The Relationship Between Child Abuse, Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Domestic Child Workers
Table of Contents
Title Page No.
- Declaration i
- Certificate ii
- Acknowledgement iii
- Table of contents iv
- List of Tables vii
- List of Appendices viii
- Abstract 1
- 1.1 Child Working 3
- 1.2 Child Abuse 6
- 1.2.1 Physical Abuse 8
- 1.2.2 Emotional Abuse and Neglect 11
- 1.2.3 Verbal Abuse 16
- 1.2.4 Sexual Abuse 18
- 1.3 Emotional and Behavioral Problems 22
Literature Review 31-36
- 2.1 Emotional and Behavioral Problems 31
- 2.2 Child Abuse and Domestic Child Worker 32
- 2.3 Indigenous Researches 33
- 2.4 Rationale of the Study 35
- 2.5 Objectives of the Study 36
- 2.6 Hypotheses 36
- 3.1 Research Design 37
- 3.2 Sample 37
- 3.2.1 Sampling Technique 37
- 3.2.2 Inclusion Criteria 37
- 3.2.3 Exclusion Criteria 37
- 3.3 Assessment Measures 40
- 3.3.1 Demographic Information Sheet 40
- 3.3.2 Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire 40
- 3.3 Child Abuse Scale 40
- 3.4 Operational Definition 41
- 3.5 Procedure 41
- 3.6 Ethical Considerations 42
- 4.1 Reliability Analysis 43
- 4.2 Summary of Findings 51
- 5.1 Conclusions 55
- 5.2 Limitations 55
- 5.3 Suggestions 56
- 5.4 Implications 56
List of Tables
- Table 3.1 Descriptive of Demographics
- Table 4.1 Reliability Analysis of Child Abuse Scale and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire
- Table 4.2 Correlation between Child Abuse and Strength and Difficulties
- Table 4.3 Regression Analysis Showing Predictors of Emotional symptoms, Conduct Problems, Hyperactivity and Peer Problems
- Table 4.4 Regression Analysis Showing Predictors of Prosocial Self-regulation
- Table 4.5 Independent sample t test for Gender Difference in Child Abuse and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Domestic Child Workers.
List of Appendices
- Appendix A Permission of Scales
- Appendix B Consent Form
- Appendix C Demographic Sheet
- Appendix D Child Abuse Scale
- Appendix E Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
- Appendix F Plagiarism Report
List of Abbreviation’s and Symbols
|CAS||Child Abuse Scale|
|SDQ||Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire|
|PEA||Physical and Emotional Abuse|
|PEN||Physical and Emotional Neglect|
|ESS||Emotional Symptoms Scale|
|CPS||Conduct Problem Scale|
|PPS||Peer Problem Scale|
|β||Standardized regression coefficient|
|d||Cohen’s measure of sample effect size for comparing two sample mean|
|k||No. of items|
|n||Number in sub-sample|
|N||Number of participants|
|R||Multiple correlation coefficient|
|R2||Coefficient of determination|
|F||F distribution, Fisher’s F ratio|
The present study was designed to explore the relationship between child abuse, emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child workers. It was hypothesized that: there is likely to be a significant relationship between child abuse and emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child workers; child abuse is likely to predict emotional and behavioural problems in domestic child workers. Correlational research design and snowball sampling was used to access the sample of domestic child worker (N= 85). Child Abuse Scale (CAS) (Malik, Saeed & Shah, 2003) and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1998) were used for assessment. Person product moment correlation and Step-wise regression analysis were used to analyze data. Results showed a positive relationship between child abuse and emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child worker and child abuse turned out to be a significant predictor of emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child workers. Boys were more prone to physical and emotional abuse and they also tends to exhibit more problems related to pro-social behavior. This study serves as an insight about the issues of domestic child workers in Pakistan. It also throws light on this neglected segment of our society and consequences of abuse they face and it can be beneficial to overcome these issues in the Pakistani perspective.
In today’s world, there are many countries that deal with the problem of domestic child working. In developing countries this issue is exceptionally recognized. Children are considered to be future of the Nation and their adequate development should be the utmost priority of the country. The term child employment and work is often defined as work that makes children deprives children childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is damaging to their physical and mental development (Rana, 2008).
Child abuse is an action of commission or omission that jeopardizes or spoils a child’s physical or emotional health and growth. Child abuse can be measured in terms of verbal abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse faced in childhood additionally it also includes if the children faced physical or emotional neglect or has seen and face violence occur in surroundings and in environment which has effect on their later adult life. Child abuse is of many types such as physical, sexual, and emotional abuse (Harrenkhol, 2005).
Emotional and behavioral problems are a broad category which is related with the emotions and behaviors of any person or individual (Pennington, 2002). As children are considered to be the future of any country it is their right to have safe environment, education and basic human rights although child labor is a crime but still it’s very common in our society and more then it, they are treated in a very bad manner. Landowners and possessors hit them, abuse them and take work from them more and extra than their capacity. The present research aimed to study the effects of child abuse on the emotions and behavior of domestic child worker and to notify the society about the consequences of domestic child working (CWIG, 2008).
The core theme of this study is to represent numerous extents of this deserted sector within the child labor phenomena. The determination is to high lighten the differences and similarities in dimensions such as labor market features and its provisions, working conditions, violence, and mistreatment which are faced by children.
1.1. Child Working
Child working can be defined as the engagement of boys and girls when they are too young to work and when they are hired at jobs which are inadequate or unsafe for them according to their age or under conditions which are deleterious for their health and welfare (Rana, 2008).
It can also be defined as the working atmosphere which has perilous or has bad effect on the communal, ethical, intellectual, physical well-being and hinders with the schooling at primary stage of the child under the age of eighteen is considered as child working (Satar, 2001). The problem becomes more perilous when the children of age fewer than ten were laboring by the factories, mines, workshops and at homes for domestic chores. The children were the basic victims of manufacturing world as they present and give cheap labor and are easy to control and compel to do work hard and also they are used to work for long hours (Naseer, 1992).
Child working is a complex socio-economic matter that not only disrupts the basic human privileges of individual children by hindering their emotional, physical and psychological growth and reasonable growth of economics by generating an un-educating and comparatively inexperienced labour force in the long run and thus helping to sustain poverty (Fasih, 2006).
Grimsurd (2002) suggests that endogenous development theories undertake that persons make the most of lifetime welfare and happiness in the form of an inter-temporal utility function, which allows child labor as lost investment in one time period. He argues that according to Lucas’s (1998) theory the more human capital society as a whole collects, the more productive each member will be. Thus in endogenous growth theory human capital formation is vital for financial growth. He denies the Lucas’s theory which state that everyone should work equally, he said it will be harmful to take from children.
In spitefulness of the importance attached to childhood all around the world and the endeavors of global administrations, child working endures to be one of the devastating problems of public well-being especially in emerging countries. Owing to the world-wide financial disasters, which started in 2007 and strengthened in 2008, adult unemployment has been growing (ILO, 2010). Adult redundancy and the reduction in the household salary might not only cause children to be used as monetary bases but also lead owners to prefer children because they serves as cheap labour (Dayioglu, 2006).
There is not a well-documentation and authentic investigation about the degree of participation of these children in household domestic working (Jafri & Rashid, 1997). Though, the issue of child working is very impenetrable because, on single indicator it may take the child out of school and harmfully influence humanoid investment accretion and lifetime earnings, on other indicator, labor work a child does can be a dynamic danger coping mechanism, which may be mandatory in lightening and deaden the scarcity of a household in the short-run (Depak et al, 2013). Ray and Lancaster (2005) originate deleterious association between child learning and child work. Krisztina and Günther (2005) also supports poverty hypothesis because families want the additional income because they are too poor to endure. Consequently they sacrifices tutoring of their kid.
A child is a major part of every society, he cannot survive alone, and so, the problems of society may affect most the life of the child because he is the most vulnerable and helpless member of society which are tormented by such problem. In Pakistan, child labor has been utilized with the motive of earning large profits being cheaper than that of adult. By and large, child work is no lengthier a standard of financial manipulation unaccompanied, but demanded by monetary requirement of parentages/families.
A child is not a minor adult but a being permitted to self-fulfillment through knowledge and production so that his early life is not endangered by indulging him in work at an early phase of age. Child abuse and child working both have serious and disastrous effects on children life, both have become the issue of today which affect the child physically as well psychologically. A child is future of any country or nation so they will be provided with the environment which fulfill their needs and make them grow as useful individual of society. Child abuse has tragic effects on behavior of child and child mental level, it also trigger serious issues in one’s life so it should be condemned from society as well as child working.
