposes. Forests have also been planted in some areas like Thal Desert to avoid soil erosion and further desertification. Riparian zone along the river Indus have been managed to avoid excess flooding
The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued this sector at Rs.25,637 million in 2005 thus registering over 3% decline of forests in Pakistan since 2000. The main reasons of deforestation are urbanization, farming, overgrazing, global warming, and tourism development. This has led to severe consequences desertification, flooding and endangering of wildlife.
As a consequence to deforestation and changing land use patterns, the most critically affected ecosystems of Pakistan are:
Juniper forests of northern Balochistan, have been heavily harvested for timber and fuel-wood.
Indus River riparian zone is the other such area where ecological changes have drastically affected the ‘Riverain Forests’. Large tracts have been cleared for agriculture.
The Himalayan temperate forests are also under severe pressure from logging for timber and firewood and making clearings for agriculture and the increasing population pressure.
The proteced areas serve the purpose of conserving the forests and wildife of Pakistan. National Conservation Strategy of 1993 was a major landmark of start of conservation of natural resources and wildlife in Pakistan. Resource-managed man-made forests like Changa Manga, Kamalia plantation and Chichawatni plantation have also been planted to serpurpose and conserve.
Economy of Pakistan:
The economy of Pakistan is the 27th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), and 44th largest in terms of nominal GDP. However as Pakistan has a population of over 183 million (the world’s 6th-largest), GDP per capita is low: the nation’s 2012 PPP-adjusted GDP per capita of approximately US$2900 ranked 135th, 141st, or 147th in the world according to the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and US Central Intelligence Agency respectively.
Pakistan has a semi-industrialized economy, which mainly encompasses textiles, chemicals, food processing, agriculture and other industries. Growth poles of Pakistan’s economy are situated along the Indus River] the diversified economies of Karachi and major urban centers in the Punjab, coexisting with lesser developed areas in other parts of the country. The economy has suffered in the past from decades of internal political disputes, a fast growing population, mixed levels of foreign investment Foreign exchange reserves are bolstered by steady worker remittances, but a growing current account deficit – driven by a widening trade gap as import growth outstrips export expansion – could draw down reserves and dampen GDP growth in the medium term.
Agriculture in the United States:
Agriculture is a major industry in the United States, and the country is a net exporter of food. As of the last census of agriculture in 2007, there were 2.2 million farms, covering an area of 922 million acres (3,730,000 km2), an average of 418 acres (1.69 km2) per farm. Although agricultural activity occurs in most states, it is particularly concentrated in the vast expanse of flat, arable land known as the Great Plains, which encompasses the central region of the nation.
Major Crops in the USA – 1997
(in US$ billions)
- Corn = $24.4
- Soybeans = $17.7
- Wheat = $8.6
- Alfalfa = $8.3
- Cotton = $6.1
- Hay, other than alfalfa = $5.1
- Tobacco = $3.0
- Rice = $1.7
- Sorghum = $1.4
- Barley = $.9
U.S. agriculture has a high yield relative to other countries. The yield was (in 2004):
- Corn for grain, average of 160.4 bushels harvested per acre (10.07 t/ha)
- Soybean for beans, average of 42.5 bushels harvested per acre (2.86 t/ha)
- Wheat, average of 43.2 bushels harvested per acre (2.91 t/ha, was 44.2 bu/ac or 2.97 t/ha in 2003)
The major livestock industries in the United States are:
- Dairy cattle
- Beef cattle
- Swine (also called hogs or pigs)
Intensive Animal Farming:
Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also called factory farming, is a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, including cattle, poultry (in “Battery cages”) and fish in confinement at high stocking density — a practice typical in industrial farming by agribusinesses. The main products of this industry are meat, milk and eggs for human consumption. There have been issues regarding whether factory farming is sustainable and ethical.
Confinement at high stocking density is one part of a systematic effort to produce the highest output at the lowest cost by relying on economies of scale, modern machinery, biotechnology, and global trade. Confinement at high stocking density requires the use of antibiotics and pesticides to mitigate the spread of disease and pestilence exacerbated by these crowded living conditions] In addition, antibiotics are used to stimulate livestock growth by killing intestinal bacteria. There are differences in the way factory farming techniques are practiced around the world. There is a continuing debate over the benefits, risks and ethical questions of factory farming. The issues include the efficiency of food production; animal welfare; whether it is essential for feeding the growing global population; the environmental impact and the health risks.and associated pollution and health issues.
