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Bowling Green KY USA Parking Lot Business

Creating A Parking Lot In The City Of Bowling Green – KY, USA


The research concludes an insight-parking problem in the large cities, effectiveness and the solutions for the parking problems. The research paper estimates the increasing demand for parking and estimates of the available parking lot in the city of Bowling Green-KY, USA. In this research, we discuss the strategies made by the management on increased demand of parking lots. The research uses an approximate methodology to analyze the capacity of the parking lots and availability of these parking lots in the city of Bowling Green-KY, USA.

The creation of a new parking lot is a need of the people living the areas nearby to bowling green city. This paper discusses the policies for creating a new parking lot due to increase in the demand. For this purpose, the New York City is used as a base study. The analysis, results, and recommendations provide a set of favourable policies that should be implemented to identify issues related to parking lots.

Bowling Green KY USA Parking Lot Business Research Paper

Project Scope

Project Goal

In recent decades, the economic development in urban areas has increased the population, which causes the increase the number of passengers and commercial vehicles. This is the responsibility of the management of that city to provide a proper parking system to the inhabitants of that city with an infrastructure facility resulted in limited space and other beneficial resources. Jaller, Vera’s., & Hodge (2013). The recent research shows that there is an increase in the traffic, especially for passengers due to high migration rate in the big cities. (Howtostartanllc.com, 2018)


The increase in the traffic is demanding the management to implement and develop new parking lots and transportation demand management programs in the big cities. For the development of a new parking lot in the big cities like Bowling Green – KY in the USA, the management has focused on the policies based on inhabitants, a number of passengers in that area and already available parking lots. (Wendler, 2014)

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There are a number of parking policies available in the big cities of the USA some of them for reference are discussed here.

  • Advance parking management policy
  • These advance-parking policies made by the management are implemented in the big cities like New York, Chicago, and San Francisco to resolve the parking problems.
  • Parking Database
  • Another policy implemented in the cities of Seattle is used to organize the record of the parking on a particular day.
  • Parking management plans
  • Parking management plans are implemented in the location of Portland and San Francisco to control the vehicles.
  • Travel demand management plans
  • This is another management plan organize to maintain the record of travelling demands to consider the future requirements of the parking.(Gaebler.com, 2015)

Problem Statement

It is valuable to consider some factors that directly affect the subject matter in the policy implementation of the management. The creating of the new parking lot in the Bowling Green – KY, USA is subject to the following policy requirement. (H. Dean Penny, 2013)

  • Parking Demands

The management should make a survey regarding the demand, increase in demand for parking lots, and then make a strategy to build a new parking lot that can give benefit to the citizens.

  • Parking Caps

These are the policies that provide a list of rules that must be implemented while giving provision to a set of maximum parking seats to build in the city.

  • Population Division

It is valuable to study the impact of population on the parking lots and it is also found helpful to make a division of population for this purpose.

  • Creating New Car Parking Lot

To create a new parking lot it is valuable to consider the previous three factors in mind to represent and conclude better results of the research.

  • Performance Of The Project

It is valuable to examine the performance of the project to better recognize that this new lot will be beneficial for the city or not. (Connors, 2018)

Organizational Structure

This part of the research proposes an approximate methodology to estimate the increase in the demand and available spaces in the parking lots already working in the main areas of the city.

The methodology used for this research is based on previous researches assumptions. A number of important assumptions are.

  1. To check the parking demand
  2. To check the freight for parking
  3. To check the vehicle type (car, bus, truck etc.)

Key Variables:

  1. T = time
  2. R = required spaces
  3. S = service time

Therefore, the assumption is used as parking space required, during a time period by the creation of new parking lot in the USA. The current parking lots are not enough to manage the state’s vehicles efficiently. The tourists are finding themselves circling for a long time to place your car on a parking place. Developers are now compelled by the regulations of the government to provide enough parking spaces than requirements.  (Shoup, 2018)

The increase in the traffic and demand of the parking places in the urban areas of the cities is doing negativity for the environment, as over traffic is a big contributor to Global warming and pollution. The main focus of the policies is to maintain the balance between the demand and the actual position of the parking in the city. This research is primarily focusing on what we learned from past problems of traffic.

Statement Of Works

This part of the contract is an important part, which includes both project and the contractor in a written deal. This contract is found to be helpful and used as a guarantee that this project will be done with certain conditions and future expectations. An effective Statement of works will include the detail of work, task, objective, expected outcome; date of completion and the expectations of the project like in the research objective the availability of parking space is the key objective.  (Scott, 2018)

Statement Of Work Definition

The SOW is a legal document used in a long project or said to be a contractual agreement between the management and the contractor for performing a specified and particular task.