Child abuse has genuine results for the advancement and development of children. The explanation behind the connection between child abuse and its advancement results is not however completely caught on. Although there is some proof that distinctive sorts of misuse are connected with diverse issues (Crittenden, 1985, 1988; Egeland & Sroufe, 1981). Most studies of maltreated children do not segregate effectively amid sorts of maltreatment. Furthermore, even when such diversity happens, it typically does not treat the co-occurrence of several types of abuse separately (Schneider-Rosen, Braunwald, Carlson, & Cicchetti, 1985). This is predominantly factual when one of the types of abuse is psychologically or emotionally its vicinity and nonattendance is rarely assessed or reported is studies of physical abuse or neglect (Rosenberg, 1987).
Child abuse is defined as the emotional experience or trauma that has the lasting and psychic effects and happens before adulthood. It causes substantial and lasting damaging effects on the psychological and behavioural development of the person (Murray, 2004). Childhood exploitation and desertion define as the bodily and psychological damage, sexual abuse or misuse neglectful behavior or ill-treatment of a child under situations which specify that child’s robustness or well being is damaged or susceptible to that (Besharov, 1990).
Experiencing trauma and abuse in childhood can have unembellished and continuing effects. Children, who were mistreated, abused and damaged physically or emotionally see the world as an alarming and perilous spot.When childhood disturbance is not resolute, this central-sagacity of terror and powerlessness go on with in maturity, setting the phase for more trauma and derangement. Childhood disturbance outcomes from whatsoever that dissonance a kid’swisdom of sanctuary and security, including: An uncertain or dangerous atmosphere, sexual, physical or verbal abuse, exodus from a parent, domestic ferocity, abandonment, intimidation netc (Robinson, Smith, & Segal, 2011).
Young children are appear more prone to physical abuse and they require more help and sanctuary than are adolescents. Although adolescents may be physically as big as their owners and consequently in fewerrisk of physical harm, there are perils unique to this age cluster, such as drug abuse, felony, gestation, running away, and suicide that’s why people are more willing to owned children for work as they can easily maltreated and vanquished as compared to adolescents (Cicchetti & Toth, 1987).
Children who were subjected in child labor they were treated so badly and they were abused which cause many problems in their further life. Childhood abuse is basically can be alienated into five main groups i.e., physical, emotional and sexual abuse and emotional and physical neglect. In addition, this can comprise everything that reasons the child to feel valueless, unlovable, self-doubting and even threatened, or as if his only morals lie in assembly somebody else’s desires (American Academy of Paediatrics, 1992).
Children are exposed to verbal exploitation, they are scold, accused, ravenous, compressed, scorched, cut, manacled out-of-the-way, left unbathed and to lie in their individual excrements or sexually maltreated and not a minor figures are killed. In 2011 in the United Stated, extra than 1,500 children expires as a consequence of child abuse, it’s about 4 children die a day (National Committee To Prevent Child Abuse, 1997). Differences between maltreating and non-maltreating or abusive persons are more likely to be found in their self-involvement that is their inability to take the role of others and to suppose own selves on high place while children as a weak object, they are unable to understand the child’s need, demands, role and responses on particular situations or tasks (Pianta, Egeland, & Erickson, 1989). They are several types of child abuse on which we have to mainly focus are as follow.
1.2.1 Physical Abuse.
Physical abuse can be demarcated as non-accidental disturbance, shock or corporeal damage caused by stamping, beating, jerking, piercing, scorching or otherwise hurting a child, physical abuse is the greatest evident sort of child maltreatment. Many times, physical abuse in domestic child worker results from unsuitable or unnecessary physical castigation and taking excessive work from a child which is beyond his or her capacities (Dubowitz, 2000).
Royable (1990) characterized physical abuse as a savage behavior which brings about real physical harm or mental pain. It can incorporate attack toward one side of the range, the distance to murder and mayhem at the flip side.
Children who are physically abused can create child traumatic anxiety. They are additionally at danger for wretchedness, depression anxiety and uneasiness. Child abuse has been connected to poor physical, passionate, emotional and mental advancement. Physically abused children are at high danger for future lifetime relational difficulties connecting aggressive behavior and youths are at ample grander jeopardy for substance abuse. In accumulation, indications of despair, emotive-anguish, and suicidal ideation are also common topographies of individuals who have been physically abused (Giardino, 2008). Violence against children is common globally and a risk factor for long-term adverse outcomes including poor physical and cognitive development and mental health, substance abuse, suicidal behavior, and reproductive and sexual ill-health (Norman, Byambaa, De, &Butchart, 2012; Pinheiro, 2006).
Physical exploitation, as a subsection of child abuse, is characterized as a vicinity of a damage that the youngster or children maintains on account of his or her owner, parental figure and caregiver. These wounds are also likewise alluded to as perpetrated or non-incidental wounds and injuries. According to Sedlak and Broadhurst (1996)Child get non-accidental injuries by various means, counting striking with a hand, twig, belt or other entity; shuddering, pitching, sweltering, piercing, or clogging to the extent that manifest destructive consequences (Giardino, 2011).
A multi-factorial explanation can be used for understanding the occurrence of physical abuse on child worker. Conditions that may give upsurge to the incidence of a child’s injury via physically abusive actions have been prearranged into a typology having the following 5 sub-types: (1) Owner’s annoyed and hysterical corrective answer to real and supposed misbehavior of the child; (2) Owner’s mental weakening, which cause anger and refusal of the child by the caregiver or owner and awareness of the child as unlike and confrontational; (3) Child brought up in care of a rude baby-sitter ; (4) Owner’s use of materials that dis-inhibit performance; and (5) Owner’s predicament in a domestic ferocity state (Giardino, 2011).
While talking about child physical abuse, it is difficult to identify if the child is particularly becoming a victim of physical abuse. An adult person who has child as his servant might fetch a wounded child to an emergency room with a bizarre and different clarification of the reason of damage. The child’s wound may not be current. Signs comprise: Dark eyes, wrecked carcasses that are rare and mysterious, contusions characters form dissimilar as pointers, fingers or items (such as belt), Discolorations in parts where usual childhood activities would not like typically outcome in staining, bilging fontanelle (soft spot)or detached junctions in an infant’s skull, injury (scorching) symbols, frequently seen on the child’s hands, arms, backsides, clogs catch round the neckline, cigarette blisters on visible extents or on the genitals, spherical scratches around the wrists or ankles (signs of winding or binding up), humanoid chew marks, stroke marks and mysterious oblivion in an infant (Giardino, 2011).
Initial consequences of child physical abuse includes instantaneous discomfort, distress and medicinal difficulties in some cases demise caused by physical injury, emotional difficulties such as fury,antagonism, terror, apprehension, disgrace, less level of self-esteem and incapability to direct moods. Behavioral problems can occur such as violence by the child to others or self-destructive performance, hyperactivity, absenteeism, incapability to form bonds with peers and deprived social skills. Kids might progress inferior in reasoning and dialectal abilities than non-abused kids [The South Eastern Centre against Sexual Assault (SECSA), 2003].
There are certain long term effects and costs of child physical abuse including, long term bodily infirmities, for example, head injury or eye injury. Child might grow with chaotic personal dealings, for illustration exertion in believing others in adult relations or ferocious bonding, a tendency to emotive uproar, sensation of low self-confidence, unhappiness, an augmented prospective for child abusive as a parent. Drug or liquor misuse can be practiced as long term consequences of child physical abuse (SECSA,2003).
The consequences of physical exploitation in one word is devastating, research have revealed that 1500kids die a year because of child abuse 65% mainly due to physical abuse. If battered children do not die they may suffer head dysfunction, neuro-motor handicaps, bodily flaws, stunned development and psychological obstruction. Abuse children also show slow intellectual development and cause psycho-social problems as well (Giarbino, 1994).
- 1.2.2 Emotional Abuse and Neglect.
Emotional abuse or emotional maltreatment to a child or kid is generally demarcated as a form of actions by parentages or people that can extremely affects the child’s reasoning, emotional, mental or communal development. Emotional exploitation of a child also mentioned to as mental maltreatment and it include disregarding, rebuffing, separating, frightening and vocally attacking (Besharov, 1990).
Besharov (1990) defines that emotional manipulation is a bombardment on the child’s soul,just as physical abuse is an attack on the child’s body. Children who are continually overlooked, chastened, terrified or disgraced hurt not ample fewer than bodily attacked (Glaser, 2002). The child must remained unaccompanied in situation somewhere the child agonizes solemn damage, and the parent or caregiver has unsuccessful to uphold interaction with the child or deliver rational provision for a quantified span of time.