Agriculture Safety and Health:
Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries. Farmers are at high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries, work-related lung diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, skin diseases, chemical-related illnesses, and certain cancers associated with chemical use and prolonged sun exposure. In an average year, 516 workers die doing farm work in the U.S. (1992–2005). Every day, about 243 agricultural workers suffer lost-work-time injuries, and about 5% of these result in permanent impairment.Tractor overturns are the leading cause of agriculture-related fatal injuries, and account for over 90 deaths every year. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health recommends the use of roll over protection structures on tractors to reduce the risk of overturn-related fatal injuries.
Farming is one of the few industries in which families (who often share the work and live on the premises) are also at risk for injuries, illness, and death. Agriculture is the most dangerous industry for young workers, accounting for 42% of all work-related fatalities of young workers in the U.S. between 1992 and 2000. In 2011, 108 youth, less than 20 years of age, died from farm-related injuriesUnlike other industries, half the young victims in agriculture were under age 15. For young agricultural workers aged 15–17, the risk of fatal injury is four times the risk for young workers in other workplacesAgricultural work exposes young workers to safety hazards such as machinery, confined spaces, work at elevations, and work around livestock. The most common causes of fatal farm-related youth injuries involve machinery, motor vehicles, or drowning. Together these three causes comprise more than half of all fatal injuries to youth on U.S. farms.
As with other countries, the 200 nautical miles (370 km) exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coast of the United States gives its fishing industry special fishing rights.It covers 11.4 million square kilometres (4.38 million sq mi). This is the largest zone in the world, exceeding the land area of the United States.
According to the FAO, in 2005 the United States harvested 4,888,621 tonnes of fish from wild fisheries and another 471,958 tonnes from aquaculture. This made the United States the fifth leading producer of fish after China, Peru, India and Indonesia, with 3.8 percent of the world total.
Economy of the United States:
The economy of the United States is the world’s largest single national economy. The United States’ nominal GDP was estimated to be $16.6 trillion in June 2013, approximately a quarter of nominal global GDP. Its GDP at purchasing power parity is also the largest of any single country in the world, approximately a fifth of the global total. The United States has a mixed economy and has maintained a stable overall GDP growth rate, a moderate unemployment rate, and high levels of research and capital investment. Its five largest trading partners are Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and Germany.
The US has abundant natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, and high productivity. It has the world’s sixth-highest per capita GDP (PPP). The U.S. is the world’s third-largest producer of oil and second-largest producer of natural gas. It is the second-largest trading nation in the world behind China. It has been the world’s largest national economy (not including colonial empires) since at least the 1890s. As of 2010, the country remains the world’s largest manufacturer, representing a fifth of the global manufacturing output. Of the world’s 500 largest companies, 132 are headquartered in the US, twice that of any other country. The country is one of the world’s largest and most influential financial markets. About 60% of the global currency reserves have been invested in the US dollar, while 24% have been invested in the euro. The New York Stock Exchange is by far the world’s largest stock exchange by market capitalization. Foreign investments made in the US total almost $2.4 trillion, which is more than twice that of any other country. American investments in foreign countries total over $3.3 trillion, which is almost twice that of any other country. Consumer spending comprises 71% of the US economy in 2013.The labor market has attracted immigrants from all over the world and its net migration rate is among the highest in the world. The U.S. is one of the top-performing economies in studies such as the Ease of Doing Business Index, the Global Competitiveness Report, and others. The US is ranked first globally in the IT industry competitiveness index.
Agriculture in Canada:
Canada is one of the largest agricultural producers and exporters in the world. As with other developed nations, the proportion of the population and GDP devoted to agriculture fell dramatically over the 20th century but it remains an important element of the Canadian economy.
A wide range of agriculture is practiced in Canada, from sprawling wheat fields of the prairies to summer produce of the Okanagan valley. In the federal government, overview of Canadian agriculture is the responsibility of the department of Agriculture and Agri food.
In 1925, Saskatchewan produced over half of the wheat in the Dominion of Canada, threshing in excess of 240,000,000 bushels (6,500,000 metric tons) of wheat. Rapeseed, alfalfa, barley, canola, flax, rye, and oats are other popularly grown grain crops.
