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Causes of Drug Addiction in Women with Case Studies

Abstract

Drug abuse and particularly addiction has been spreading at a fast rate since the last 70. It has now become a serious social problem which is probably going to stay. There is no push button solution for its control or eradication. Governmental and nongovernmental organizations, politicians and religious leaders. The drug addicts resort to crime for generating income for the purchase of narcotics. The situation is becoming serious due to the number of heroin addicts in the country. An alarming rate of increase of 100,000 addicts per year is highly dangerous to society. The present study reveals different clues as to how the situation may be approached in finding possible factors behind increasing rate of heroin addiction particularly in women.

In chapter one, introduction and causes of drug addiction has been elaborated. Chapter two has been devoted to presenting a review of the related studies. In chapter three, we discuss research methodology, which we used for the present study. Chapter four is related to data analysis of the study; a structured interview guide was implied for the collection of data from 10 heroin addicts (all women) through interview. We gathered all the basic information of women from different localities in Lahore and construct case studies.

In the present study, the interview schedule method used which consisted of 15 questions. The method was considered the most suitable method of data collection. In chapter five the conclusion and summary were discussed and suggestion made.

Acknowledgment

First of all we express our gratitude to ALLAH almighty the most gracious and most merciful. We own our special gratitude to our honorable supervisor (from department of gender studies. Her constant admire stimulating guidance, dedication and generosity were indispensable for the completion of our thesis, work.

We also grateful to Professor chairperson of department of gender studies for her appreciation and guidance whenever we approached her throughout the course of our studies and completion of this research work.

Most of all we would like to thank all the participants of the study. It would have been impossible for us to conduct the research without their collaboration and cooperation. We are deeply obliged to our parents and friends. We feel blessed by ALLAH almighty to have such a loving and caring family and friends.

Ch # 1

Introduction

The world is becoming a global village. With advancement and new means of communication, life is becoming materialistic and modern. Change in an individual’s living style is obvious and up to date. But this modernization and globalization had some adverse and bad effects as well which destroyed and disturbed human lives. One of the most alarming and harmful evil is drug addiction especially youth is at risk due to this.

The ill effects of addiction to drugs can be very difficult to endure, which is why the addict must be treated for their condition at the earliest. A lot of research is being done on how addiction to drugs harms people and societies. An individual that takes drugs will expect certain changes to take place in his being.

Drugs addiction is harmful not only for the addicted but also has negative impact on the fabric of the society. The effects of such an addiction can cause dangerous changes in the mind, body and spirit of the drug addict. The most disturbing aspect of drug addiction is that it is reaching epidemic proportions in the whole world. People in our part of the world are increasingly becoming addicted to all kinds of drugs including street drugs and prescription drugs etc.

The major reason of drug addiction in youth is termed poverty and joblessness. The jobless youth find their refuge in drug addiction. In every locality dozens of youth could be found at garbage dens, dark alleys and other isolated locations using injection-able drugs. To meet their expenses these poor youth commit petty crimes. Growing street crime ratio in cities like Karachi is directly related to growing drug addiction amongst youth.

Street drugs include cocaine, heroin and crack, marijuana and meth, while prescription drugs include those such as Valium, OxyContin, Percocet and Ritalin etc. The price of drugs can be very heavy. Simple ill-effects of such addiction include physical itchiness, coma and even premature death. On the other hand, the psychological ill effects can make a person become completely dependent on taking drugs in order to survive.

“A drug is any chemical you take that affects the way your body works. Alcohol, caffeine, aspirin and nicotine are all drugs. A drug must be able to pass from your body into your brain. Once inside your brain, drugs can change the messages our brain cells are sending to each other and to the rest of our body”.

“A drug is any substance that you can drink, eat, inject, inhale or otherwise put into your body that changes your brain chemistry and makes you act or feel differently from when you are not taking the substance. A drug is something that is addictive – that is, a user’s body can come to depend on the drug in order to feel normal. In this definition, alcohol is a drug, e.g. beer, wine coolers, whiskey and rum all are drug, so is heroine, sheesha, cocoa and many others.

Historical Background of Drugs in Pakistan

Pakistan has a long history of the cultivation and use of opium and cannabis, as is the Case in many countries in the region. During the time of British colonial rule, when Pakistan was a part of the Indian subcontinent, the taxes and levies raised from opium Poppy proved an important source of revenue for the authorities. While opium Production flourished in various parts of India (such as Bengal and Kashmir) it was not so widespread in the Pakistan region, except in limited quantities in the tribal Areas. In the late 19th Century opium was often referred to as ‘Afghan Opium’ and Amounted to around 40 tons annually (Hag 1996; Narcotics Control Division,Government of Pakistan (NCD) 1998). At that time, and for years later, mostopium Used for addicts was imported from India and retailed through Government licenses Shops under regulation (NCD 1998). Traditionally,opium has been used for the relief of body aches and pains, diarrhea and various other ailments (UNDCP 1998).

Soon after Pakistan achieved independence in 1947, commercial domestic farming of Opium Began with selling taking place through legal opium vendors. Opium Production was encouraged throughout the 1950s to replace the opium imported from India (Sercombe 1995).

Between 1955 and 1975, the annual licit production of opium was about 7.2metric tons (NCD 1998). By 1979 an exceptional opium poppy crop produced about 800 metric tons (UNDCP 1998). At this time 80,000 to 100,000 hard Core opium users were estimated (Sercombe 1995; UNDCP 1998).

Heroin use was virtually unknown although some researchers have suggested there may have been About 5,000 heroin users throughout the country (Sadeque 1992). In the late 1970s, The use of cheap licit drugs became more evident and increasing numbers of people Became dependent upon barbiturates,stimulants, hallucinogens or tranquillizers (Spencer and Navaratnam 1981).

In 1979 the Prohibition Order was introduced by government authorities and ended the lawful production, sale and consumption of opium, alcohol and cannabis.

Although at the time there were thousands of chronic opium users regularly receiving their drug from government licensed opium vendors, there were virtually no support service available to accompany the new law and many drug users went in search of other substitutes (NCB 1998; UNDCP 1998).

In 1980 the number of heroin users was negligible but by 1983 it was estimated at around 100,000 and by 1993 it had increased to around 1.5million (NCD 1998; UNDCP 1998). In the early 1990s estimates suggested there were another million people consuming opium, marijuana and hashish (Sadeque 1992). In 1993 Pakistan conducted its one and only National Survey of drug use. The findings showed there were an estimated 3.01million chronic drug users and the drug of choice was heroin (51%), followed by cannabis (29.5%) (UNDCP, 1998).