Royable (2011) define emotional neglect as a form of child abuse which comprises such actions as noticeable inattentiveness to the child’s desire for love, negation of or failure to deliver desired emotional attention, partner abuse in the child’s existence, letting child to use pills or liquor and reject to accomplish elementary requirements of the child as in domestic child working people or owners deny to take full responsibility of the children, if they need something they deny and refuse to give them.
McMurray and Gregory (2009) define emotional abuse as the constant pattern of being treated unethically and discriminatorily over a period of time, frequently by the identical individual or society. It can also be a former disturbing incident that is leftward unsettled. Emotional abuse is deliberate attack by one individual on another to so misrepresent the prey’s view of personality that the prey permits the abuser to controller on him or her.
Emotional neglect occurs when the owner, parent and care giver intentionally or obliviously super intends the symbols that a child requirements of ease or consideration and includes withholding love, rejecting a child and ignoring a child’s emotional needs. This form of abuse has been found to inhibit and restrict a child’s emotional and physical growth (Newton, 2011).
Emotional abuse, as a subset of child abuse, is can be clear as a form and ornamentation of behaviors that bouts a child’s emotional expansion and sagacity of well-being. This consists of excessive, destructive or irrational demands that place prospects on a child beyond his or her capability. Potentials that do not ponder a child’s requirement and feelings do more damage than upright. The conclusion effect is injured child there are six well-known types of emotional abuse. First of which is rejecting; parentages and caregivers who show refusing manners to a child will frequently (decisively or unintentionally) let a child see, in a variety of different behaviors that he or she is unsolicited. Placing down a child’s worth or demeaning their requirements is form these types of emotional abuse may take. Other examples can comprise telling a child to leave or inferior, to get out of your face, calling him names or telling the child that he is valueless, making a child the family stooge or considering him as a reason behind family/sibling problems. Declining to conversation or holding a young child as he or she grows and even not attending a child when he or she is injured can also be considered abuse (Petro,2002).
Another kind of child emotional abuse is terrorizing which is triggering a child or youth to be horrified by the continuous use of intimidations and/or scary behavior. This includes viewing, which is when a child or youth observe fierceness, hears fierceness or knows that fierceness is taking place in the home or in any work place. Singling out one child to disparage and penalize or mocking him or her for exhibiting normal feelings is offensive. Frightening a child with strict arguments, bodily harm, and desertion or in extreme cases bereavement is deplorable. Even in prank, affecting a child to be horrified by the usage of pressures and/or scary behavior is some of the wickedest emotive exploitation. This embraces observing, hearing or knowing that fierceness is taking place in the home or work place. Different forms of terrorizing includes; unnecessary mocking, screaming, cursing and frightening, impulsive and life-threatening retorts to child’s behavior, dangerous verbal threats, furious regular acts with periods of friendliness, bullying desertion and threatening to destroy a favorite item tc(Straus& Field, 2000).
Emotional abuse happens when a parental figure or other individual in control roots emotional injury or fails to keep a child from emotive injury that consequence from verbal abuse, mental abuse and psychological abuse. It is the consistent pattern of emotional mistreatment or emotional disregard of a child. It’s occasionally named psychological abuse and can extremely destruct a child’s emotional well-being and has devastating effects on child development and advancement. Emotional abuse can involve purposely tiresome to fright or chasten a child and separating or disregarding them (Straus& Field, 2000).
An emotionally abandoned child also tends to display poor academic record, loss of self-esteem, difficulty interactive with peers and exhibit anger through verbally or bodily attacking other individuals (Koester, 2007).
Children, who are emotionally deserted due to being underprivileged of adequate care and support, probably rise up with meagre self-confidence and practice psychological difficulties (Sutoluk, Nazlıcan, Azizoglu, &Akbaba, 2005). Meanwhile males are assumed to have more value than females in our culture, females are anticipated to form the explosive group about being emotionally deserted, but in one study, we originate that there are no variances rendering to sexual characteristics. The children who have been injured in the family might have undesirable effects more powerfully and these features of children may also negatively affect their dealings with others at the place of work (Hildyard& Wolfe, 2002).
Isolating is another form of child emotional abuse. Isolating is keeping a child away from his or her family and groups. The parents and persons who abuse a child through isolation may not permit the child to involve in suitable actions with his or her peers, friends and age fellows; may retain a baby in his or her chamber, not open to inspiration or may avert teenager from contributing in supplementary actions. Demanding a child to stay in his or her chamber from the time school lets out till the next morning, curbing consumption, or compelling a child to loneliness or seclusion by possessing her away from family and friends can be critical and emotional abuse liable on the environments and strictness (Ross, 1996). As domestic child worker kept away sometimes from their family, even they are not allowed to meet anyone else. They kept locked at home when the whole family has to go out, they forcefully kept at home for babysitting or either for completing domestic chores this is also a form of emotional abuse.
Another form of child emotional abuse is corrupting. Corrupting is inspiring a child or youth to do things that are illegitimate or dangerous for them. Engaging an underage child to do things that are illegal or harmful is abusive and should be reported. Some of these may include, gratifying child for intimidation and harassing behavior, coaching prejudice and cultural biases and narrow-mindedness, boosting ferocity in supporting activities etc. Exploiting is another type of child emotional abuse. Exploitation can be defined as management or involuntary action deprived of respect for a child’s requirement for growth and advancement. For example, recurrently questioning an eight-year old to be accountable for the family’s dinner is unsuitable. Giving responsibilities to a child or kid that are far larger than a child of that age to control effectively and using a child for profit is abusive (Gardiano, 1993).
Barnett, Miller and Perrin (2010) define Physical Neglect as disappointment to deliver a child with rudimentary requirements of life, such as diet, clothing and accommodation. Physical neglect comprises snub to pursue or a postponement in looking for healthcare, desertion or rejection, declining keeping responsibilities and poor management. It may also include exclusion from the home or snub to allow a runway to return home as some child labour are not allow to return to their home it also effects their well-being (The Third National Incident Study [NIS-3], 2010).
Utmost emotional abuse happens for countless motives that physical abuse happens. Individuals are defenseless to becoming involved in mistreatment if anxieties in their lives form up or if they are incompetent to succeed over these stresses. They may also have lessened capability for considerate and dealing with children (mental-retardation, psychopathology, alcoholism, and drug abuse), incorrect thoughts about children’s needs and desires, or merciless psychosis. Also, the abuser’s goal may be to control as in child labor owner always wants to overwhelm on the child.However, a solitary feature may not lead to abuse, but in grouping they can generate the communal and emotional pressures that lead to emotional abuse or maltreatment. Specific types of problems and glitches that can subsidize to emotional abuse are social difficulties that can contribute to family tension (joblessness, poverty, separation from families and peers, annulment, demise, adolescent parents), well-being crisis (disease of a family member, infirmity of a family member, drug and liquor abuse within the family), and psychological health problems like mental disability, anxiety and depression (Petro, 2002).
Emotional maltreatment can weaken a child self-perception, confidence and hinder with his or her capability to function effectively in culture, succeed intellectually and from healthy, warm relationships. According to Child Abuse America (formerly known as the National Committee for the prevention of Child Abuse,1987), emotional abuse likewise comprises of disappointment to deliver the emotional development essential for a child’s mental and emotional growth. Fading to deliver affection, provision or guidance is unhelpful to the strong growth of the mind and the attachment needed to form strong relationship of the child with environment.
Physical neglect accounts for the most popular cases of abuse. The meaning comprises the denial or thrilling postponement in looking for required healthcare, child rejection, poor regulation, refutation of a child leading to exclusion from the home and fading to inadequately provide for the child’s security, bodily and emotional requirements. Physical neglect can harshly influence a child’s growth by producing failure to flourish, malnutrition, serious illness, bodily damage in the form of wounds, contusions and blisters due to absence of management and a lifetime to stumpy self-esteem (Koester, 2007).
- 1.2.3 Verbal abuse.
Verbal abuse is violence and misuse against youngsters is regular all around and a danger variable for long haul antagonistic results including poor physical and subjective advancement and psychological wellness, substance misuse, self-destructive conduct, and regenerative and sexual sick wellbeing (Norman, Byambaa, De, &Butchart, 2012; Pinheiro, 2006).
Bsharov (1990) defines that verbal exploitation is an attack on the child’s psyche, just as physical abuse is an attack on the child’s body. Verbal abuse is the unnecessary usage of harsh words to weaken someone’s self-respect and sanctuary.
