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Biological Basis of Behavior

Lab Report No. 1

Directional Terms in Neuroanatomy

Directional terms in Neuroanatomy

Following are the specific directional terms in neuroanatomy and plains of reference:

  • Anterior view: The directional term that refers to the front of the body or brain.
  • Posterior view: The directional term that refers to the back of the body or brain.
  • Dorsal view: The directional term that refers to the back. When used in reference to the nervous system, dorsal refers to the back when discussing the spinal cord.
  • Lateral view: The directional term that refers to areas of the nervous system that are further away from the midline of the brain or spinal cord.
  • Inferior view: The directional term that refers to the bottom end of the body (i.e. the feet).
  • Superior view: The directional term that refers to the top of the body (i.e. the head)
  • Medial view: The directional term that refers to areas of the nervous system that are closer to the midline of the brain or spinal cord.
  • Ventral view: The directional terms that refers to the front. When used in reference to the nervous system, ventral refers to the front when discussing the spinal cord.
  • Coronal or frontal view: Brain section parallel to face; perpendicular to the ground and perpendicular to the neuraxis (reserved for brain).
  • Sagittal plane: Parallel to the plane of symmetry; perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis (applies to brain and spinal cord).
  • Midsagittal plane: The median vertical longitudinalplane that divides a bilaterally symmetrical animal into right and left halves also called median plane.
  • Horizontal plane: Parallel to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis (reserved for brain).
  • Transverse plane: Any section perpendicular to the neuraxis (usually used in reference to the spinal cord).
  • Frontal Lobe: The frontal lobe is located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere and positioned in front of the parietal lobe and above and in front of the temporal lobe.
  • Parietal lobe: The parietal lobe is positioned above the occipital lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus.
  • Occipital lobe: The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex.
  • Temporal lobe: The temporal lobe is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain.
References;
  • Carlson, N. R. (2005). Foundation of Physiological Psychology (6th ed.). UK: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Directional terms in neuroscience. (2014). Retrieved from
  • http://www.neuroscientificallychallenged.com
  • Graham, R. B. (1934). Physiological psychology. California: Wadsworth Inc.
  • Kalat, J. W. Biological Psychology (7th ed.). USA: Woodsworth.
  • Smith,C. (2013). Anatomy and physiology: Anatomical position and directional terms.
  • Retrieved from http://info.visiblebody.com

Lab Report No. 2

Neuropsychological and Neurophysiological Assessment

Neurophysiological Assessment

Evaluation and measurement of the functions and activities of neuron and nervous system is known as neurophysiological assessment. It is also defined as psychologically measuring the functions and processes of neurons and nervous system.

Brief History

Neurophysiology is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system. The primary tools of basic neurophysiological research include electrophysiological recordings, such as patch clamp, voltage clamp, extracellular single-unit recording and recording of local field potentials, as well as some of the methods of calcium imaging, optogenetics, and molecular biology. Neurophysiology is related to electrophysiology, neurobiology, psychology, neurology, clinical neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, cognitive science, biophysics, mathematical biology, and other sciences concerning the brain.

Neurophysiology has been a subject of study since as early as 4,000 B.C. In the early B.C. years, most studies were of different natural sedatives like alcohol and poppy plants. In 1700 B.C., the Edwin Smith surgical papyrus was written. This papyrus was crucial in understanding how the ancient Egyptians understood the nervous system. This papyrus looked at different case studies about injuries to different parts of the body, most notably the head. Beginning around 460 B.C. Hippocrates began to study epilepsy, and theorized that it had its origins in the brain. Hippocrates also theorized that the brain was involved in sensation, and that it was where intelligence was derived from. Hippocrates, as well as most ancient Greeks, believed that relaxation and a stress free environment was crucial in helping treat neurological disorders. In 280 B.C., Erasistratus of Chios theorized that there were divisions in the vestibular processing the brain, as well as deducing from observation that sensation was located there.

Types of Neurophysiological Assessment

Brain imaging techniques allow doctors and researchers to view activity or problems within the human brain, without invasive neurosurgery. There are a number of accepted, safe imaging techniques in use today in research facilities and hospitals throughout the world.Some techniques are X ray based techniques, some are based on ultra violet rays, some are machine based neurological techniques. Some are also disruption based and some are activation based techniques.

Following are the types of Neurophysiological assessment:

  1. fMRI
  2. CT Scan
  3. PET
  4. EEG
  5. MEG
  6. NIRS
  7. ERP
  8. X-Rays
  9. MRI
  10. EMG
  11. MRS
  12. DBS
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, is a technique for measuring brain activity. It works by detecting the changes in blood oxygenation and flow that occur in response to neural activity when a brain area is more active it consumes more oxygen and to meet this increased demand blood flow increases to the active area. fMRI can be used to produce activation maps showing which parts of the brain are involved in a particular mental process.

Computed Tomography (CT)

Computed tomography (CT) scanning builds up a picture of the brain based on the differential absorption of X-rays. During a CT scan the subject lies on a table that slides in and out of a hollow, cylindrical apparatus. An x-ray source rides on a ring around the inside of the tube, with its beam aimed at the subjects head. After passing through the head, the beam is sampled by one of the many detectors that line the machine’s circumference. Images made using x-rays depend on the absorption of the beam by the tissue it passes through. Bone and hard tissue absorb x-rays well, air and water absorb very little and soft tissue is somewhere in between. Thus, CT scans reveal the gross features of the brain but do not resolve its structure well.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) uses trace amounts of short-lived radioactive material to map functional processes in the brain. When the material undergoes radioactive decay a positron is emitted, which can be picked up be the detector. Areas of high radioactivity are associated with brain activity.