Definition of Drug Substances:

Some definitions of drug substances are described below:

“Natural or synthetic substance which (when taken into a living body) affects its functioning or structure, and is used in the diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of a disease or relief of discomfort. Also called legal drug or medicine”.

“Habit forming stimulant or narcotic substance (such as alcohol, nicotine, or a derivative of cocoa or poppy) which produces a state of arousal, contentment or euphoria. Continued or excessive use (called drug addiction or substance addiction) of such substances causes addiction or dependence”.

“A drug is any chemical you take that affects the way your body works. Alcohol, caffeine, aspirin and nicotine are all drugs. A drug must be able to pass from your body into your brain. Once inside your brain, drugs can change the messages our brain cells are sending to each other and to the rest of our body”.

“A drug is any substance that you can drink, eat, inject, inhale or otherwise put into your body that changes your brain chemistry and makes you act or feel differently from when you are not taking the substance. A drug is something that is addictive – that is, a user’s body can come to depend on the drug in order to feel normal. In this definition, alcohol is a drug, e.g. beer, wine coolers, whiskey and rum all are drug, so is heroine, sheesha, cocoa and many others.

Types of Drug:

The widely used drugs and their effects on human body are described below;

  • Heroin

Heroin is an opiate processed directly from the extracts of the opium poppy.it was originally created to help cure people of addiction to morphine. Upon crossing the blood-brain barrier, which occurs soon after introduction of the drug into the bloodstream, heroin is converted into morphine, which mimics the action of endorphins, creating a sense of well-being, the characteristic euphoria has been described as an “orgasm” centered in the gut. One of the most common methods of heroin use is via intravenous injection.

  • Cocaine

Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. It is both a stimulant of the central nervous system and an appetite suppressant, giving rise to what has been described as a euphoric sense of happiness and increased energy. Cocaine is a potent central nervous system stimulant. Its effects can last from 20 minutes to several hours, depending upon the dosage of cocaine taken, purity, and method of administration. The initial signs of stimulation are hyperactivity, restlessness, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate euphoria.

  • Marijuana

“Marijuana – often called pot, grass, reefer, weed, herb, MaryJane, or MJ – is a greenish-gray mixture of the dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of Cannabis Sativa, the hemp plant. Most users smoke marijuana in hand-rolled cigarettes called joints, mong other names; some use pipes or water pipes called bongs. Marijuana cigars called blunts have also become popular. To make blunts, users slice open cigars and replace the tobacco with marijuana, often combined with another drug, such as crack cocaine. Marijuana also is used to brew tea and is sometimes mixed into Foods.

  • Morphine

Morphine is obtained from opium, the juice secreted by the seeds of the poppy the most important of these are relief of pain and respiratory depression. Morphine has many harmful effects. The most dangerous is respiratory depression. Common side effects are nausea and vomiting. Morphine also has an effect on the muscle of the bowel and urinary tract causing the sphincter to contract and reduce the peristalsis. Morphine can also cause histamine release, which causes itching of the skin and nose and a mild flushing of the skin.

  • Opium

Opium is a drug made from the poppy plant. Poppies grow in many different countries but most poppies today are used to make heroin and opium is much less popular than in was in the past. In the past opium was widely used for both medial and recreational poppies.

It contains morphine usually about 8-10% by weight. This is what makes opium addictive. It also contains some codeine and other alkaloids. Typically opium is smoked in order to vaporize the morphine and get high (or relieve pain). Opium was also used in other ways. For instance Laudanum was a solution of opium in alcohol that was used as a way to consume opium (and thus morphine).

Drug Addiction

In, encyclopedia Americana the term has been defined as the compulsive use of a drug in greater amount than is used in ordinary  therapeutic or is acceptable in social customs, and that is harmful to the individual or society or to both’’(Smith,19 83;410)

The term has been defined in “the universal library” as “the craving for any drug whish usually occurs in inadequate or abnormal personality”. The underlying object of drug taking is usually the desire to with draw in to a world of dreams and fantasies.

Ausubel define drug addiction as “continued use of the drug than is necessary to maintain normal physiological functions and discountinuance of the drug results in define physical and mental symptoms”(ausubel,1958:9).

Quranic Injections Against Drug Addiction,

Heroin, opium and hashish have been widely used without extreme devalution in Muslim society, although the Quran forbid the use of substances that after the state of consciousness.God Almighty in the Holy Quran:

“o ye who believe, intoxicants and games of chance and idols and disc inning arrows are only infamy of Satan’s handiwork. So, leave it aside in order that you may succeed. Satan seekth only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means of intoxicants and games of the chance, and to turn you away from the remembrance of Allah, and from prayers, will you the desist?

(chapter 5:Verse 90-91)

In other verses of the Holy Quran, man is again warned that he has more to lose and less to again from the use of intoxicants. The Holy Quran says “They question thee about strong drink and game of chance say in both is great sin, and(some) utility for men, but the sin of them is greater than their usefulness (chapter 11: Verse 219).

“O ye who believe, draw not near un to prayer ye are drunken, till ye know that which ye lute”

The word used for intoxicant in Quran is “Khumar” which in literal sense wine or alcohol extracted from grapes. In the generic sense however, it means a substance, which obscures the intellect. In Islam man on the earth is an agent here – below of the supreme power. The earth is inheritance of the righteous servant of God, and they are here to act as the trustees of that patrimony. Man is Khalifatul erd, successor to earth (Borhi,1985:40). Hence an object, the consumption of which obscures man’s intellect by his creator, because that would have defined the very purpose of creation.

The Quranic view has been made very clear by its supreme interpreter, the prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) who told his followers that “intoxication is mother of all evils and the greatest sin”.

Statement of Problem

The aim of the present study is to highlight the causes of drugs, usage, marital status, occupation, education, income, and family type, individual’s life, like psychological, physiological, social effects of heroin addiction on the physical and mental health of the drug users.

Objectives of the Study

The general objectives of the study to provide useful analytical knowledge about the causes of drug addiction generally and particularly about heroin addiction in Pakistani society, in other words such a study would help to ascertain the factors which contribute in increasingly rate of heroin addiction and also this study would help to make policies and strategies to prevent this over growing social evil which is crippling the entire society and that something must be done quickly about it.