Abuse has solemn significance on the growth of children. The motive of the association among child abuse and its development outcomes is not though completely understood. Though at hand there is some indication that diverse types of abuse are related with diverse squeals (Crittenden, 1985a, 1988; Egeland & Sroufe, 1981a), maximum researches of abused children do not distinguish sufficiently the kinds of abuse. Furthermore, even when such differentiation befalls, it typically does not treat the co-occurrence of numerous sorts of abuse distinctly (Schneider-Rosen, Braunwald, Carlson & Cicchetti, 1985). This is predominantly factual when one of the types of abuse is psychological or emotional its attendance or non-attendance is seldom measured or described in studies of physical abuse or neglect (Rosenberg, 1987).
Children are exposed to spoken exploitation, they are famished, flattened, charred, censored chained isolated, left unbathed and to lie in their own excrements or sexually molested and not a small numbers are slayed. In 1996 in the United Stated, more than 1,500 children dies as a result of child abuse, it’s about 4 children die a day (National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, 2013). Differences between maltreating and non-maltreating or abusive persons are more likely to be found in their self-involvement that is their inability to take the role of others and to suppose own selves on high place while children as a weak object, they are unable to understand the child’s need, demands, role and responses on particular situations or tasks (Pianta, Egeland, & Erickson, 1989).
Verbal abuse takes place in many forms: from gaudybombasts to silent remarks; as of understandable attacks to not-so-obvious remarks that weaken the other person. Verbal abuse might reason reflective and stern mental grievance. Particularly when children contract with the community, they are usually cautious of the manner they act,injury from verbal abuse frequently remains unseen while distressing the victim psychologically. The prey will struggle to not account even though his or her self-respect is confronted. This might consequence in stress, lack of attentiveness, lack of drive and even despair. Verbal abuse directly hurt children dignity and their emotions and it cause lack of self-esteem in them (Rosenberg, 1987).
- 1.2.4 Sexual Abuse.
Sexual exploitation occurs when a parent or other individual in responsibility sexually assaults or practices a child for voluptuous drives or meaningfully fails to defend a child from sexual manipulation. It’s like revealing a child under eighteen to sexual commotion without his or her permission. Child sexual abuse may contain any sort of sexual act between a child and an adult or between an infant or young child and a pointedly older child (Kearney, 2001).
Sexual abuse is also known as sexual exploitation, forcing an unfavorable sexual behavior by one individual to other. When that force is instantaneous, of short duration, or uncommon, it is called sexual assault (Green & Schmidt, 2002). Westbrook (2011) defined sexual abuse as any type of non-consensual sexual interaction. Sexual abuse by a companion/intimate an include having forces sexual contact without consent, disparaging name calling, rejection to use contraception, intentionally producing undesirable physical ache during sexual activity, consciously passing on sexual ailment or infections and using items, toys or other stuffs (e.g. oil or lubricants) without agreement and to root discomfort or mortification.
Child sexual abuse is can be defined as sexual touching or fondling, oral sex, intercourse, or any attempt to engage a child into these activities, peeping into bathrooms and bedrooms, divulging a child to pornographic resources, adult genitalia or sexual activity, requiring a child posture nude or undress in asexual manner (Westbrook, 2011).
Child sexual abuse can take place within the private life, by a parent, step-parent, sibling or other relative, or outside the home, for example, by associate, neighbour, child care person, teacher, or stranger and also at work place by owner or possessors. When sexual exploitation has happened, a child can develop a diversity of difficult emotional states, feelings and actions. No child is mentally equipped to manage with recurrent sexual stimulus. Even a two or three year old, who cannot know the sexual action is erroneous, will develop difficulties ensuing from the incapability to manage with the over stimulation. The child of five and older who recognizes and cares for the abuser falls trapped between warmth and loyalty to the person, and the sense of that the sexual actions are awfully and devastatingly wrong. If the child attempts to breakdown away from the sexual interactions, the abuser may impend the child with ferocity and loss of love. When the sexual abuse occurs outside the home, the child may be afraid of shame, and if it occurs on the workplace they may afraid that they will not get their salary if the surreptitious is told [American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), 2011].
A child who is victim and prey of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-confidence, feelings of unimportance and an anomalous and inaccurate view of sex. The child may become reserved,doubtful about adults and got in greater tendency towards suicide ideation. Some children who have been sexually abused have exertion connecting to other except on sexual terms. Some sexually abused children become child users themselves and prostitutes or have other serious glitches when they reach maturity (AACAP, 2011).
Signs of sexual child exploitation are: some bodily signs like trouble while mobile or sitting, genital pain, disproportionate aggression, seductiveness, difficulty in consumption and slumbering, lots of desperate and feeling sad, circumventing communication with other (Smith, 2008).
Recent work by Smith and Smith (2010) and by Goodman, Joyce,and Smith (2011) has exposed that psychological and emotional problems experienced during childhood can have undesirable long-term economic consequences and disastrous mental health issues. Childhood sexual abuse has been to be related with psychological disorders such as depression (Molnar, Buka& Kessler, 2001).
One more study by Chen et al., (2010) revealed that child sexual abuse primes to post-traumatic stress disorder, apprehension and disputed personality disorder. These negative mental health consequences have been publicized to happen athwart in all age clusters. Childhood sexual abuse has also been linked to substance abuse and suicide attempts (Chartier, Walker & Naimark, 2007).
Sexually ill-treated children may also develop uncommon attention in or avoidance of all things of a sexual nature, slumber problems or hallucinations, depression or withdrawal from friends and families, seductiveness, declarations that their body are muted and damaged or fear that there is somewhat incorrect with them in genital part, denial to go out unaided, felony/conduct problems furtiveness aspects of sexual molestation in drawings, games, imaginations, rare ferociousness or suicidal behavior (AACAP, 2011).
Dearth is a nationwide degradation it is also a costly one that takes a peal in a variety of ways on the developing child, child abuse is one of a variety of significances of living in dearth for young children (Peterson, 1993). Though physical abuse and neglect both have been linked with poverty but sexual abuse is not related with poverty. In fact according to some researches, sexual abuse seems to be more communal in middle class families (Catalano, 1981).
Carol and Mary (1979) observed that abused children in work place not only were more aggressive with their peers but also were more ambivalent towards their caregivers. They threatened to attack or did attack caregiver, behaviors that never occurred in non-abused children. For sexually abused children, unsuitable sexual behavior focused to them and other children, adults, production and imaginary with sexual content are commonly reported (Trickett & Putnam, 1998). Higher rates of aggressive behavior, fears, nightmares, behavioral problems, and self-injurious behavior have also been found in them (Cicchetti&Toth, 1998; Trickett, 1997).
Reports show that children who have been abused who suffered harmful effects health may later on develop child attachment insecurity and attachment disorganization (Cyr, Kranenburg, & Van, 2010), and enduring neuro biological changes of the brain, which become reflected in psychopathology and lifelong maladaptive behaviors (Rick & Douglas, 2007). Furthermore, a systematic review reported the long-term health befalls of child abuse and neglect such as depression, drug use, suicide attempts, sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behavior (Norman et al., 2012). Therefore initial detection and prevention of child abuse and neglect is of critical importance.
After discussing all of the types of child abuse it is vital to ponder over its long-term and disastrous consequences. These consequences are majorly categorized as physical health consequences, psychological consequences and behavioral costs. Physical consequences further include shaken baby syndrome, impaired brain development and reduced physical health. Psychological consequences include meagre mental and emotional health, mental difficulties and societal problems [Child Welfare Information Gateway (CWIG), 2008].
Behavioral consequences of child abuse mainly include difficulties as juvenile delinquency and adult criminality, alcohol and other drug abuse and abusive behavior. Researches done over the period of time have shown that the effect fluctuates liable on the environments of abuse and neglect, personal traits of child psychology and child’s atmosphere (CWIG, 2008).
Emotional and Behavioral Problems
Children with emotional and behavioral disorders have solemn and tenacious complications that can be designated by a psychiatric diagnosis. When special educators classify children as having an emotional or behavioral disorder, they are assisted by a psychologist or psychiatrist who organize thorough assessment and makes a diagnosis of the disorder, using the categories listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are a comprehensive class of difficulties which is used usually in educational settings, to group a range of more precise perceived difficulties of children and adolescents (Zionts, Zionts & Simpson, 2002).