Wheat is a staple crop from Canada. To help homesteaders attain an abundance harvest in a foreshortened growing season, varieties of wheat were developed at the beginning of the twentieth century. Red Fife was the first strain; it was a wheat which could be seeded in the fall and sprout in the early spring. Red Fife ripened nearly two weeks sooner and was a harderwheat than other spring wheats. Dr. C. Saunders, experimented further with Red Fife, and developed Marquis Wheat, which was resistant to rust and came to maturity within 100 days. Some other types of wheat grown are durum, spelt, and winter wheat. In recent years Canadian farmers have also began to grow rice due to the increase in the Asian population in Canada.
Horticulture which includes nursery and floral crops, and fruits became easier to grow with the development of plant hardiness zones. Apples, pears, plums and prunes, peaches, apricots, cherries, strawberries, raspberries, loganberries and fruit orchards are numerous and reach commercial size in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Niagara Peninsula and Norfolk County of Ontario and Okanagan Valley of British Columbia.
Hazelnuts are harvested in Eastern Canada and British Columbia Maple syrup and maple sugar, maple butter, and maple taffy are products of Quebec along the St. Lawrence River. The main market for Canadian maple syrup and sugar is the United States Potatoes are an abundant harvest of the Maritime provinces. Sugar beets and beet root sugar are harvested in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta.
Viticulture refers to the growing of grapes. Grapes require a mild winter season, which can be found in some Maritime locations, southern British Columbia, and locations on the Niagara Peninsula.
115,000 cattle roamed the southern prairies by 1900. Livestock can include the raising of cows, also commonly called cattle. Recently domestication of the buffalo and elk has initiated a new food industry. Sheep have been raised for both wool and meat. Bovine or pig barns have been a part of livestock culture. Scientists have been making forward steps in swine research giving rise to intensive pig farming. The domestication of various farm animals meant that corresponding industries such as feedlots, animal husbandry and meat processing have also been studied, and developed.
Poultry and Eggs:
Fowl, poultry, eggs, chickens, geese, ducks and turkeys are part of a system of supply management. Under supply management, production is limited, prices are raised, and competition is severely curtailed, raising profits for farmers through artificially high prices for poultry and eggs paid by consumers. There are around 3,000 poultry farmers and 1,000 egg farmers in Canada.
Like poultry, dairy farming in Canada is restricted under the system of supply management. There are around 13,000 dairy farmers in Canada.
Number of farms by province in Canada:
Province/Territory Number of Farms
British Columbia 20,290
New Brunswick 3,034
Newfoundland and Labrador 643
Nova Scotia 3,923
Prince Edward Island 1,845
Northwest Territories 30
The marketing and economic movement of Canada’s various agriculture commodities has been a challenge. Domestic trade encompasses providing goods within Canada provincially and inter-provincial. Support agencies and services such as storage, railways, warehouses, stores, banking institutions all affect domestic trade. Trade of wheat from the Canada’s prairies are monitored by the Canadian Wheat Board. Canada’s depression of 1882–1897 brought a low of 64¼ cents per bushel ($24/t) as of 1893. This era during Laurier’s administration saw thousands of homesteads cancelled. Wheat prices soared during World War I. In 1928, Canada exported high quantities of wheat, flour, and goods. The depression took its toll on Canada as exports sunk to approximately 40% of their 1928 amount. European markets stopped needing to import Canadian wheat as they started growing their own varieties, and then World War II events put a blockade on trade to European markets. Canada became more of an industrial entity during the time of this industrial revolution, and less of an agricultural nation. Following World War II the United Kingdom entered into contract for a large amount of agricultural commodities such as bacon, cheese, wheat, oats and barley. After the United Kingdom, the United States is Canada’s largest external trade partner. Between 1943 and 1953, the average export of Canadian wheat was 347,200,000 bushels (9,449,000 t). The three year International Wheat Agreement of 1955, which really lasted 6 years, included exports of wheat or flour to 28 of 44 importing countries including Germany, Japan, Belgium, UK, and the Netherlands.