  1. To find out socio-economic and demographic characteristics of Heroin addicts.
  2. To identify patterns of heroin addiction in Pakistani society.
  3. To explore the effects of heroin addiction on the physical and mental health of the heroin users.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study shows that drug addiction varies by person, but some of the reasons include depression, financial problems, family tension, social inequalities and social differentiation. Not all people addiction drugs because they lack the ability to function in life, sometimes it’s the social climate.

Drug addiction can influence or impact our family, community, the economic and political life as well. Whether the drugs are being addictictd is prescribed or recreational it can lead to bad consequences that the addiction may not have intentionally caused. It is also an important aspect to social life which sociologists can analyze with the three main theoretical perspectives of functionalism, conflict and intrectionalism.

Causes of Drug Addiction

There is no single cause of drug addiction. The causes of drug addiction are manifold. It ranges from pharmacological to the environmental, social and psychological factors. Drug addiction results from a complicated interplay of these factors, which must impinge on the individual addition at a critical time in this life cycle, any single variable in any one area of these factors is a necessary condition to initiate drug addiction but may not be sufficient in the etiology of drug addiction.

This also explains why some persons with one or more of these variables addicting drugs while other with the same variable or variables do not. As such, these variables can also be considered as predisposing or precipitating factors. Some factors make a person vulnerable to drug addiction while others indulge him in drug addiction for example; the pharmacological properties may be the causative factors where as the disturbed psychological states or un happy family setup and stimulating environment may be conducive in the initiation of drug addiction.

The causes of drug addiction and drug abuse are wide and varied. There are many reasons for the drug addiction. A few of them may be as follows:

  1. For peace of mind
  2. Because of tragic experience
  3. Un –employment
  4. For fun/ to seek pleasure
  5. Because of bad company
  6. Curiosity
  7. Easy availability
  8. To relieve body pain
  9. Drug using family members
  10. Drug  using peers
  11. Poor relationship with parents
  12. Escapism: to forget worries
  13. Lack of responsibility
  14. Intra-familial stress
  15. Enhancement of sex performance
  16. Rebellious attitude
  17. Social stress
  18. Lack of medical facilities
  19. Depression
  20. Enhance of work performance

Drug Culture in Pakistan

Poppy and opium have been cultivated in northern part of Pakistan (mainly in the North west frontier province) for centuries. Opium was sold in licensed shops through the Indo-Pak subcontinent. At the time of independence in 1947, there were approximately 100,000 regular and registered opium easers in Pakistan mainly in lower socioeconomic groups. As a poor man’s drug recreation opium posed no serious legal or social problems.

Heroin, as a drug of use, was virtually unknown in Pakistan prior to 1979,since then,  Heroin  addiction has reached epidemic proportions and has affected nearly all socio-economic group, Pakistani society is now embroiled in a growing, complex and multifaceted narcotic menace.

Research Methodology

Research methodology describes the study research design and methodology. It describes in detail the means and methods of how the research was conducted and what the specific ways for that helped together data in this research study.

Universe

As the researcher is studying the causes of drug addiction especially heroin among women which is observed among women of almost all ages. Women of different age groups (ranges from 25 to 50 years) are selected for the present study.

Population: The researchers want to examine the impact and the factors behind drug addiction especially heroin consumption among women.
Sample size: Researchers choose 10 respondents for their study.
Target Population: Target population for this study was mainly women of age 25 to 50 years. And the researcher chooses women of selective localities and also belonging to different occupation, marital status and education levels.
Research Method: For this study, researchers prefer to use qualitative method of research.
Tool for Data Collection: Interview guide was constructed as a tool for data collection.

Literature Review

The chapter enables the researchers to build their work upon what has been previously done by others in their particular field.

With the advancement in technology and changing trends in the modern world, it is becoming a global village. We all are connected to each other through various means of communication. Young generation had gained benefits through globalization and advancement in all sectors of life. But there are always two sides of the picture, one positive and other is negative one. Institution of family is demolishing in Pakistan day by day, which results in destruction of our society as well demoralization in youth.

Drug addiction is a social evil, quickly prevailing in Pakistani society, specifically in urban areas. Male and female are now equally inclined to usage of drugs, which can be in any form, i.e. heroine, cocae, cigarettes, sheesha and many others drug forms. The smoking of heroin in cigarettes is more popular among the men than inhaling the fumes. An increasing number of drug users are injecting a combination of legally procured inject able drugs. It is not necessary that parents of the children using drugs, were used to be addicts first, but some possibilities are also there. Majority of the youth start using drugs just for the sake of fun and adventure. Peer pressure also plays a key role in adopting this habit of drugs usage. The daily dosage of majority of people was up to 1 gram and it varies from person to person and situation also matters a lot. Unsatistfaction leads youth toward a wrong way results in destruction of their future, career, and health, most importantly their families suffer a lot due to their habit of having drugs. Many people feel hungry after using any kind of drug, especially marijuana and heroin. While conducting interview of drug addicts, most of them forget suddenly what they were saying and also their purpose of conversation. Disturbance in sleeping pattern is very common and obvious sign which can be observed in drug users.

Drug addiction is a serious and expensive social problem increasing in Pakistan especially in Karachi, Lahore and in many other cities as well. Drug addiction is not a character flaw or a lack of willpower but is actually a mental illness and should be treated as a medical issue, just as any other illness.

The drug user has developed a drug tolerance, needing to consume increasingly greater quantities to experience the desired effect and experiences withdrawal symptoms when not using the drug. Drug use is continued in spite of harm caused to the drug user, the drug user’s life and the lives of those around the user. Most drug use begins in adolescence, often with experimentation with prescription drugs, cigarettes or alcohol.

Drug addiction information indicates any type of drug can be abused or cause drug addiction. Drug addiction involves easily accessible drugs like tobacco and alcohol, as well as illegal drugs like cocaine and heroin.

Most widely used drugs in people are heroin, alcohol, opiates (substances derived from opium, poppy), cocaine, and other chemicals like tobacco, steroids, morphine and other.

Drug addiction describes a state where the user is no longer in control of their drug use. Some drug addicts also identify drug use and ignorance as a cause of drug addiction. A person’s environment can be part of what causes drug addiction. Drug addiction is more common in environments where drug abuse is seen or where it’s seen as permissible. Children who grow up in homes with drug addicts often become drug addicts themselves.