A child who has been abused and maltreated, show number of behavioral and emotional problems. These behavioral or emotional disorders can exhibit in extensively diverse sorts of behavior, including both internalized behavior such as despair and an eating disorder and externalized behavior such as verbal eruptions. Other common features and behaviors include these:
- Hyperactivity, short consider action period, precipitations
- Violence or self-injurious behavior, acting out, rebellious
- Withdrawal, disappointment in start interaction with others, retreat from connections of communal interaction, excessive fear or apprehension
- Irresponsibility, inappropriate crying, temper tantrums, poor coping skills
- Learning difficulties, academic performance below grade level.
Children with behavioral disorders do not essentially have learning disabilities. Approximations display, however, that about 60 to 80 percent of students with emotional behavioral disabilities also have some form of learning disability (Penington, 2002).
The reason of emotional and behavioural problems has exposed that the mind obtains information and routes it from the environment is different in every child and the child living in any abusive environment were more prone to it (Penington, 2002).
Children exhibit emotional or behavioral difficulties have been labelled in numerous ways. Some individuals may have EBD due to environmental factors, some have due to family or social factors. However when children and youth feel the way or behave they do because they are the part of their internal feelings they cannot control. Causes for emotional and behavioral disorders can be biological such as genetics, brain damage or dysfunctions or family factor, influence, structure or interactions and social factors in sense that social factor influence the behavior very much. Emotional and Behavioral Problems can occur at any stage of the life because of depression, severe anger or frustration. Other complex factors such as biological imbalances, psychological disturbances which are deep routed in the brain and environment can also cause them. EBD can be recognized with the help of following factors:
- Intensity, which denotes the sternness of the child’s problem.
- Pattern refers to the times when the problem occurs.
- Duration is the third factor which raises the length of the child’s problem that how many his or her problems prolong (Zionts, Zionts and Simpson, 2002).
Some researchers found that EBD is related with many other disorders like ADHA, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, Mood Disorders and other disorders (Jhonston and Mash, 2001).
Emotionally disturbed or disturbed children incline to be inflexible in their performance pattern and show disruptions in their play. That is, as these children frequently have troubled in upholding a theme or impression for a lengthy period, their pretended play may be discontinuous and choppy. Investigators have consistently found that children who experience anxiety and emotional disturbance inclined to engage in play that is age inappropriate and to be unpopular with peers, the main problems which can be included in emotional and behavioral issues are categorized as emotional symptoms, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and difficulty in prosocial self-regulation(Singer, 1977).
The study consisted of children working in other peoples’ homes in Kenya as baby maids and general household helps. The study showed the following reactions or problems to be common among these child workers:
- Regressive behavior
- Premature aging
- Inferior status identity and
A withdrawal reaction can be defined as the expression of feelings of inadequacy or a retreat from reality or it can be combine retreat with an inappropriate, ineffective and self-destructive solution of difficulties. The withdrawing child behavior is created by feelings of helplessness as evidenced in anxiety, worry, depression and stress. His expressing concerns in these ways may be suppressed by the averting of attention to problems with excessive daydreaming and drug addiction. If these means of avoidance are inadequate to quell anxiety children didn’t take any useful step towards reversing his withdrawal attitude, he may attempt to reason away, explain or control his feelings of inadequacy by developing compulsive rituals or schizophrenic symptoms, solutions which are ineffectual and distressing. Attempted suicide represents the individual’s effort to rid himself finally of conflict or distress (Portnoy, 1959).
Shaffer (1936) attributed the development of withdrawal reactions to fear-conditioning, frustration of other defences or habit formation. The most serious and detrimental is that based on guilt which appears when the child has become conditioned to persistent fearfulness as a result of severe and repeated physical punishment, abusive behavior or angry threats and scolding.
This problem is one of the most common mental disorders among children, and two to three more boys than girls are affected. Many children are unable to sit still, finish tasks, plan ahead, or even they are not aware of what is going on around them (Shaffer, 1936).
Traditionally it has been assumed that emotions guide behavior. This view is consistent with what we know about psychological arousal. Arousal gets the body ready for action (Frijda, 1986; Frijda, Kuipers ,&Schure, 1989). According to Frijda (1986) emotion does not exists without the readiness of behaviour. Other theorists have proposed that implicit muscle movements are part of emotions (Berkowitz, 1993). That is emotion naturally and normally starts up your body. When emotion cause behavior, it is often because the person wants to change or escape the emotional estate, researches have long known that sad, depressed moods make people more helpful (Giadini & Kandrick, 1979). Children with abused childhood face encounters, not only cognitively, but often also in communal, emotional and behavioral domains (Bernard, 2011; Emerson, Einfeld, & Stancliffe, 2011). The rate of emotional and behavioral disturbance in children who have abused childhood is up to four times greater than that of their naturally developing peers (Einfeld et al., 2006) and these problems are likely to continue into adulthood (White, Chant, Edwards, Townsend, & Waghorn, 2005).
The diverse dimensions of the childhood experience are as varied as geographic ethnic, social and cultural environments in which they take place. A child’s growth and development are powerfully influenced by differing diets, family structures, child rearing practices, social and cultural activities and levels of opportunity and aspiration. Diverse perception of child’s status and rights has also enhanced the variety of the childhood experience.
1.3.3. Conduct problems.
Conduct problems refers to a group of behavioral and emotional problems in youngsters. Children and adolescents with this disorder have great difficulty following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. They are often viewed by other children, adults and social agencies as “bad” or delinquent, rather than mentally ill. Many factors may contribute to a child developing conduct disorder, including brain damage, child abuse or neglect, genetic vulnerability, school failure, and traumatic life experiences (AACAP, 2013).
Sontag (1957) suggest that children whose energy level is less than normal have less validity and resistance and their immune level is also week and therefore they are predisposed to adopt illness, physical disturbance or psychological disturbance as a defensive measure. The children who are workers they got physically week as they done work as adult so they are more prone to these disturbances than a normal child. And as they didn’t get normal and adequate environment it restricts their normal growth and then they start behaving in different manner which destructs their personality, they didn’t speak truth to avoid responsibilities, they steal from work place or home to fulfill their personal need also they fight with others to show others that they have power.
Some common psycho physiological disturbances of children having emotional and behavioral problems are headaches, stomach aches and ulcers, accident proneness, manipulative motor habits (including nail-biting, thumb-sucking and tics), asthma and problems of elimination such as enuresis, encopresis and constipation. Emotional and physical aspects of illness, separately or jointly, can cause psychic or somatic disturbances or both and treatment should be provided to improve both of the conditions.
Economically creative actions deprive the child of the time as well as the opportunity to go through regular growth as it is the most critical stage of life. Children want time to develop evocative relationship and bonding with family members, peers and other persons in the community. They need occasions and time to play, exploration, exercise and rest. They also want opportunities to be natural, free and uncontrolled. Having occasional periods of indecision and irresponsibility help them escalate and grow the opposite characteristics. Child workers are likely to progress enduringly negative attitude towards work meanwhile it has underprivileged them of their childhood.
A child may develop a headache when he was exercised too vigorously or when his food intake is insufficient to give him the energy he needs. A child who has inadequate time for himself and kept on the run with domestic chores may have frequent headaches.
1.3.4. Peer problems and difficulty in Pro-social Self-regulation.
Peer problems can mainly define as individual having difficulty in interacting with their peers group or age fellows (Grohol, 2014). Peer problems are an issue that cut across diagnostic categories and childhood conditions. Peer problems are a critical target of treatment, as they are a strong predictor of negative long-term outcomes. The long term consequences of these issues are may be depression, lack of self-esteem and confidence, isolation and may be aggressive behavior.
Child abuse has harmful effects on any adulthood or any other stage of life. It affects many aspects of one’s life including effects at behavioral level, relationship level, and ultimately building relationship with others. An individual with the history of childhood abuse is likely to face social problems and adjustment problems which will eventually result in satisfaction with life. It will result in problems in well-being. Stage theory presented by Erickson (1963 as cited in Livesely, 2001) best conceptualizes the relationship of child abuse and well-being. The role of this stage theory is vital in explaining the developmental crisis at certain age, the resolution of this crisis. It is also essential in explaining the personality functioning and psychological well-being. The relationship disruption and negative involvement of others may threaten the development of positive self-esteem. According to Erickson this would result in confusion and identity impairment.
Pro-social behaviors are voluntary behaviors made with the intention of benefiting others (Eisenberg & Fabes, 1998). This definition carefully circumvents the potential benefits to the person performing the prosocial behavior. Pro-social behavior is often accompanied with psychological and social rewards for its performer. In the long run, individuals can benefit from living in a society where prosociality is common. And as the individuals who face rejection from their society and experience abuse and traumatic event they show difficulty in exhibiting prosocial behaviors.