Agriculture Economy of Canada:
Canadian farms, fisheries and ranches produce a wide variety of crops, livestock, food, feed, fibre, fuel and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals which are dependent upon the geography of the province. In 2001 farms numbered only 246,923 at a size of 676 acres (2.74 km2) as the production of food and fibre for human or livestock sustenance has evolved into intensive and industrial practices. As of 2002, wheat constituted the largest crop area at 12.6%. Canadian farmers received a record $36.3 billion in 2001 from livestock, crop sales and program payments. In 2001, the accrued net income of farm operators from farm production amounted to 1,633 million dollars, which amounts to 0.147% of Canada’s gross domestic product at market prices which is 1,108,200 million dollars. Fisheries are also playing an important role while forestry plays a secondary role. Canada’s evolution has abandoned subsistence techniques and now sees a mere 3% of Canada’s population employed as a mechanized industrial farmer who are able feed the rest of the nation’s population of 30,689.0 thousand people (2001) as well as export to foreign markets. (Canada’s estimated population was 32,777,300 on 1 January 2007).
Agriculture in Australia:
Australia is a major agricultural producer and exporter. Agriculture and its closely related sectors earn $155 billion-a-year for a 12% share of GDP. Australian farmers and graziers own 135,997 farms, covering 61% of Australia’s landmass. Across the country there is a mix of irrigation and dry-land farming. The CSIRO has forecast that climate change will cause decreased precipitation over much of Australia and that this will exacerbate existing challenges to water availability and quality for agriculture.
Importance of Irrigation:
Because of Australia’s large deserts and irregular rainfall, irrigation is necessary for agriculture in some parts of the country. The total gross value of irrigated agricultural production in 2004-05 was A$9,076 million compared to A$9,618 million in 2000-01. The gross value of irrigated agricultural production represents around a quarter (23%) of the gross value of agricultural commodities produced in Australia in 2004-05, on less than 1% of agricultural land.
Cereals, oil-seeds and grain legumes are produced on a large scale in Australia for human consumption and livestock feed. Wheat is the cereal with the greatest production in terms of area and value to the Australian economy. Sugarcane, grown in tropical Australia, is also an important crop; however, the subsidized industry (while lower-cost than heavily subsidized European and American sugar producers) is struggling to compete with the huge and much more efficient Brazilian sugarcane industry.
Australia produces a wide variety of fruit, nuts and vegetables. The largest crops (>300 kilo tonnes, in 2001-2001) include oranges, apples, bananas, chestnuts, potatoes, carrots and tomatoes.
Tropical fruits, including bananas, mangoes and pineapples, fare well in Queensland and the Northern Territory.
Australia is one of the few countries that produces licit opium for pharmaceuticals. This industry, centred in Tasmania, is subject to strict controls.
The horticulture industry has traditionally provided Australians with all their fresh fruit and vegetables needs, with a smaller export industry. However, loosened border controls and increasing importers have threatened local industries. Consumer research has repeatedly shown that Australians prefer local produce. However, there is no effective country-of-origin labeling and consumers frequently assume all fresh vegetables and fruit must be Australian.
Viticulture in Australia:
Australia has a large wine industry, and the value of wine exports surpassed A$2.3 billion in 2002-2003. Wine regions include the Barossa Valley in South Australia, Sunraysia in Victoria, Margaret River in Western Australia and the Hunter Valley in New South Wales. The key wine varieties grown in Australia (by area in 2001-2002) are Chardonnay, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon. Although the Australian wine industry enjoyed a large period of growth during the 1990s, over planting and over supply have led to a large drop in the value of wine, forcing some wine makers, especially those on contracts to large wine producing companies, out of business. The future for some Australian wine producers is now uncertain.
Livestock in Australia:
The number of livestock killed for domestic consumption or export, or exported live in 2001-2002 is shown in the following table:
Livestock slaughtering Thousands (‘000)
Cattle exported live 797
Sheep exported live 6,443
In 2009 exported livestock earnings totaled (A$)$996.5 million with $662 million contributed from cattle exports to Indonesia and other countries. Goat exports totaled 97,621 with a value of $11.5 million. In 2009 the number sheep exports declined but the value was similar at $323 million.
Australian meat quarterly exports ($Millions) since 1969.