Drug addiction tends to run in families, indicating genetics may have a role in causing drug addiction. Women in our society did not enjoy equal rights to those of men. The Foremost problems are limited decision-making powers; low or no economical Independence; lack of educational facilities; undue social restrictions Imposed on girls, parental indifference or negligence, limited. Communication with elders including parents and teachers, and a general lack of respect for women including sexual and physical harassment. In addition, it was agreed that women are denied rights over their own bodies and reproductive health.  Financially, they have limited access to money.

These were some of the reasons the girls attributed to women being pushed into drug use. When women, even the educated ones, are denied their “rights”, they may turn to drugs for temporary relief, escape or relaxation.

In Pakistan, little attention has been paid to the issue of drug abuse on the Basis of gender. Although the findings of various surveys postulate a very Limited number of women with drug dependency problems, this assumption is open to question as official surveys and reports have never endeavored to represent women adequately. While it may be true that the number of female drug users is much lower than that of male drug users, it must be remembered that in Pakistani society, cultural constraints often lead to the concealment of problems related to women including drug abuse, and this can cause difficulties in identification of drug abuse by health professionals and researchers

The purpose of the researcher to conduct the whole study is to highlight the causes of drug as well as signs and symptoms of drug addiction among youth of the area of defense in Lahore, Pakistan.

Determine various socio-economic, demographic and crime related indicators of female and male drug users.

The aim of the researcher is to create awareness and generate discussion regarding the issue of drug usage and its addiction, which is prevailing in our society resulting in destruction of our nation’s asset, youth. There must be a close relationship among age of people using drugs and their reason for starting drug.

Describing the effect of bhang he says: “when a person is on bhang, he recaptures impressions and sensations in slow motions. Like the disorientation experienced on marijuana trips there is a disturbance of space- time perception, flight of ideas. Bhang also lets loose repressed ideas, and there is occasionally a confusion in the users mind about what is real and what he has created in his own mind”. He believes that, “life is an experience and smoking pot is one of life’s happenings: without a happening a person can’t exist. I have the speed in life, but no direction, and drugs are a shield for me against outside pressures and forces”.

He admits that he is losing weight because speed is destroying his appetite and that he’s going to forget things. He sometimes forgets what he is about to say, and ends up talking about things totally irrelevant to the subject. He finds it difficult to arrange his thoughts in a logical sequence and loses the thread of what he is trying to express. He loses his sense of immediate goal – that is, he forget what he was about to do, or why he was about to do it (Herald, 1974: 10-11).

Inrease in Poppy Cultivation

Pakistan has been a producer of opium for exports and traditional domestic consumption since the time of Muslim rule and the British Empire. In 1979,however, the government of Pakistan responded to the problem of increased illicit opium production and trade by the enforcement of the Hadd Ordinance. The ordinance brought existing law into line with Islamic injunctions and prohibits trafficking, financing or possession of more than10 grams of heroin or one kg of opium.

In 1979, all poppy cultivation (licit and illicit) was banned and all government-controlled processing plants and retail outlets for licit opium were closed. As a result of Hadd ordinance and partly because of massive stock pilling of opium following a bumper harvest in 1979, opium cultivation and production sharply declined in the 1980s. The government’s commitment to make Pakistan poppy-free, increased efforts in law enforcement, the impact of alternative development assistance from the international community, and a drop in retail prices for opium gum due to the massive increase in production in Afghanistan, are major factors that contributed to a further decline in opium cultivation since the mid-1990s.An analysis of poppy harvesting trends at the national level reveals a decline in the amount harvested from 9,441 hectares in 1992 to less than 284 hectares in 1999. Of the three main poppy growing areas, Dir district in north of Frontier province where the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) has been active since 1985, accounted for approximately 60 percent of the opium harvested in the country. Over this period, the UNDCP spent 35 million US dollars on alternative development projects in Dir district. Alternative development interventions coupled with demonstrated government commitment led to a decrease in opium cultivation in Dir district from 3,500 hectares in 1992 to near zero in 2000,making Pakistan one of the most successful story as far as war on drugs was concerned.

However, satisfactory results in the year 2000 proved short-lived as RECORD LAND HAS BEEN BROUGHT under poppy cultivation in Pakistan’s Balochistan province in general and the North West Frontier Province in particular this year breaking the 1998 figures of 950 hectares,which were the highest in the last five years. (UNODC, 2002)The illicit crop has been cultivated on a total of 3,000 hectares of land in the Frontier province, bordering Afghanistan in the west, while in Balochistan province also bordering Afghanistan and Iran, it has been cultivated on2,000 hectares of land, according to figures released by the Pakistan government to the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP).

The poppy crop is either ready to be harvested or has already been harvestedin some parts of the growing areas. The UNDCP sources say the law enforcement agencies could destroy not more than “one-third” of the total standing crop in the NWFP until the first week of May. Meanwhile, the paramilitary force – Frontier Corps – claims it has destroyed the entire crop in Balochistan.

The FC claim, however, has drawn a question mark. The FC told the UNDCP it had destroyed the entire crop. However, armed resistance in Balochistan was much higher than in the NWFP, particularly in the Gulistan area where the paras had a standoff with armed tribesmen using RPGs(rocket-propelled grenade launchers) and other small arms and light weapons to prevent paramilitary force from destroying their crop. ThomasZeindl-Cronin, the UNDCP officer-in-charge in Islamabad, told me that as a matter of policy he could not challenge the FC claim. Through different sources I tried to get independent confirmation of the claim but failed to ascertain the situation accurately or verify the claim.

The paramilitary force operation against poppy in Balochistan’s Gulistan, Chaman in Qilla Abdullah district, Zhob, Barkhan and Khuzdar areas startedon April 16 and it lasted for about 14 days. Some people do claim that the authorities in Balochistan province left poppy cultivated on some influential people’s lands untouched.

The Khyber Agency tribal zone, bordering Afghanistan the in North West Frontier Province, has witnessed poppy cultivation on 868 hectares of land while the Kurrum Agency, also at the border with Afghanistan, cultivated poppy on 812 hectares of land. The Home and Tribal Affairs Department in Peshawar expressed inability to destroy the crop in Khyber Agency because of “inaccessible terrain.”Prime reason for unusually high acreage for poppy this year behind temptation among farmers to bring vast land under poppy cultivation was the pre-season high price of poppy per kilogram by the buyers. The preseason price of per kilo poppy was reported around Rs.50, 000 around 900US dollars.