Elements Of SOW

Basically, the statement of work with a contractor includes the following elements.

  • The scope of work.
  • The scope of work in the parking lot is predefined with the contractor, which includes location, cost, work allotment etc.
  • Project Objective
  • The economic development in urban areas has increased with the population, which increases the needs of the people. The increase in the population is a big reason for increasing the number of passengers or vehicles. This is the responsibility of the management of that city to provide a proper parking system to the tourists or peoples with a proper infrastructure.
  • Schedule of Work
  • In this document, the schedule of work is settled with the mutual consent of both parties, which includes the start date and maturity date.
  • What to do
  • The task of the contract is clearly mentioned that in case of a parking lot the contract is related to Parking system and needs of the people.
  • Payment to the contractor
  • The payment procedures, terms, and conditions are written in this statement of work. So, that the contractor should know that how and when he gets paid for this project.
  • Expectations
  • The expectations and outcomes depend upon the work done by the contractor and satisfaction of the other party. The expectations for this project are to provide proper parking space to the peoples of Bowling Green-KY USA.
  • Physical inspection of the work.
  • The physical inspection of the work is another element of the statement of work, which depends upon the contracting party to visit the place after completion of work by the contractor to know the actual position of work in progress, and completed work.
  • The SOW is used when the work can be easily described according to instructions or policies, understood by both parties. An effective statement of work should provide comprehensive information regarding the performance of the contractor. (Sherman, 2017)

Work Breakdown Structure

The work breakdown structure is used to divide the statement of works into different sections to organize the teamwork with manageable sections.

Definition Of WBS

The work breakdown structure is

“The work break down structure is a hierarchical decomposition of the work statement and objective of the contracts to be executed in within the policy and contractual limits”. This section of the researchers divided the work structure into different levels for further execution of work. This will help both parties to better concentrate on the work and better visualization of the work.

One of the easiest ways to manage work breakdown structure is to create a map of the project as in the case of creation of new parking lot in the big city. (Ohiopaving.com, 2018)

Hierarchy Of The project

The hierarchy of the project depends upon the work completion percentage and budget utilized for this project.

  1. Work task for the creation of parking lot
  2. Budget estimation for the parking lot.

Why Breakdown Structure Is Necessary

The work breakdown structure has a number of positive effects, in addition, to well organize the project work.

  • The contract budget can be allocated to different sections.
  • The department budget can be calculated easily based on project breakdown sections.
  • The project performance can be verified based on work completion.

Implementation Of The Work Breakdown Structure

In this research, we divided the section of the progress of the work “creation of new parking lot” to better control, manage the structure, and work completion. Work breakdown structure uses a procedure called decomposition. Decomposition is a process in which the main work is divided into different smaller sections.

  • The reasons to use WBS in this research include a number of reasons.
  • To assist the project with accurate project position
  • To assist the project by assigning the responsibilities to each separate section.
  • Shows the position of the project and actual budget consumed
  • It allows you to make the estimation of cost and risk associated with this project
  • It provides help to the contractor.(Benfield, 2012)

The first element in scheduling the project is dependencies. There are different kinds of dependencies, some of them are mandatory and other is discretionary. The dependencies are relationships between the contracting parties to handle the task of the projects. There are basically four kinds of dependencies based on relationship.

  • Completion of initiation of the project
  • The first section must be completed before the second section comes to initiate. The land must be purchased for the parking lot before installing a parking system on the land.
  • Start to Start
  • The work of the first section in continuation of the project must be initiated before the 2nd section of the work starts.
  • Ends to Ends
  • The first section of the statement of work and breakdown structure must be completed before the second section of work comes to an end.
  • Start to end Section
  • In this section of research, we focus on the last and the least sections of the research to be completed on time. The dependencies are the relationship between the 1st task with the succeeding and the last task.

In a long-term project, the slack is a term used to refer the amount of the project that can be delayed without causing an effect upon the other subsequent tasks of the project. The slack is also said to be afloat. The floating tasks are those tasks that come after completion of one and other.  If A, B, and C are the tasks in the project that must be completed on subsequent basis and D is a task that can be completed without disturbing the others is called the slack.

Critical Path

The critical path is used in the longest projects like our research. The main focus of choosing the critical path is to consider the short-term possibilities to complete the project. This refers to as the technique to construct a model before starting the project.