Sharing, helping, and cooperative forms of behavior are hallmarks of social competence in childhood and adolescence. In addition, these behaviors have been related theoretically and empirically to other forms of social competence such as social acceptance and approval (Bukowski & Sippola, 1996; Newcomb, Bukowski, & Pattee, 1993), and to intellectual competencies such as academic performance (Wentzel, 2003). The individual who experience abuse from society they take it as rejection which further destructs their behaviour and they didn’t show helping behaviour towards other while they show abusive pattern towards other as well.
All infants are born with some empathetic ability that enables them to connect emotionally with other human beings (Sagi & Hoffman, 1994). As children grow up, however, the development of this innate empathy depends on their relationships with others. Adolescents whose best friends display prosocial behaviors also tend to engage in such behaviors themselves but when children face abuse and neglect from others they start engaging in critical and negative behavior.
From the above mention all introductory material and theories we can conclude that child abuse has devastating effects on development and advancement of children. A child is main part of any society as they are future of any nation, their adequate development is very important, as they are easily controlled they can be easily manipulated which is the risk factor for their development.
Child working is also a shattering event which occurs in our society as it inhibits and restricts child requisite development it also should be condemned from the society. As people when got authority they perceives themselves as they can do anything else so they control their slaves and treat them badly which is as well restricts in our religion Islam. Child abuse and child working both have devastating and gloomy effects on child psychic and physical development as they also trigger many of the behavioral issues in children so both of these factors are worth noticing and should be condemned from our society.
This chapter includes previous researches which were conducted to evaluate the possible relationship between child abuse and emotional behavioral problems in domestic child labour.
2.1 Emotional and Behavioral Problems
Watson,. et.al. (2005) conducted a research to identify factors linked with emotional and behavioral problems in school age children of women with breast cancer. Reports of children’s emotional and behavioral problems were obtained from patient mothers, their healthy partners, the children’s teacher and adolescents using the Child Behavior Checklist and Mental Health sub-scale of the Child Health Questionnaire. Risks of problems in children were linked with low levels of family cohesion, low effective responsiveness and parental over-involvement as reported by both child and mother. Adolescents reported family communication issues, which were associated with externalizing behaviour problems. Maternal depression was related to child internalizing problems, particularly in girls.
Gini (2008) conducted a research on bullying or being bullied to be related to a broad spectrum of behavioral, emotional and social problems. Results indicate that children involved in bullying as victims and bully victims had significantly higher risk for psychosomatic problems and psychosocial maladjustment than uninvolved children, whereas bullies manifested the fewest number of adjustment problems. When addressing bullying in a community, particular care should be devoted to the identification and help of children who are involved as victims or bully victims.
Yentzuwo,. et.al. (2011) conducted a research to investigate Behavioral and Emotional problems in a large sample of Taiwanese pre-schoolers using the Child Behavior Checklist was scored by mothers of 645 Taiwanese pre-schoolers then compared with American counterparts. Cross-cultural assessment show that Taiwanese pre-schoolers had higher scores in six narrow-band syndromes and prevalence rates of four Internalizing-related syndromes and Sleep Problems than American sample analyses of behavioral correlates revealed associations of first birth order with higher Internalizing, externalizing and whole Problems scores. Furthermore, younger ages (24–47 months) and male gender were associated with higher Externalizing and full trouble scores.
Depak, et.al., (2013) examined the characteristics and help seeking behaviour of children referred to local child protection services and the quality of the first-line response. Participant integrated 3,706 children from 42 primary schools who participated in a base-line survey on violence as part of the Good Schools Study. Children who disclose brutality were referred according to predefined criteria based on the type, severity, and time frame of their experiences. From the baseline survey, 529 children were involved. Girls were more likely to be involved and to meet the criteria for a serious case. In total, 104 referrals had some kind of concrete action taken, but only 20 cases met all criteria for having received an adequate response. Nearly half of referred children had ever sought help by disclosing their experiences of violence prior to the baseline study. In our study area, the first line answer to children’s reports of abuse was poor even though some referral structures are in place.
2.2 Child Abuse and Domestic Child Worker
Rajan, (1999) conducted a research and analyses child labor participation and its key determinants using data sets from Peru or Pakistan. The findings contain test of the comfort and Substitution hypotheses that play key roles in recent studies on child labor and child education. The findings eliminate both hypothesis in the context of child labor in Pakistan and suggest that income and related variables do not have the expected negative effect on children’s work input.
Kerfoot, et.al. (2006) conducted a research on the backgrounds and physical and emotional well-being of street children who work in different situations. This study is significant because individual accounts of street children may highlight individual or family factors that are associated with vulnerability for and risk of poor mental health, and these could have serious repercussions for the opportunity. Ninety-seven children were recruited and interviewed using a half ordered, psycho-social interview timetable; psychopathology was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Mood and Feelings survey (MFQ). Seventy percent of street children scored for behavioral and emotional difficulties on the SDQ, and 74%scored for sadness on the MFQ.
Emine, Ahmet, Figen, and Fatma (2010) conducted a research on kind of abuse and the factors influencing the labour that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace. It was determined that entirely 62.5% of the apprentice are subjected to abuse at their workplaces 21.8% physical, 53.6% emotional and 25.2% sexual, 100% of them are subjected to physical neglect, and 28.7% of them are subjected to emotional neglect. In spite of their being legally confined in assumption, the children who are individual employed with labor contracts cannot benefit from this protection practically at their work places.
Kataoka and Baba (2014) conducted a research to determine the rate of women who are high-risk for child abuse and neglect in a perinatal unit in Japan, and to identify the factors associated with risk level. Of the 174 subjects who agreed to participate, 12(6.9%) scored high-risk, and 162 (93.1%) scored low-risk. Identified three associated factors as important for predicting risk level: past mental illness (OR = 341.1), previous experience of intimate partner violence (OR = 68.0), and having a partner who was unemployed (OR = 14.5).
These all researches revealed the consequences of children working and child abuse on emotions and behaviors of children. Above mentioned researches depicts that child abuse negatively effects child development, child working is negatively related with children schooling and both can trigger emotional and behavioral issues in children.
2.3 Indigenous Researches
Indigenous researches are the researches which were conducted on the study variables with different study backgrounds and bring light to the cause and consequences of study variables. Under mention research revealed emic and etic implications of study variables.
Malik, et.al. (2006) conducted a research by using primary data from two districts one from Sindh a further as of Punjab, survey examine contribute part determinants of child labor comparatively and finds significant relationship between average wages set by his employer and labor decision of child. Though household income, parental education and family characteristic do contribute, but study also determines perception of parents regarding job uncertainty another factor that increases supply of child labor in case of Sindh. Legislative sanctions (e.g. ban) can not only be the proper solution for this difficulty, sketch a study from 350 poor family circle studies also determines some effective policy implications for government to overcome this curse as well.
Zaidi, Javed, and Khan (2013) study the basic demographic characteristics of child laborers and to ascertain their working conditions. Cross sectional study was conducted on 700 children between 4 – 18 years. Reason of work was low family income in 222 and poverty in 207 kids. 284 cases continued injury at the same moment as at job. Most youngster labourer are man with a family size of 5-8 members, never attended any school and living in a family whose monthly income is less than 8000 Pakistani Rupees. The major reason of work was low family income and poverty.
Ahmed (1973) conducted a research on the socio-economic background and working conditions of child labour in low class restaurants of the Lahore city. He contacted 100 respondents via interview schedule. Findings of the study revealed that children working in the restaurants belonged to such families as having low socio-economic status in the society. Working conditions are also disastrous.
Shah (1989) conducted a research to find out the relationship between child abuse and self-concept of the working children. Sample was consisted of 90 working children age ranges (10-15). Interview schedule was used as a tool for data collection. Chi- square was applied after data collection to see the significant association between independent and dependent variables. Thus results shows that there is highly negative association between two variables.
Pervez (1994) reported a survey on environment of psycho-socio domestic child labourer’s age 8-15, show that most of the children were beaten up and accused of theft by their owners. Sometimes domestic child laborer is injured and received cuts or blaze for the duration of work. The majority of the children were breathing in underlying and unnatural surroundings. Surrounded by those kids, 2 out of 5 exposed mentally poor personalities.
Above literature throws light on the factors of child abuse and child labor and its effects on children life. From the above mentioned literature we can conclude that there may be relationship is present between emotional and behavioral problems and child abuse in domestic child worker. These studies suggest that there may indeed be a relationship between starting to work at a young age and poor lifetime health.