Anti-drug enforcement agencies say the international drug mafia hiked up the price to induce more farmers into poppy cultivation. Interestingly, once abumper crop is ensured, the buyers drop the price to more than half the original price knowing the growers will have little option but to sell the crop at the end of the season. According to anti-drug NGO in Peshawar, price of a kilo of old stock opium in Pakistan was recorded at Rs.36,000 [US$620]while in Afghanistan the price of old stock per kilo was Rs.34,000 [US$586]in the beginning of this year. The price, according to buyers, has gone down further in recent weeks.In some cases, the buyers provided the poverty-stricken farmers with poppy seeds and also cash money to maximize chances of good production this year. However, extremist religious groups’ emergence as a strong political force in the wake of October 2002 general elections in Pakistan was also regarded as one of the reasons behind the re-emergence of poppy cultivation.The Islamic groups, which used to call poppy crop as a “weapon” to useagainst the United States, did not denounce poppy cultivation, rather backed farmers to grow poppy.

Official sources in Bajaur Agency tribal zone said that radical Islamic party Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (Fazl ur Rehman group) Salarzai area president Maulvi Fazel decreed that poppy cultivation was “Islamic.” However, the clerics call use of drugs “un-Islamic.” Since his decree, the political administration of Bajaur Agency has issued his arrest warrant, which forced him to avoid visiting Khar, agency headquarters of Bajaur, to escape arrest.The Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or United Action Council, a conglomerate of six Islamic parties, legislators in the state assembly in North West Frontier Province have also backed farmers’ bid in the Kohistan district to grow poppy. The district, which is on main Silk Route linking Pakistan with China, has seen poppy fields for the first time. The government launched no operation yet and it was dependent on the MMA legislators’ help and support to negotiate destruction of poppy with growers. That appears coming slowly; It’s mean the legislators’ support to the government.

Malik Faiz Muhammad Khan of Dogram, an influential chieftain of both Sultan khel and Painda khel tribes in Upper Dir district and also an active member of radical Islamic Jamiat-e-Islami party, defended poppy cultivation during an interview. “General sahib, referring to President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan, has got us in the cross hairs to appease the United States,” he said, defending the growers.

He says his people would continue to grow poppy unless the government helped them financially. Growing anti-US feelings also seem to have contributed to the increase in land under poppy cultivation this. North and South Waziristan agencies, two tribal zones bordering Afghanistan, have witnessed poppy cultivation for the first time. The people in the two zones are very conservatives and have strong anti-American feelings and sympathies towards the Taliban.

Mr Khan called upon the Muslims to use drugs as a “nuclear bomb” against the US “since it attacks only the Muslim” countries. “Many people think the Muslim world can use drugs as a weapon against the United States,”Jehanzeb Khan, chief of Whari country, told that his residence in Whari in the Dir district.

A former member of a county in Dir district, Humayun Khan advocate, said that the clerics “did not oppose poppy cultivation.” Other different political parties also used the poppy issue to gain political points. He recalled that the Jamaat-e-Islami in the past used to describe poppy as a “weapon” against the United States and its belief seems unchanged.The UNDCP spent 35 million US dollars to make both Lower and Upper Districts poppy-free through the Dir District Development Project (DDDP)from 1986-87 to 1998. In 1998, the NWFP Chief Minister Mehtab Ahmed Khan Abbasi sanctioned Rs270 million [US$4.655 million] when the UNDCP stopped the grant.

Mr Khan and other farmers alleged “very little money” out of the 35 million US dollars and Rs270 million [$4.655 million] was spent on bettering the lot of the farmers. “No alternative source of income was provided or there would have been no poppy today,” says Khan.The US government is spending huge amount on efforts for poppy-free Pakistan. Narcotics Affairs Section [NAS] in the US Embassy in Islamabad believes Pakistan still needs years to make itself totally a poppy-free country. Experts at the NAS said unless communication facilities, mainly establishment of road networks, were provided in all the tribal zones poppy will be grown every year. The NAS helped the federal government construct

“A drug is any chemical you take that affects the way your body works. Alcohol, caffeine, aspirin and nicotine are all drugs. A drug must be able to pass from your body into your brain. Once inside your brain, drugs can change the messages our brain cells are sending to each other and to the rest of our body

Theories Explaining Drug Addiction

Liberal Feminism

This perspective was developed in the eighteenth century when liberal philosophy and individualism were strongly propagated. The main argument of liberal feminism is:

Women are rational individuals who deserve equal freedom and equal rights like men.

One of the early feminists, Mary Willstone Craft in her book, “ A vindication of the rights of women” argues that are first of all human beings and not mere sexual beings. They have the capability to control themselves by reason. Hence, women as individual are eligible to have all the rights that one needs for comprehensive well-being.

Another liberal thinker Mill, in his famous work “The subjection of women” asserts that the idea of inequality of sexes is wrong in itself. It is, rather, one of the main obstacles to human development. It ought to be replaced by the perfect equality that places both men and women on an equal footing in terms of power and opportunities.

Liberal feminism as a theory flourished in the 1960s. Liberal  theorists accept the sex-role differences but with the condition that both the sexes are considered equal in term of power and opportunities;hence they advocate equal rights for women. It is held that   accumulation  of social reforms the society gradually and help in the upliftment  of women.

Liberal feminism is based on classic liberal thinking that Individuals should be free to develop their own interests.

Liberal feminists accept the basic organization of our society But seek to expand the rights and opportunities of women.

Liberal feminism support the equal rights amendment as a Means of ending many limitations on women’s aspirations.

Liberal Feminism and Female Drug Addiction

All the above mentioned and other complementary in treatment of female drug addicts actually indicate towards lack of “Women Empowerment”. Recognition of social status, equal limitations and opportunities , economic  independence , and removal from traditional stigmas and labels; these all sum up into the empowerment. All these, collectively, are actually the another face of liberal feminism.

While taking about the treatment of female drug addicts we actually demand the different opportunities for treatment seeking.

Hurdles in treatment of female drug addicts are socially created otherwise it would not be a complex matter.

Miller, a psychologist , and his colleagues believe that:

Aggressively confrontational approaches (intervention)

May actually increase denial and resistance to change.