  1. The critical path includes a list of activities to be followed by the contractor.
  2. The time period for the completion of the projectThe list of dependencies between the relationship scenarios
  3. The analysis and the results of the expectations of the project
Assigning Resources

The resources must be allocated based on the importance of the task. As the previous section of the researchers is focused on the statement of work and breakdown structure. So, it is easy at this stage to assign resources allocation to the important sections of the research first and then to the other sections that are less important.  (Mccue.com, 2018)

Creating And Optimizing The Schedule

The effectiveness and efficiency of your work depend upon the creation and optimization of your schedule of work that you have assigned to your project. There are some principles for an effective and perfect schedule

  • Group meetings and discussions with the top level and low-level management.
  • Optimize the schedule of meeting with minimizing the time of the meeting
  • Plan your research work well before to start it.
  • Manage your time to monitor the actual performance of the project.

The Cost Associated With The Project

This section of the research deals with the cost associated with the research project i.e. direct, indirect, fixed cost for the project. There are different cost elements that play a vital role in projects cost management. For the creation of a new parking lot, these elements must be kept in mind for cost estimation. (Allaboutparkinglots.com, 2018)

Cost Estimation For The Project

This tool is used to forecast the overall cost of the project. The cost estimation includes

  • Fixed cost
  • The direct cost that directly affects the project
  • Indirect costs that indirectly affect the project

It is found helpful to get the actual results of cost estimation with the help of software.


Once you have created cost estimation in your plan then the next step is to allocate budget to finalize and approve your work description.

Performance Measurement

Regular measurement of your project shows and represents the actual position of budget and work in progress that whether you are working within budget and within the schedule of work.

Cost Estimation Techniques

There are some valuable techniques that can be used for estimation of the cost of your project. Cost and budget control techniques are found helpful for the results and management tools to match the expenditures and forecast cost estimation of the project. Because only budget and cost estimation is not enough, you have to match your cost estimation with the actual payments that were made for the project.

  • Budget control technique
  • Cost estimation and tracking
  • Time management for the project.
  • Controlling the project cost

The work of the project is defined and measured through deliverables. Deliverables are procedures that are adapted to handle the project estimation and cost elements. The cost elements are important in the resources allocation for completing a specified task. The cost elements include labour charges, direct and indirect material, overhead and other factory expenditures. (Autodesk.com, 2017)

Direct Cost

These are elements that effect directly to the work package. This cost basically includes labour, material and other equipment charges to complete the work in progress of the project. Direct cost also includes fixed and variable costs to handle the cost estimation problem.

Indirect Cost

Indirect costs are those elements of cost estimation, which are associated with the project package and activity. These costs are basically computed based on percentage of the direct cost. The indirect cost includes the indirect labour, indirect material, and overhead charges.

Earned Value Analysis Of The Project

The earned value analysis is a method used to measure the progress of the project at any time within the project limits. It includes the

  • forecasting of the work completed and works in progress
  • Analyze the start and end date of completion of the project to measure the performance of the project.
  • EVA compares the cost forecasted with the actual expenditure incurred.

The value of work done or percentage of the completion of the work is considered as “earned” this procedure is used to determine the actual expenditure incurred for the project.

Elements Of Earned Value Analysis

The earned value analysis is based on three base variables

  1. Planned value of the project
  2. The actual expenditure incurred
  3. The earned value of the project at a point
  • Planned Value Of The Project

The planned value of the project is known as budgeted or estimated cost for scheduled work.

  • Actual Expenditure Incurred

This refers to as the actual cost incurred for the work completed.

  • Earned Value

The work completed is known as earned and the budgeted cost of work, which was actually performed.

These three variables are combined to know the actual position of the work and measuring the work schedule that it is according to plan. (C.ymcdn.com, 2018)

Earned Value Analysis And S Curve Analysis

S-curve analysis and earned value analysis are techniques that are used to measure the progress of the contractor at any time of the contract. It is on the management that which method of analysis they choose for the analysis. (Rsmeans.com, 2018)

  • Purpose

The main aim of the analysis is to display and examine cumulative data of the task or project. The S-curve analysis compares the data against the projected cost to know the actual completion progress of the project. S-curve and earned value analysis shows almost same results.

There are basically two main purposes of this analysis

  • The results of the progress what has been actually done?
  • To analyze that what has done is according to schedule or not.
  • Benefits

The S curve and Earned value analysis both are beneficial for the project management because the managers are able to view the progress of the project and completion of tasks to compare them with the schedule of work.

  • Communication Channel

The communication channel is a very important element in pursuance of any project.