Beef industry in Australia:
The beef industry is the largest agricultural enterprise in Australia, and it is the second largest beef exporter, behind Brazil, in the world. All states and territories of Australia support cattle breeding in a wide range of climates. Cattle production is a major industry that covers an area in excess of 200 million hectares. The Australian beef industry is dependent on export markets, with over 60% of Australian beef production exported, primarily to the United States, Korea and Japan] The industry gained an advantage after the discovery of BSE (also known as mad cow disease) in Canada, Japan and the United States, as Australia is free of the disease.
In contrast to breeding systems in other parts of the world, Australian cattle are reared on pasture as the principal source of feed. In southern Australia (NSW, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and south-western Western Australia) beef cattle are often reared on smaller properties as part of a mixed farming or grazing operation, but some properties do specialize in producing cattle. The southern calves are typically reared on pasture and sold as weaners, yearlings or as steers at about two years old or older. Artificial insemination and embryo transfer are more commonly used in stud cattle breeding in Australia, but may be used in other herds.
In the Top End, sub-tropical areas and in arid inland regions cattle are bred on native pastures on expansive cattle stations. Anna Creek station in South Australia, Australia is the world’s largest working cattle station. The North Australian Pastoral Company Pty Limited (NAPCO) is now one of Australia’s largest beef cattle producers, with a herd of over 180,000 cattle and fourteen cattle stations in Queensland and the Northern Territory. The Australian Agricultural Company (AA Co) manages a cattle herd of more than 585,000 head.Heytesbury Beef Pty Ltd owns and manages over 200,000 head of cattle across eight stations spanning the East Kimberley, Victoria River and Barkly Tablelands regions in Northern Australia. Most cattle from these regions are exported as manufacturing beef or as live animals under 350 kilograms live weight to South-East Asia for fattening in feedlots there.
Prior to European settlement there were no-cattle in Australia. The present herd consists principally of British and European breeds (Bos taurus), in the southern regions with Aberdeen Angus and Herefords being the most common. In northern Australia Bos indicus breeds predominate along with their crosses. They were introduced to combine the resistance to cattle ticks and greater tolerance of hot weather.
Lamb Meat Industry:
Lamb has become an increasingly important product as the sheep industry has moved its focus from wool production to the production of prime lamb. The beef meat industry and the lamb industry are represented by Meat and Livestock Australia (MLA). Live export of cattle and sheep from Australia to Asia and the Middle East is a large part of Australian meat export. Live export practises came under scrutiny after the carrier Cormo Express carrying 52 000 animals was turned away from Saudi Arabia in 2003 due to suspected cases of scabby mouth. The sheep were eventually given to Eritrea. Media coverage has led to calls from animal rights activists for the live export trade to cease.
There are currently an estimated 2,000 pig producers in Australia, producing 5 million pigs annually (Productivity Commission). Although relatively small on the world stage (0.4% world production), the industry provides a significant positive impact on local, regional, state, and national economies through income generation and employment. The pork industry contributes approximately $970m to Australia’s GDP and the supply chain contributes $2.6billion to the GDP. The industry generates over $1.2b of household income, directly employing 6,500 full-time positions, and the supply chain employs 29,000 people. The Australian pork industry is represented by Australian Pork Limited, a producer-run company created by legislation.
Dairy products are Australia’s fourth most valuable agricultural export.
Domestic milk markets were heavily regulated until the 1980s, particularly for milk used for domestic fresh milk sales. This protected smaller producers in the northern states who produced exclusively for their local markets. The Kerin plan began the process of deregulation in 1986, with the final price supports being removed in 2000.
Growth in the Australian dairy industry is dependent on expanding export markets. Exports are expected to continue to grow over time, particularly to Asia and the Middle East.
The gross value of production of Australia’s fisheries and aquaculture products was $2.3 billion in 2002-03. The Australian aquaculture industry’s share of this value has been steadily rising and now represents around 32 per cent. The value of exports of fisheries products in 2002-03 was $1.84 billion. Australia’s main seafood export earners include rock lobsters, prawns, tuna and abalone.
Wool is still quite an important product of Australian agriculture. The Australian wool industry is widely recognised as producing the finest quality Merino wool. This is largely attributable to selective breeding and a superior genetic line.
As of 2001 Australian wool production accounted for 9% of world production (Australian Bureau of Statistics Data). However, it dominates the fine quality wool sector, producing 50% of the world’s Merino wool. Although sheep are farmed Australia-wide, 36% of the flock is in New South Wales.