So if the socially created problems (for example economic constraints or fear of stigmatization) would remain confronted to female drug user , they will continuously deny to have a change ( that is to take treatment and return back to normal life)

Labeling theory

Labeling theory is a  sociological approach to explaining how criminal Behavior is perpetuated  by the police and other labelers. The theory Hypothesizes that the labels applied to individuals influence their behavior Particularly that application of negative labels such as “criminal” or “felon”

Promote deviant behavior becoming as self fulfilling prophecy. Consequently Label theory postulates that is possible to prevent social deviance via a limited Social shamming reaction in “labelers”and replacing moral indignation with Tolerance. Emphasis is placed on the rehabilitation of offenders through an Alternation of their labels. Related prevention policies include client Empowerment schemes mediation and conciliation, victim offender Forgiveness ceremonies, restitution, reparation, and alternative to prison Program involving label theory has been accused of promoting in Particular policy implications , and criticized for failing to explain Socities most serious offences.(Wikipedia.com)

‘ Labeling ‘ and Female Drug Addiction

Labeling is the one of the crucial hurdles in treatment of female drug addicts. Fear of stigmatization and labeling does not let them disclose or share their problems with the family members and society.

In our society , drug addicts and specially female drug addicts are not taken as patients so nobody urges them to go for treatment, instead they are condemned as criminals, so feeling of shame, negligence and despair bind their feet to go for treatment and females are compelled to continue with their drug addiction behavior. Hence the problem perpetuates in society.

Merton’s Strain Theory

Robert Merton (1938-1968) argues that axcessive violations Arise from particular  social arrangements. Specifically, the Scope and character of deviance depends on how well a Society provides the instituationalized means to achieve cultural Goals.

Ch # 3

Research Methodology

This chapter describes the study research design and methodology. It describes in detail the means and methods of how the research was conducted and what the specific ways for that helped together data in this research study.

Following research methodology will be used by researchers in the study.

Type of Research

The present study is of qualitative nature and interview guide will be used as a tool of collecting and managing data and information. Researchers conduct survey to have views of people regarding drug usage.

Population: Population of the study consists of females of Lahore, Pakistan.

Sample size: Sample size for this study consists of 10 individual drug users.

Tool for data collection: A semi- structured interview guide is used as a tool for collection of data. Case study will be used for managing and analysis of data.

Data from interviewers was arranged using descriptive method of research.

Ch# 4

Data Analysis

 

 Case Study 1

Personal profile

Respondent’s Habitat: A well known old area

Age: 32 years

Substance of Addiction: Heroine, Charas (Hashish)

Marital status: Widow

No. of children: 2

Occupation: Beggary

My name is __________. I completed my education till matric and did not continue further due to lack of resources. We are five siblings. I have three sisters and two brothers. When I was 18 years old my father died, I was the elder sister so I have to support my family so I start bagging due to financial crisis and frustration, I started smoking and after that start using heroine. I got married and after three years of marriage my husband passed away. I belong to a poor family. I have two children. I consumed 50 to 60 rupees per dose of drug, fulfils expenditures of money by baggery and also support my family. After my husband death, taking care of children is another additional responsibility. I am totally fed up with the wrong behavior of society who abuse me, taunt me, and demand money and sex from me by threatening me. Our is a male dominating society. Survival of widow is very difficult and challenging I know drug addiction is a bad habit but I cant help it out.

Case Study 2

Personal profile:

Respondent’s Habitat: Red Lite Area

Age: 39 years

Substance of Addiction: Alcohol, Tobacco cigarettes.

No. of Children:  1

Education: middle standard

Occupation: Booking functions on commission basis, Ex-prostitute.

My name is _______ and I lived in red lite area. I am 39 years old age and I completed my education middle and did not continue further due to lack of resources. We are 6 siblings, 4 sisters and 2 brothers. When I was 20years old my father died. I was elder sister so I have to support my family so that’s why I start booking functions on commission basis, Ex-prostitute. When I was 22 I got married and my husband was drug addicted of cigarette, Alcohol and tobacco, so that’s why I start using drugs like cigarette, Alcohol. After using these drugs I feel relaxed. I have one child. My husband did not do any work so that’s why all the responsibility on me. Its very difficult to live in our society as a prostitute. People hate like that women’s. We are not acceptable for our society that’s why we live in specific area which called red lite area. We use drugs and also joined these people who came to see dance of prostitutes.

Case Study 3

Personal profile:

Respondent’s Habitat: Famous Town.

Age: 30 years

Substance of Addiction: Alcohol, Cigarettes, Tranquilizers and heroin

Marital status: unmarried

 Education: M.A. Fine Arts

Employment Status: On job

My name is ________. My father was a government servant and died at the age of 70(seventy). I am the only daughter of my parents and done masters in the fine arts from a well known university of Lahore. Friends usually arrange birthday parties, tea parties and event similar to them. I took start from smoking then one I was attending birthday party of a friend, all were taking powder filled cigarette and alcohol as well, so I also had all these stuff, as I became status conscious. Gradually I became an addict. I am doing job in a private organization as an interior designer. I can’t imagine my life without heroine as I am used to it. Though I know the consequence of drug addiction very well, but really I can’t help it out.

Case Study 4

Personal profile:

Respondent’s Habitat: Great Town.

Age: 27 years

Substance of Addiction: Charas (Hashish), Alcohol

Marital Status: Un-married

Education: B.A

My name is _________ and I am 27 years old. My parents died few years ago in a road accident. I have done graduation and now I am working as a receptionist in an organization. I get influenced by my friends and start working eventually towards substance addiction (heroine, charas). Availability of drug is not an issue as friends provide me when I need it. Sudden and unexpected death of my parents create frustration and hopelessness in life. So, I get attracted towards smoking as a escape from sorrows. I know heroin addiction is a destruction and harmful for health but I can’t help myself to get rid of this habit. I consumed half of my salary to purchase drugs.

Case Study 5

Personal profile:

Respondent’s Habitate: Some place near.

Age: 50 years

Substance of Addiction: Charas (Hashish)

Education: uneducated

Martial status: widow

No. of children: 5

Occupation: beggary

My name is ________________. I have 5 children and my husband died 2 years ago. I am a house wife and uneducated as well. I earned money through baggery and take care of my children. When my husband died, I started using drugs by thinking that when people will see me in a pitiable condition they will give me more money. I have kidney problem, so looking after of children is difficult for me but I have to I feel relaxed and tension free while using drugs, so I can’t leave addiction.