  • Communication Model

Communication model is used for effective communication in project management. There is a different communication channel, which is used by the management to exchange information from one person to another.

Elements Of Communication

The elements of communication played a vital role in effective and good communication. These include

  • Sender
  • Receiver
  • The message you want to share
  • Medium of exchange
  • Feedback

The communication channel is used to facilitate the communication process so, that the contractor and the other party should convey messages in an easy way. (Asphaltwa.com, 2010)

Communication Skills For A Successful Project

The communication skills of the management are also very important to the success of a project because how they communicate with each other will affect the results of the project. The top communication skills are (Boulais, 2018)


To be a good communicator, you must be a good listener. No person would like that attitude in which someone only cares about to speak his or her own words but does not care about the other. You must take time for practice to become an active listener.

An active listener is one who pays proper attention to the words the other person communicating.

Non-Verbal Communication

Your eye contact, body movement, gestures are also a mean of the message that you want to convey. An open, relaxed attitude of a person will make you approachable to the mind of the other person, which leads you to encourage the other party to speak openly with you.

Clarity In Words

Your words that you are saying must be concise and clear in meaning that the listener should understand the message of your message in few possible words.


You must be confident in your interactions. Confident interaction shows how able you are in supervising a task and the other believe in your words.

Respect The Point Of View Of Others

You must give importance to the employees or the contractor’s words in term of communication because other’s point of view is important for understanding an issue.

Flexibility In Language

For a good communicator, you must convey your message in a flexible way that other persons who are listening to you can easily understand the theme of your message.


When you communicate with each other, the feedback or response of the other party tells you that how important your communication skills are.

Medium Of Exchange

It is one of the most important parts of the communication skill of the management because the best and simple medium of exchange you use better you get feedback soon. The medium of messages is radio, television, email, fax, telephone etc. (Three Things You Must Know Before Paving a Parking Lot, 2016)

Reporting To The Management

Reporting means to give complete information regarding the progress of the project. There are different kinds of reports that are used to give the status of the project.

  • Status Reports

The status report is maintained by the project manager to reply to the questions of the higher management about the status of the report. When you have been asked by the CEO of the organization to give the status of the project within one hour then you need a previous status of the project which you can collect on daily, weekly or monthly basis to maintain the record of the project.

  • Risk Reports

Most of the managers maintain the risk reports on a monthly basis because it is added after the review meetings about the risk associated with the project associated. You can also update your risk report at any time.

  • Executive Reports

These reports are also used by the management to communicate the progress of the project. The executive members have also collected some data by personal visits or by some other resources. They compare the report with the availability of the data to take a decision regarding the project.

  • Budget Report

Another form of a report that is used for the communication with the other parties to share the actual position of the budget and expenditure incurred for a particular project.  (Watrydesign.com, 2018)

Human Resources

Every time when an organization started the new project, it needs a new human resource program to manage the strategic plans of the organization. The role of Human resource in the project management is very dynamic because every new project needs an additional and different level of practices to be implemented to make the project successful.

The Human Resource is used to deploy policies upon the project.

  • It defines the strategy of the organization regarding a specific project.
  • It applies different techniques to manage the project portfolio
  • It initiates different internal and external practices for the project.
  • It applies a new Human resource program for a new project to monitor its performance.
  • The policies of the human resource are project-oriented.

In today’s environment where technology has improved itself as the best helper of humans, the human resource management also uses different kinds of applications for best results.  The strategy that was developed for the new project must possess these minimum qualification skills.

  • The strategy must possess the ability to identify the skills of the employees.
  • The Human resource must have the ability to convert data into usable information
  • The strategy must possess the quality of team support
  • The strategy must be communicated well before a specified time.
  • The human resource must use the technology to analyze the educational background
  • The human resource must possess the ability to coordinate duties.(Homeadvisor.com, 2018)

Risk management

Risk management is a process of identifying and analyzing the risk factors that are directly associated with the project. The proper risk management is used to control the future events. Risk Management System

The advanced technology has made it easy to identify the risk and to implement a new strategy to control the risk. The risk management systems are used for this process to predict future risks and their effects.

Avoid Risk

There are basically two kinds of investors

  • The risk lover
  • And the risk averter

So according to these two kinds, the risk averter adopt these responses for risk

  • Avoid the risk by eliminating the cause of the risk
  • Use mitigation technique by which the value of risk is reduced by the probability chances of occurrence of an event.

The risk lover investor adopted a response in case of risk identification

  • He accepts the risk and executes a plan to handle this risk.