Research and development for the industry is led by Australian Wool Innovation Limited (AWI), a producer owned company. Australian wool is marketed by the Woolmark company. Both companies are held by Australian Wool Services, a company created by legislation.
The industry is export-oriented. Historically, up to 90% of Australian wool was exported. The industry has suffered from a lowering demand for natural fibres, and a decrease in wool prices worldwide.
Animal rights organisations including PETA are currently promoting a boycott of Australian, and all Merino wool, as a protest against the practice of mulesing, a procedure used to prevent the animals from becoming fly blown with maggots In 2004, due to the worldwide attention, AWI proposed to phase out the practice by the end of year 2010; this promise was retracted in 2009.
Australia also produces considerable amounts of cotton. The majority of the cotton produced is genetically modified to be resistant to the herbicide glyphosate or to actively kill pests through the production of Bt toxin (Bt-cotton). Cotton is generally grown by irrigation.
The Australian economy is dependent on imported crude oil and petroleum products, the economy’s petroleum import dependency is around 80% – crude oil + petroleum products.
Economy of Australia:
The economy of Australia is one of the largest capitalist economies in the world with a GDP of US$1.57 trillion. Australia’s total wealth is 6.4 trillion dollars. In 2011, it was the 13th largest national economy by nominal GDP and the 17th-largest measured by PPP-adjusted GDP, about 1.7% of the world economy. Australia is the 19th-largest importer and 19th-largest exporter. The Reserve Bank of Australia publishes forecasts of the economy quarterly.Australia has the eighth highest tax rate in the world, which could hinder economic growth in the long term especially affecting Small and medium enterprises after the global financial crisis and further strengthening its economy with the development of the Chinese economy, which is the one of the main export destinations for Australian raw materials.
The Australian economy is dominated by its service sector, comprising 68% of GDP. The mining sector represents 10% of GDP; the “mining-related economy” represents 9% of GDP – the total mining sector is 19% of GDP. Economic growth is largely dependent on the mining sector and agricultural sector with the products to be exported mainly to the East Asian market.
Agriculture in India:
Agriculture in India has a significant history. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fisheries accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2009, about 50% of the total workforce. The economic contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP is steadily declining with the country’s broad-based economic growth. Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India.
Vedic literature provides some of the earliest written record of agriculture in India. Rigveda hymns, for example, describes plowing, fallowing, irrigation, fruit and vegetable cultivation. Other historical evidence suggests rice and cotton were cultivated in the Indus Valley, and plowing patterns from the Bronze Age have been excavated at Kalibangan in Rajasthan.Bhumivargaha, another ancient Indian Sanskrit text, suggested to be 2500 years old, classifies agricultural land into twelve categories: urvara (fertile), ushara (barren), maru (desert), aprahata (fallow), shadvala (grassy), pankikala (muddy), jalaprayah (watery), kachchaha (land contiguous to water), sharkara (full of pebbles and pieces of limestone), sharkaravati (sandy), nadimatruka (land watered from a river), and devamatruka (rainfed). Some archaeologists believe rice was a domesticated crop along the banks of the Indian river ganges in the sixth millennium BC. So were species of winter cereals (barley, oats, and wheat) and legumes (lentil and chickpea) grown in Northwest India before the sixth millennium BC. Other crops cultivated in India 3000 to 6000 years ago, include sesame, linseed, safflower, mustards, castor, mung bean, black gram, horse gram, pigeonpea, field pea, grass pea (khesari), fenugreek, cotton, jujube, grapes, dates, jackfruit, mango, mulberry, and black plum. Indian peasants had also domesticated cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs and horses thousands of years ago. Some scientists claim agriculture in India was widespread in the Indian peninsula, some 3000–5000 years ago, well beyond the fertile plains of the north. For example, one study reports twelve sites in the southern Indian states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh providing clear evidence of agriculture of pulses (Vigna radiata and Macrotyloma uniflorum), millet-grasses (Brachiaria ramosa and Setaria verticillata), wheats (Triticum diococcum, Triticum durum/aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), cotton (Gossypium sp.), linseed (Linum sp.), as well as gathered fruits of Ziziphus and two Cucurbitaceae.