Case study 6

Personal profile:

Respondent’s Habitat: Area

Age: 45years

Substances of Addiction: Alcohol, heroin

Education: Matric

Martial status: Married

No. of children: 8 daughters

Occupation: Housewife

 

My name is ___________. I got married after matric. I have eight daughters. M taking tranquilizers for last 9 years. My in-laws every time demanded me a son but i failed, then they start abusing me. So, i became a patient of depression and a victim of mental tension. My in-laws also desired second marriage of my husband, this developed inferiority complex then doctor prescribed me some sleeping pills and tranquillizers for relaxation and good sleep but now I feel restless and cannot spend time without taking tablets.

As the prescribed tranquillizers were very costly and I cannot afford these daily. So, I switched over to other cheap and unhealthy tablets which i could afford easily.

Case Study 7

Personal profile:

Respondent’s Habitat: Town

Age: 30 years

Substance of addiction: heroine ,Charas (Hashish)

Educated: Uneducated

Marital status: Widow

No. of children: 5

Occupation: Beggary

Monthly family income: Rs. 2500 to 4000

Monthly personal income: Rs. 1000

My name is ___________ and I am 30years old age. I belong to a poor family and my father was a gardner. I got married to an aged man as my father was unable to fulfill demands of the coming families. I have 5 children’s and my husband died due to unavailability of health facilities. Due to family tensions and burdens of responsibilities I start using drugs. I feel relaxed after having powdered cigarette, now I am an addict. I fulfilled my all expenditures through beggary and running the cycle of life. My brother was a drug user in the past now he is no-more. I am satisfied with my addiction habit and I don’t want to leave addiction because after using drugs I feel relaxed.

Case Study 8

Personal profile:

Respondent’s Habitat: home address.

Age: 34

Substance of Addiction: Charas

Education: Uneducated

Martial status: Married

No. of children: 4

Occupation: beggary

My name is ___________. I am 30years old and started using drugs 10years ago. My husband is an hooker and sell different household goods for earning money. I have 4 childrens, 3 sons and 1 daughter. Reason behind using drug is not a single one. Negligence from parents as well as lack of understanding among husband and wife and financial crisis are major factors behind drug addiction. I start beggary due to financial problems.

Case Study 9

Personal profile:

Respondent’s Habitat: Home town.

Age: 34

Education: Primary

Substance of Addiction: Heroin

Marital status: divorced

No. of children: 3

Occupation: drug dealer

My name is _____________ . I got education till 5th grade and did not continue further as m not that much efficient in study. My father is an addict and did not do any work.My mother earn money by stitching clothes of others. When I saw my father smoking and injecting drugs, I found it quite interesting and adventorious. So, I started using drugs ( cigarettes filled with heroin) 15 years ago when I was young. Now m 34 years old and m used to addictive substances a lot that I cant imagine my life without them. My personal life suffered due to this habit and I got divorced from my husband. Now m living with my parents with 3 children. I don’t feel ashamed because m earning money for my family through drug dealing. As I am not educated, so I have no other option of employment. I cant see my children and parents, dying of hunger,having no resources to buy food, clothes, lack pf health and education facilities…etc. I know I have to work till my last breath as I am their only earning head. I feel relaxed and tension free after smoking. I have no issue with my addiction habit.

Case Study 10

Personal profile

Age: 28

Education: graduation

Marital status: un married

Substance of addiction: heroin

No. of children: none

Occupation: works in a private firm

Residence: old city

My name is _____________. I belong to a christian family and my father died after 3 years of my birth. My mother is a nurse in a private hospital. I got education till graduation, now m working in a private firm as a data entry person. The reason why am using drugs especially heroin, is not a specific one. There are several reasons behind this, the behavior of people towards me and my mother after the death of my father was so unfair and bad that I cant even tell you, how much we suffered due to their attitudes. They consider us as we are not the part of  the society. I start smoking as a escape from all the worries and frustrations. Am used to it. After sometime, i start taking heroin filled cigarette as some of my colleagues are addicts too.life is simple, indeed we and people around us make it difficult and complicated, that one have to find other ways to release tension. I have no guilt that m an addict and am ruining my life but m happy and satisfied with the way I am.

Causes of Drug Addiction in Women

Ch # 5

Summary

“A drug is any chemical you take that affects the way your body works. Alcohol, caffeine, aspirin and nicotine are all drugs. A drug must be able to pass from your body into your brain. Once inside your brain, drugs can change the messages our brain cells are sending to each other and to the rest of our body”.

Life is the name of ups and downs.it cant be all time good or bad as well.social and moral evils exist from the birth of human being on the planet earth. With advancement and modernization, world is now a global village. To overcome burdons of personal and social life or to release tensons, people get attracted to smoking and eventually towards drug addiction. But its not the solution, infact it’s the end of life.

Drug addiction is harmful not only for the addicted but also has negative impact on the fabric of the society. The effects of such an addiction can cause dangerous changes in the mind, body and spirit of the drug addict. People in our part of the world are increasingly becoming addicted to all kinds of drugs including street drugs and prescription drugs etc.

Drug addiction is a social evil, quickly prevailing in Pakistani society, specifically in urban areas. Male and female are now equally inclined to usage of drugs, which can be in any form, i.e. heroine, cocae, cigarettes, sheesha and many others drug forms. The smoking of heroin in cigarettes is more popular among the men than inhaling the fumes. It is not necessary that parents of the children using drugs, were used to be addicts first, but some possibilities are also there.

Majority of the youth start using drugs just for the sake of fun and adventure. Peer pressure also plays a key role in adopting this habit of drugs usage. The daily dosage of majority of people was up to 1 gram and it varies from person to person and situation also matters a lot. Unsatistfaction leads youth toward a wrong way results in destruction of their future, career, and health, most importantly their families suffer a lot due to their habit of having drugs. Many people feel hungry after using any kind of drug, especially marijuana and heroin.

There is no single cause of drug addiction. The causes of drug addiction are manifold. It ranges from pharmacological to the environmental, social and psychological factors. Drug addiction results from a complicated interplay of these factors, which must impinge on the individual addition at a critical time in this life cycle, any single variable in any one area of these factors is a necessary condition to initiate drug addiction but may not be sufficient in the etiology of drug addiction.