Purpose Of Risk Management

The main purpose of risk management is to

  • Identify risk before it becomes impossible to avert.
  • Reduce the chances of occurrence of some event that causes the high risk
  • Risk management provides a guideline to the management for making a strategic decision-making.
  • Planning to avert or accept the risk

Risk Analysis

The risk analysis is a process by which management can get solutions regarding risks associated with the management. Risk analysis process includes following steps.

  • Identification risk
  • Risk Assessment
  • Responses to risk
  • Create a plan for this risk
Identification Risk

The first step in risk management is the identification of risk, using an assessment instrument; the risk is identified due to the ability of the human resource management and its capacity for managing the risk. Then the risk is further divided on prioritization basis.

Risk Assessment

When the risk was identified, the next step in the process is to make an assessment of the risk and discuss the methods for solving this issue. The first question that arises after risk identification is

“What is the main cause of the risk?”

Responses To Risk

Now it is on the human resource team to initiate the process of managing risk through possible remedies or measures whether the investor is risk lover or averted.

Create A New Plan

The last step in risk management is to create a plan for controlling that risk or to accept that risk but some measures must be followed to implement the new strategy. (Fixr.com, 2018)

Quality Management

Quality management is a process of checking the quality of the product or quality of the work done by the project coordinator. It is valuable to examine the quality of work to improve the existing quality of the program.

There are different principles, which are used to check the quality of the product, some of them are.

  • Leadership
  • The quality of the work depends on the leader’s words because a strong leader in a business is very important to obtain the task/objectives of the project.
  • People responses
  • Employee’s motivation is very important because every employee of the organization whether full time or part time working with the organization has worth. The responses from these employees are also important because they are the real persons who implement the policies of the management and better judge the actual position of the project.
  • Efficiency of work
  • The quality of the work can be checked by the efficiency and effectiveness of the work completed at the source. It is also helpful in understanding the process activities for the project.
  • Systematically reporting
  • Another important objective of the quality management is the systematic reporting to the high ups of the organization for better communication regarding the progress of the project.
  • Performance of the project
  • The factual position of the project provides the actual performance of the project. This factual report is helpful for the management for taking further decisions regarding the said project. (Parking-lots.promatcher.com, 2014)


This research is primarily focused on economic and political environment regarding the creation of new parking plot in the city of USA. This research provides a list of important recommendations for the project, which found valuable for the study.

  • The first step that should be made by the management is to eliminate the parking requirements by diverting the people in establishing parking cap. Cap is considered an alternative to parking as stands for “Commuter Alternative Program”. The main aim of this program is to eliminate parking issues and using the bus and other transportation instead of riding a car himself. Boston, Portland, and New York City established caps to reduce the parking requirements in the city.
  • Lack of co-ordination charge many problems with parking management. A positive parking system requires harmonization of policies made by the management to follow in the creation of the new parking lot.
  • The main aim of the US planners is to encourage the motorists to park off-street because it will be less expensive in the big cities.
  • As regard to the new parking lot, the previous researchers reveal that the parking lots provide benefit to the customers who arrive first and take the most convenient places for parking and causing trouble to the other customers who arrived late by searching of parking place and a waste of time.
  • The management should take steps to create a parking lot for giving benefit to the nearby community by decreasing the charges of parking fees and return the revenue to the community to give benefit to the district. This was not found in the US as most of the parking lots are managed by the business groups.
  • The new parking lots should provide the maximum flexibility in charging the fees because it is a real difficulty for the customers to pay only cash. They must implement modern parking system that allows the customer to pay for a variety of options like credit cards or telephones.
  • For creating a new parking lot, the design of the parking must be organized in a manner that walking environment will not be disturbed in any circumstance. You must implement transportation plan according to the new policies of the management.

Lesson Learned

This paper reveals that the management should take reasonable steps to reduce the parking problems in the big cities by creating new parking lots in the big cities like Bowling Green-KY, USA. This research aims to identify the increase or decrease in the demand of parking places. The research used a strategic plan to overcome the problem by knowing the capacity of the parking lots available working in the city of Bowling Green-KY, USA.

The creation of a new parking lot is a need of the people living the areas nearby to bowling green city. For this purpose, the New York City is used as a base study. The analysis, results, and recommendations provide a set of favorable policies that should be implemented to identify issues related to parking lots. The methodology used by previous researchers has some limitations

  • The parking lots are estimated with the function of building a parking place, other factors like design are not considered in the creation process.
  • The constant variables like parking fees are used in the analysis regardless of the changes made by the management.
  • The main reason why I have chosen this research is the parking problems faced by the big cities in the urban areas of the city.
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