Some claim Indian agriculture began by 9000 BP as a result of early cultivation of plants, and domestication of crops and animals. Settled life soon followed with implements and techniques being developed for agriculture. Double monsoons led to two harvests being reaped in one year. Indian products soon reached the world via existing trading networks and foreign crops were introduced to India. Plants and animals—considered essential to their survival by the Indians—came to be worshiped and venerated.
The middle ages saw irrigation channels reach a new level of sophistication in India and Indian crops affecting the economies of other regions of the world under Islamic patronage.Land and water management systems were developed with an aim of providing uniform growth. Despite some stagnation during the later modern era the independent Republic of India was able to develop a comprehensive agricultural programme.
Irrigation in India refers to the supply of water from Indian rivers, tanks, wells, canals and other artificial projects for the purpose of cultivation and agricultural activities. In country such as India, 64% of cultivated land is dependent on monsoons. The economic significance of irrigation in India is namely, to reduce over dependence on monsoons, advanced agricultural productivity, bringing more land under cultivation, reducing instability in output levels, creation of job opportunities, electricity and transport facilities, control of floods and prevention of droughts.
Agriculture Products in India:
The Statistics Office of the Food and Agriculture Organisation reported that, per final numbers for 2009, India had grown to become the world’s largest producer of the following agricultural products:
- Fresh Fruit
- Lemons and limes
- Buffalo milk – whole, fresh
- Castor oil seeds
- Sunflower seeds
- Mangoes, mangosteens, guavas
- Indigenous Buffalo Meat
- Fruit, tropical
- Chick peas
- Areca nuts
- Other Bastfibres
- Pigeon peas
- Chillies and peppers, dry
Although India has attained self-sufficiency in food staples, the productivity of Indian farms is below that of Brazil, the United States, France and other nations. Indian wheat farms, for example, produce about a third of the wheat per hectare per year compared to farms in France. Rice productivity in India was less than half that of China. Other staples productivity in India is similarly low. Indian total factor productivity growth remains below 2% per annum; in contrast, China’s total factor productivity growths is about 6% per annum, even though China also has smallholding farmers. Several studies suggest India could eradicate hunger and malnutrition within India, and be a major source of food for the world by achieving productivity comparable with other countries.
Crop Average farm yield in Bihar Average farm yield in Karnatak
kilogram per hectare kilogram per hectar
Wheat 2020 unknown
Rice 1370 2380
Pulses 610 470
Oil seeds 620 680
Sugarcane 45510 79560
Economy of India:
The economy of India is the tenth-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). The country is one of the G-20 major economies and a member of BRICS. On a per-capita-income basis, India ranked 141st by nominal GDP and 130th by GDP (PPP) in 2012, according to the IMF. India is the 19th-largest exporter and the 10th-largest importer in the world. The economy slowed to around 5.0% for the 2012–13 fiscal year compared with 6.2% in the previous fiscal. On 28 August 2013 the Indian rupee hit an all time low of 68.80 against the US dollar. In order to control the fall in rupee, the government introduced capital controls on outward investment by both corporates and individuals.India’s GDP grew by 9.3% in 2010–11; thus, the growth rate has nearly halved in just three years. GDP growth rose marginally to 4.8% during the quarter through March 2013, from about 4.7% in the previous quarter. The government has forecast a growth rate of 6.1%–6.7% for the year 2013–14, whilst the RBI expects the same to be at 5.7%. Besides this, India suffered a very high fiscal deficit of US$ 88 billion (4.8% of GDP) in the year 2012–13. The Indian Government aims to cut the fiscal deficit to US$ 70 billion or 3.7% of GDP by 2013–14.
The independence-era Indian economy (from 1947 to 1991) was based on a mixed economy combining features of capitalism and socialism, resulting in an inward-looking, interventionist policies and import-substituting economy that failed to take advantage of the post-war expansion of trade. This model contributed to widespread inefficiencies and corruption, and the failings of this system were due largely to its poor implementation.
In 1991, India adopted liberal and free-market principles and liberalised its economy to international trade under the guidance of Former Finance minister Manmohan Singh under the Prime Ministry of P.V. Narasimha Rao, prime minister from 1991 to 1996, who had eliminated Licence Raj, a pre- and post-British era mechanism of strict government controls on setting up new industry. Following these major economic reforms, and a strong focus on developing national infrastructure such as the Golden Quadrilateral project by former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the country’s economic growth progressed at a rapid pace, with relatively large increases in per-capita incomes. The south western state of Maharashtra contributes the highest towards India’s GDP among all states. Mumbai (Maharashtra) is known as the trade and commerce capital of India.