The present research was aimed to study this neglected segment of child abuse in domestic child worker. Child abuse has destructive effects on child development as they lead to many psychological and physical issues. Child domestic workers are also economically exploited through no pay to low pay and overwork. Many child domestic workers kept unpaid, the wages of those who are paid are often given to their parents or others who take on the role of a guardian. Shazia Masih’s case, however, created a sensation in the electronic medium for a time. The 12-year-elderly girl from beneath-fortunate Christian family had allegedly been sexually abused and tortured by the family she worked for. She died in hospital (Dawn, November,12). Many other cases revealed that child workers treated badly and abused which further destructs their lives. These all researches have showed the impact of child abuse on domestic child worker. Limited researches have been done on child abuse and there is no such law which is implemented practically for them.
2.5 Objectives of the Study
- To examine relationship between child abuse, emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child workers.
- To investigate the predictors of emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child workers.
- There is likely to be relationship between child abuse, emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child workers.
- Child abuse is likely to predict emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child workers.
3.1 Research Design
Correlational research design was used to find out relationship between child abuse and emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child workers.
Sample comprised of 85 children falling between age ranges of 10-16 years working as domestic child worker and their parents also which comprised of 12 fathers and 73 mothers who have to fill strength and difficulties questionnaire. Data was collected from rural areas of Lahore and through snowball sampling technique like from neighbors and relatives.
- 3.2.1 Sampling technique.
Snowball sampling technique was used for the collection of data.
- 3.2.2 Inclusion criteria
- They must working for the last one year.
- They must be able to understand Urdu.
- Those with any medical and physical disability were excluded.
Demographic Characteristics of Domestic Child Workers (N=85).
|No. of Siblings|
|Monthly Income per month in Pk Rs||3412.94(144.512)||1000||7000|
|No. of dependants|
|Duration of Work per day in hours||7.93 (2.414)||3||12|
|Reason of Work|
|When Started Working (years before)||3.12 (1.589)||1||7|
Descriptive analysis of demographics reveals that mean age was 13.92 almost near to 14 which shows that mostly children was of age 13 who were working in domestic environment. Frequencies of gender shows that out of 85 children 57 were females and the rest were males, family system frequency reveals that 61 children belongs to joint family system and 24 children belongs to nuclear family system. Mean of monthly income was 3412.94, the maximum income children have was 7000 and minimum was 1000. Frequency of birth order shows that mostly children having birth order of middle. Mean of duration of work per day in hours was 7.92 children maximum spends 12 hours and minimum they spend 3 hours at work.Frequencies of reason of work reveals that 20% children forced to do work, 7.1% children work because of their father’s death and 7.1% children was engaged in work because of father’s illness but level of severity of their illness was not so high. 2.4% children was engaged in work because of their mother’s death and 2.4% because of mother’s illness but level of severity was not so high as the researcher asked from them. 61.2% (52) children were engaged in work just because of poverty and financial issues. Frequency of parent’s relationship shows that 79 children have intimate parents and 6 children have one of step parents. When started working in years before mean was 3.12.
3.3 Operational definition
- 3.3.1 Child Abuse.
Child abuse is defined as the emotional experience or trauma that has the lasting and psychic effects and happens in childhood. It causes dangerous and lasting damaging effects on the psychological and behavioral development of the children (Malik, Saeed & Shah, 2003).
- 3.3.2 Emotional and Behavioral Problems.
Difficulty in exhibiting age appropriate emotions and behaviors is known as emotional and behavioral problems. EBD is often identified in internalizing or externalizing categories. Internalizing behaviours are associated with problematic internal feelings, such as anxiety, sadness, reticence, fearfulness, and over sensitivity. Children with externalizing behaviours tend to show outward behavioural problems that include aggression, unruliness, forcefulness, and oppositional behaviors. Few children may display both internalizing and externalizing behaviors (e.g., a child with aggressive behaviors who also displays some depressive or anxious feelings), but usually children can be identified as primarily externalizing or internalizing (Goodman, 1997).
3.4 Assessment measures
In the present research following tools were used:
- Demographic Information sheet
- Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire SDQ (Goodman, 1998).
- Child Abuse Scale (Malik, Saeed & Shah, 2003).
- 3.4.1. Demographic Information Sheet.
Demographic Information Questionnaire includes age, gender, family system, number of siblings, birth order, duration of working, reason of their working.
- 3.4.2. Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire.
The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief screening instrument for assessing emotional and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. The SDQ consist of 25 items covering five sub-scales relating to emotional problems, peer problems, behavioural problems, hyperactivity and pro-social behavior. Strength and difficulties questionnaire Urdu version was used for assessment (Goodman, 1997).
- 3.4.3. Child Abuse Scale.
Child abuse scale constructed of three further scales to measure three major domains of abuse, i.e. abuse of emotions and physical abuse, physical and emotional neglect and sexual abuse. The subscale of physical abuse and emotional abuse constructed of 18items, physical and emotional neglect consist of 14 items and sexual abuse consists of 6 items. The scale has both positive and negative scoring items (Malik, Saeed& Shah, 2007).
Researcher collected the data from rural areas of Model town, Johar town, Iqbal town, Thokar niaz baig and Shahlimar Link road Lahore. First of all researcher meet the parents of children who were engaged in domestic working and take verbal consent from them to administer questionnaires on their children. Then researcher meets the domestic child workers and let them know about the nature and purpose of the study. Prior to taking information from the participant researcher takes informed consent from the participants and administers the demographic questionnaire and Child abuse Questionnaire. All participants were taken on one to one basis. Then after administering demographic questionnaire and child abuse scale, Strength and difficulties questionnaire was administer on parents as they were informants of their children behaviour. 10 participants refused to give information and 5 of the participants withdraw between the study overall response rate was 85%. It takes about 15-20 minutes of the participants to fill the entire questionnaire. After data collection quantitative analysis and interpretation was be done.
3.6 Ethical Considerations
In order to conduct this research, following considerations were kept in mind.
- Urdu translated Versions of tools were used after getting permission from their representative authors.
- Verbal consent was taken from parents of children as well prior taking from children.
- The consent was taken from the participants and they were allowed to leave from participation and terminate at any point of the study.
- The participants were guaranteed that the information acquired from them would be kept confidential and never used for any other purpose except for this research.
- Results were being reported accurately.
This chapter was aimed at investigating the relationship between child abuse, emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child worker. The analysis involved performing: (i) Descriptive analysis for the Study Variables and (ii) Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis for assessing the relationship between child abuse, emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child worker. (iii) Regression analysis to assess that whether child abuse predict emotional and behavioral problems among domestic child worker. Furthermore the reliability analysis for scales was also conducted.
4.1 Reliability Analysis
Descriptive analysis had been performed to examine the mean, standard deviation, minimum-maximum score and reliability of the study variables.
Descriptive Statistics of Child Abuse Scale, Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Domestic Child Worker (N=85).
|Physical and Emotional Abuse||18||42.87||15.37||0-72||18-72||.96|
|Physical and Emotional Neglect||14||28.83||5.40||0-56||10-36||.77|
|Emotional Symptoms Scale||5||6.16||2.81||0-10||0-10||.73|
|Conduct Problem Scale||5||5.49||2.67||0-10||0-10||.75|
|Peer Problem Scale||5||5.42||3.24||0-10||0-29||.35|
The Cronbach’s alpha reliability values of the subscales of SDQ i.e. hyperactivity and peer problem scale were low it may be because of reversed items which were not comprehend by participants accurately. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability values of the overall scales were good to carry out further analysis.
It was hypothesized that there was a relationship between Child abuse, Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Domestic Child Worker. To find out the relationship between them Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was conducted. The results of Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis are shown in the table 4.2.
Correlation between Child Abuse, Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Domestic Child Worker (N=85).
|11.Duration of work|
Note: **p<.01 l, *p<.05., PEA= Physical and Emotional Abuse, PEN= Physical and Emotional Neglect, SA= Sexual Abuse, ESS= Emotional Symptoms Scale, CPS= Conduct Problem Scale, HS= Hyperactivity Scale, PPS= Peer Problem Scale, ProSS= Prosocial Self-Regulation Scale.