Findings

  • The age distribution for the respondents of the present study shows that the respondents belong to age group ranging from 25 to 50 years.
  • According to the gender 100% respondents were female.
  • Majority of the respondents’ mother tongue was Punjabi.
  • All the drug users belong to Lahore.
  • 90% of the respondents were Muslims and 10% was Christian.
  • 70% of the respondents were literate and employed as well.
  • The absolute majority of the respondents were smokers.
  • The majority of the respondent’s initial age at smoking was below 20 years.
  • The majority of the respondents were using one drug (H).
  • The majority of the respondents were influenced by their peers.
  • The majority of respondents use drugs twice or thrice a day.
  • The majority of respondents said that drugs were first introduced to them by their friends.

 Conclusion

It is not easy to apprehend rude causes of female drug addiction as there are multifarious reasons which compel this very venerable gender to involve to such a loathsome activity which really does not suit to her. This nefarious drug addiction among women in fact emanates from our flawed social system. So it is responsibility of every member of society that he or she should try to make women refrained from drugs and to provide such a favorable atmosphere which resists all abhorrent activities to enter in women’s lives.

To make our society “drug free” we have to eliminate reasons from our retrogressive social system which cause female drug addiction. We come to this conclusion that literacy, financial independence, women empowerment, secured social life, equal status in all walk of life and giving them all basic human rights can safe women from drug addiction. To attain aforementioned “drug free society” we have to take collective measures through serious efforts.

Recommendations

Following are the recommendations and suggestions

  • The governmental agencies should strictly enforce the laws to curb the drug business.
  • It is the role of governmental agencies to check the drug dealers and take stern action.
  • The role of NGO’s in the control of drugs addiction is very important.
  • Our religion can play an important role as ulema, in mosques and madaris, can help to create awareness.
  • Drug education programs should be established for schools and colleges.
  • The social worker can play an active part in preventing the spread of addiction.
  • Conferences, seminars, media programs and news papers should create awareness towards this alarming situation.
  • There must be more studies and research that focus on drug addiction among females at all levels of the society.
References Cited and Bibliography;
  • Central Treaty Organization. 1972. CENTO seminar on public health and medical problems involved in narcotics drug addiction. Tehran, Iran.
  • Chaudhry M.Iqbal. 2001 . Sociology for CSS students. Urdu Bazar . Lahore : Aziz Book Depot.
  • Chopra R.n., Chopra I.C., [1990] 1965 . Addiction: with special reference to india. Dr. K.S. Krishanan road , new delhi: publication and information directorate.
  • Haq , farooq. 1979. Drug addiction in Pakistan. Pakistan sociological association, Faisalabad: university of agriculture press.
  • International drug Education Association. 1996. Let’s all work of fight drug abuse . Dollas, Texas : L.A.W. publications.
  • Jalalzai K. Musa. 1996. Gulfishan colony , Multan road , Lahore: Idara-e-Istehkam-e-Pakistan.
  • Pakistan anti narcotics force. 2005. Fighting drugs for better Pakistan. Rawalpindi, Pakistan : A.R. Printers.
  • Macionis J.John .1987 . sociology . Islamabad: agha Jee printers.
  • Mirza farzana .1985.” study of psycho social factors affecting the drug abuse by addicts in the city of Lahore.” Masters degree thesis, department of sociology, university of Punjab, Lahore , Pakistan.
  • Ray Oakley, Ksir Charles. 2002. Drugs. Society. Nad human behavior. New York : Mcgraw-hill.
  • Riaz masood. 1982 . “ An investigation of drugs in use and abuse in the city of Lahore “ . masters degree thesis, department of applied psychology, university of the Punjab, Lahore.
  • Rizvi K hajida . 1982 “ An Investigation of drugs use and abuse with special reference to over prescription and its subsequent after effect”. Masters degree thesis. Department of applied psychology, university of the Punjab, Lahore.
  • Shafiq sobia. 1995. “psycho-social factors leading to drug addiction among females” . Masters degree thesis. Department of sociology, university of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Sudha D.K. 2000. Gender roles. New delhi : A.P.H pulishing corporation.
  • United nations office for drug control and crime prevention. 2000. Perspective on female drug abuse in Pakistan. Islamabad : united nations system in Pakistan.
  • United nation office for drug control and crime prevention. 2000. Study of drug treatment modalities and approaches in Pakistan . Islamabad : united nation system in Pakistan.
  • U.S. national institute on drug abuse. 1999. Principles of drug addiction treatment. NTH publication

Interview Guide (Drug Addiction Questionnaire)

(Pretesting Tool)

Personal profile:

Q 1.  Age: ___________________

Q 2.  Marital status:

  1. Single
  2. Married
  3. Divorced
  4. Widow

Q 3.  Occupation                               ___________________________

Q 4.  Total No. of Family Members ___________________________

Q 5.  No. of Children                        ___________________________

Q 6. Monthly Household Income    ____________________________

Q 7. Accommodation

  1. With Family
  2. With partner
  3. On her own
  4. With children
  5. Any other ( specify)

Q 8.  (If married than ask this question)

Does your partner take drugs?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Q 9.  ( If unmarried than ask this question)

Does your father/ mother/ sibling take drugs?

  1. Yes ( specify) ____________________
  2. No

Q 10.  What was the main intention behind your first experience of drug usage?

  1. Curiosity/ Adventure/ Enjoyment
  2. To join your partner/ group
  3. Escape from personal problems
  4. For enhancement of sex
  5. Any other ( specify)

Q 11. Who first time motivated you to take drugs?

  1. Family member ( specify) _________________
  2. Neighbours
  3. Friend
  4. Colleagues
  5. Professional drug seller
  6. Any other (specify) _________________

Q 12.  Which substance of addiction, you use? ( multiple responses)

  1. Opium ( afeem)
  2. Heroin
  3. Hashish ( charas)
  4. Marijuana ( bhang, ganja)
  5. Cocaine
  6. Tranquilizers
  7. Alcohol
  8. Any other ( specify) __________________

Q 13.  Who accompany you while using drugs?

  1. Alone
  2. With friends
  3. Any other ( specify) _____________

Q 14.  How much money you pay for the dose of drugs in a day

  1. 100
  2. 150
  3. 200+

Q 15.   How many times you use drugs in a day?

  1. Once
  2. Twice
  3. Thrice or obove

Effects of Drug Addiction

  1. Were you aware of the negative effects of drug addiction?
  2. What are the effects of drug ( heroin) on your physical health?
  3. What are the effects of drug usage on your mental health?
  4. What are the effects of drug usage on your social status?
  5. What are the effects of drug usage on your family relation?
  6. Who is most affected by your habit of drug addiction?

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