Agriculture in China:
Agriculture is a vital industry in China, employing over 300 million farmers. China ranks first in worldwide farm output, primarily producing rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, pork, and fish. Although accounting for only 10 percent of arable land worldwide, it produces food for 20 percent of the world’s population.
Beginning in about 7500 BCE with classical millet agriculture, China’s development of farming over the course of its history has played a key role in supporting the growth of what is now the largest population in the world. Jared Diamond estimated that the earliest attested domestication of rice took place in China by 7500 BCE Excavations at Kuahuqiao, the earliest known Neolithic site in eastern China, have documented rice cultivation 7,700 years ago.Finds at the ruins of the Hemudu Culture in Yuyao and Banpo Village near Xi’an, which all date back 6,000 to 7,000 years, include rice, millet and spade-like farm tools made of stone and bone. The first signs of settled agriculture however was around 5000 BCE. There is also a long tradition involving agriculture, in Chinese mythology.
A farmer of the Hani minority, famous for their rice terraced mountains in Yuanyang County, Yunnan.
Crop Distribution in China:
Although China’s agricultural output is the largest in the world, only about 15% of its total land area can be cultivated. China’s arable land, which represents 10% of the total arable land in the world, supports over 20% of the world’s population. Of this approximately 1.4 million square kilometers of arable land, only about 1.2% (116,580 square kilometers) permanently supports crops and 525,800 square kilometers are irrigated. The land is divided into approximately 200 million households, with an average land allocation of just 0.65 hectares (1.6 acres).
China’s limited space for farming has been a problem throughout its history, leading to chronic food shortage. While the production efficiency of farmland has grown over time, efforts to expand to the west and the north have held limited success, as such land is generally colder and drier than traditional farmlands to the east. Since the 1950s, farm space has also been pressured by the increasing land needs of industry and cities.
Food crops in China:
About 75% of China’s cultivated area is used for food crops. Rice is China’s most important crop, raised on about 25% of the cultivated area. The majority of rice is grown south of the Huai River, in the Yangtze valley, the Zhu Jiang delta, and in Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan provinces.
Wheat is the second most-prevalent grain crop, grown in most parts of the country but especially on the North China Plain, the Wei and Fen River valleys on the Loess plateau, and in Jiangsu, Hubei, and Sichuan provinces. Corn and millet are grown in north and northeast China, and oat is important in Inner Mongolia and Tibet.
China is the leading producer of cotton, which is grown throughout, but especially in the areas of the North China Plain, the Yangtze river delta, the middle Yangtze valley, and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Other fiber crops include ramie, flax, jute, and hemp. Sericulture, the practice of silkworm raising, is also practiced in central and southern China.
China has a large livestock population, with pigs and fowl being the most common. China’s pig population and pork production mainly lies along Yangtze River. In 2011, Sichuan province had 51 million pigs (11% of China’s total supply). In rural western China, sheep, goats, and camels are raised by nomadic herders. In Tibet, yaks are raised as a source of food, fuel, and shelter. Cattle, water buffalo, horses, mules, and donkeys are also raised in China, and dairy has recently been encouraged by the government, even though approximately 92.3% of the adult population is affected by some level of lactose intolerance.
China accounts for about one-third of the total fish production of the world. Aquaculture, the breeding of fish in ponds and lakes, accounts for more than half of its output. The principal aquaculture-producing regions are close to urban markets in middle and lower Yangtze valley and the Zhu Jiang delta.
Economy of China:
The socialist market economy of China is the world’s second largest economy by nominal GDP and by purchasing power parity after the United States. It is the world’s fastest-growing major economy, with growth rates averaging 10% over the past 30 years.
China is also the largest exporter and second largest importer of goods in the world. China is the largest manufacturing economy in the world,outpacing its world rival in this category, the service-driven economy of the United States of America. ASEAN–China Free Trade Area came into effect on 1 January 2010. China-Switzerland FTA is China’s first FTA with a major European economy. The economy of China is the fastest growing consumer market in the world.