The correlation analysis depicts that physical and emotional abuse has significant positive correlation with child abuse and emotional and behaviour problems except prosocial self-regulation. Physical and emotional neglect is significantly correlated with sexual abuse, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems but there is no significant correlation was present in physical and emotional neglect and hyperactivity in domestic child worker. Negative correlation is present in physical and emotional neglect and pro-social self-regulation in domestic child worker. Sexual abuse is significantly correlated with emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems in domestic child worker. Emotional symptoms are significantly correlated with conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and it has significant negative correlation with prosocial self-regulation in domestic child worker. Conduct problem has significant correlation with hyperactivity and peer problems and has negative correlation with pro-social self-regulation. Hyperactivity is significantly correlated with peer problems and prosocial self-regulation. Peer problems have significant negative correlation with prosocial self-regulation. Demographics didn’t have any significant relationship with any study variable. Only age has significant relationship with monthly income as the age increases income also increases. Results support our hypothesis.
It was hypothesized that Child Abuse predicts Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Domestic Child Worker. To find out the prediction Regression analysis was conducted at all five different domains of Emotional and Behavioural Problems. The table no. 4.3 presents that which type of abuse predicts emotional symptoms in domestic child worker.
Summary Of Step-Wise Regression Analysis:Physical And Emotional Abuse Predicts Emotional Symptoms, Conduct Behavioral Problems, Hyperactive Behavioral Problems And Peer Problems In Domestic Child Workers.
|Emotional symptoms||Conduct behavioral problems||Hyperactive Behavior problems||Peer problems|
Note: **p<.01 l, *p<.05., PEA= Physical and Emotional Abuse.
This table represents that Physical and Emotional Abuse significantly predict Emotional Problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems in Domestic Child Workers.
Summary of Step-Wise Regression Analysis: Physical and Emotional Neglect predicts Prosocial Self-regulation Behaviour in Domestic Child Workers.
Note: **p<.01 l, *p<.05., PEN= Physical and Emotional Neglect.
The above table illustrates that physical and emotional neglect negatively predicts prosocial self-regulation in domestic child worker as the child face physical and emotional neglect he show less prosocial behaviour towards others.
To determine the Gender difference in Child Abuse and Emotional Behaviour Problems we conducted the t-test on gender and the following domains. The following table depicts the summary of analysis.
Comparison of Child abuse, Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Domestic Child Workers.
|Males (n=28)||Females (n=57)||95% CI|
The above mentioned table presents that there are significantly gender differences in physical and emotional abuse, boys are more subjected to physical and emotional abuse as compared to girls. There is also difference in emotional and behaviour problems, boys exhibit more prosocial self-regulation behaviour than girls.
4.2 Summary of the Findings
- Significant positive relationship is present between child abuse and emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child workers.
- Child abuse predicts emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child workers.
- Physical and emotional abuse mainly predicts emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems in children.
- Physical and emotional neglect predicts prosocial self-regulation negatively.
- Boys are subjected more to physical and emotional abuse and they have more problems in exhibiting pro-social behavior as compared to girls.
The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between child abuse and emotional and behavioral problems, and is child abuse trigger emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child worker.
The first finding of this research reveals that child abuse is positively correlated with emotional and behavioural problems in domestic child worker and this is consistent with many researches which indicate that child abuse leads to many health related problems as well as psychological problems. The results of correlation is consistent with the study conducted by Jhonston & Mash in 2001, this research indicates positive and strong association between child abuse and level of stress in children. Approximately four children die every day just because of child abuse and neglect they face. Abused children not only experience the effects of the abuse in childhood, but it also becomes a lifelong devastating battle into adulthood. Child abuse is a common and disastrous fact for many children today mostly living in developing countries. Child abuse mainly present in low socioeconomic status, as the poverty increases it also increase the stress rate and then people manifest there stress and anger on weaken figures which are mostly children.
Hanif (1994) stated that children who belong to low socio-economic class were more abused as compared to the children with middle and upper socio-economic class in Pakistani context. This research is consistent with our finding as child workers belong to low socio-economic status they are more prone to child abuse. This is also consistent with the descriptive analysis of our demographic which reveals that children were engaged in domestic working mainly because of poverty. Child labor is a problem which prevails worldwide, but it particularly affects children belongs to developing countries. Child labor is characterized by work full-time at too early of an age, and too many hours spent on working. Child abuse and child labor both have adverse effect on children life and together these both exhibit inauspicious experience on children physically and psychologically. One more study by Dallam in 2001 indicates that Neglect, physical abuse, custodial interference and sexual abuse are types of child mistreatment that can lead to poor physical and mental health well into adulthood also, maltreatment during infancy or early childhood can cause important areas of the brain to form and function indecorously with long-term consequences on cognition, linguistic, emotional problems and social problems.
Second findings of our study reveals that child abuse triggers emotional and behavioural problems in domestic child workers and it is consistent with the research conducted by Perry in (2001) which indicates that trauma of chronic abuse may arouse a hyper response in certain parts of brain which leads to hyperactivity and nap disturbances and it is also consistent with our findings.
A study was conducted by Naz andKausar (2011) depicts that there is noteworthy positive correlation between physical mistreatment and severity of motor symptoms, sensory symptoms, pain symptoms and other problems like emotional symptoms pseudo neurological symptoms and gastrointestinal symptoms, this research is also consistent with our findings as physical and emotional abuse predicts emotional problems in domestic child worker.
Silverman, Kingree and Desai (1996) conducted a long-term study, and it indicates that minimum 80 percent of early adults who had been maltreated met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at age 21. These young adults displayed many difficulties, including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and suicide attempts. In accumulation to physical and developmental problems, the trauma of chronic abuse may result in unease and may make victims more susceptible to difficulties such as post-traumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder, and knowledge, thoughtfulness, and memory problems, this is also reliable with our findings which shows that physical and emotional abuse predicts emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems. Physical and emotional neglect predicts negatively pro social self-regulation.
Another longitudinal research originate that bodily abused children were at larger risk of being detained as juveniles.Abused and abandoned also increased the probability of adult illegitimate behaviour by 28 percent and ferocious crime by 30 percent (Langsford et al., 2007). And it is consistent with the findings of our research which reveal that physical and emotional abuse trigger conduct problems in domestic child workers.
Pervez in (1994) conducted a survey on psycho-socio atmosphere of the child homeworker’s age 8-15 show that most of the children were compressed up and accused of theft by their owners. Sometimes child domestic worker is incapacitated and received cuts or burns during work. Most of the children were living in curbed and meticulous atmosphere. Among those children, 2 out of 5 revealed emotionally deficient personalities and most of them was accused of having conduct behavior and because of abuse they got stress, anxiety and other types of emotional and behavioral problems and this survey is consistent with our present research as child abuse leads to emotional and behavioral problems in domestic child worker.
As additional analysis T-test was conducted on gender, child abuse and emotional and behavioral problems and findings indicate that boys are more prone to physical and emotional abuse and this is consistent with the research conducted by Thompson, Kingree& Desai (2004) findings indicate that males were additional expected than females to have veteran to physical abuse during childhood. Whereas abuse had negative concerns for both boys and girls, it was generally more disadvantageous for girls.
The findings revealed positive correlation between child abuse and behavioural problems as child abuse increases it may lead to the problematic behaviour in childhood as well as in adulthood. Findings also depict that child abuse trigger emotional and behavioural problems in domestic child worker and mainly males are more vulnerable to experience physical and emotional abuse than females.
- First of all some statements of the questionnaire were not easily comprehended by the sample and they didn’t reply them fairly.
- People try to hide their responses on some statements as some abused children didn’t want to show their emotions.
- Sample was limited.
- As SDQ was administered on parents for their children, some parents give social desirable response for their children.
- Some statements of SDQ was not comprehended by parent in well manner and as they give social desirable response, that’s may be the reason behind less reliability of two subscales of SDQ.
- In future researches longitudinal research design should be used so in that way we can assess the causes of effects.
- Interviews with family members of the participant can be beneficial in providing more data, evading and diminishing the interference of self-report preference.
- Direct surveillance and behavioral methods may be used by the researcher for inclusive evaluation of child abuse and behavioral problems in domestic child workers.
- Sample should be consisting of equal number of men and women so that the two groups can be compared across various domains.
- Understanding should be built before preliminary the interview so that unique, bias-free retorts would be obtained.
- Data must be contained from different rural areas all over the Pakistan, so that the fall-outs can be generalized.
5.4. Implications of the study
- The finding highlight the problems of children and its consequences which were neglected in Pakistan and it can be helpful for high authorities to ponder over on these issues and take step on it.
- The findings of the present study add to the preceding literature.
- Abuse is a problem of children of today and findings can be helpful for the child counselor to understand consequences of child abuse.
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