Electroencephalography (EEG)

Electroencephalography (EEG) is the measurement of the electrical activity of the brain by recording from electrodes placed on the scalp. The resulting traces are known as an electroencephalogram (EEG) and represent an electrical signal from a large number of neurons.

EEGs are frequently used in experimentation because the process is non-invasive to the research subject. The EEG is capable of detecting changes in electrical activity in the brain on a millisecond-level. It is one of the few techniques available that has such high temporal resolution.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an imaging technique used to measure the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain via extremely sensitive devices known as SQUIDs. These measurements are commonly used in both research and clinical settings. There are many uses for the MEG, including assisting surgeons in localizing a pathology, assisting researchers in determining the function of various parts of the brain, neurofeedback, and others.

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

Near infrared spectroscopy is an optical technique for measuring blood oxygenation in the brain. It works by shining light in the near infrared part of the spectrum (700-900nm) through the skull and detecting how much the remerging light is attenuated. How much the light is attenuated depends on blood oxygenation and thus NIRS can provide an indirect measure of brain activity.

Event Related Potentials (ERP)

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) are a non-invasive method of measuring brain activity during cognitive processing. The transient electric potential shifts (so-called ERP components) are time-locked to the stimulus onset (e.g., the presentation of a word, a sound, or an image). Each component reflects brain activation associated with one or more mental operations. In contrast to behavioral measures such as error rates and response times, ERPs are characterized by simultaneous multi-dimensional online measures of polarity (negative or positive potentials), amplitude, latency, and scalp distribution. Therefore, ERPs can be used to distinguish and identify psychological and neural sub-processes involved in complex cognitive, motor, or perceptual tasks. Moreover, unlike fMRI (even Event-Related fMRI, which precludes the need for blocking stimulus items), they provide extremely high time resolution, in the range of one millisecond.

X rays

X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, as are radio waves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation and microwaves. One of the most common and beneficial uses of X-rays is for medical imaging. X-rays are also used in treating cancer and in exploring the cosmos.

Electromagnetic radiation is transmitted in waves or particles at different wavelengths and frequencies. This broad range of wavelengths is known as the electromagnetic spectrum. The EM spectrum is generally divided into seven regions in order of decreasing wavelength and increasing energy and frequency. The common designations are: radio waves, microwaves, infrared (IR), visible light, ultraviolet (UV), X-rays and gamma-rays.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, radio waves, and field gradients to generate images of the inside of the body.

MRI does not involve x-rays, which distinguishes it from computed tomography (CT or CAT). While the hazards of x-rays are now well-controlled in most medical contexts, MRI can still be seen as superior to CT in this regard. MRI can often yield different diagnostic information compared with CT.

Electromyography (EMG)

Electromyography (EMG) is an electro diagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph to produce a record called an electromyogram. An electromyograph detects the electric potential generated by muscle cells when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated. The signals can be analyzed to detect medical abnormalities, activation level, or recruitment order, or to analyze the biomechanics of human oranimal movement.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a noninvasive diagnostic test for measuring biochemical changes in the brain, especially the presence of tumors. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identifies the anatomical location of a tumor, MR spectroscopy compares the chemical composition of normal brain tissue with abnormal tumor tissue. This test can also be used to detect tissue changes in stroke and epilepsy.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS)

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure introduced in 1987,  involving the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a ‘brain pacemaker’), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. DBS in selected brain regions has provided therapeutic benefits for otherwise treatment resistant disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonia, chronic pain, major depression and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite the long history of DBS, its underlying principles and mechanisms are still not clear. DBS directly changes brain activity in a controlled manner, its effects are reversible (unlike those of lesioning techniques), and it is one of only a few neurosurgical methods that allow blinded studies.

Neuropsychological Assessment

Neuropsychological assessment is a process by which a person’s cognitive, psychological/emotional and behavioral functioning is comprehensively assessed. The focus is usually on cognitive functioning. This is accomplished via a detailed interview and standardized testing of areas relevant to the presenting problem. A person’s scores are compared to benchmarks (normative test data) and a profile is generated, which identifies areas of strength and weakness.

It is also defined as:

Neuropsychological assessment is the administration of neuropsychological tests for the formal assessment of cognitive function, though neuropsychological testing is more than the administration and scoring of tests and screening tools. It is essential that neuropsychological assessment also include an evaluation of the person’s mental status.

Types of Neuropsychological Assessment

Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. Tests are used for research into brain function and in a clinical setting for the diagnosis of deficits. Neuropsychological tests have some domains like assessing intellectual functioning, academic achievement, language processing, executive functions, visuospatial processing, attention or concentration based tests, verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, speed of processing, sensory-perceptual functions, motor speed and strength and assessment of personality.

Following are 10 Neuropsychological tests:

  • Colour-Form Sorting Tests: This requires test takers to sort objects of different shapes and colors. Another way that sorting tasks are administered is by grouping a few of the stimulus objects together and requiring the test taker to explain why those objects go together or to select the object that does not belong with the rest.
  • Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test: This brief, easy-to-administer test requires that the examiner read a list of 40 pairs of monosyllabic meaningful words (such as muss/much) pronounced with lips covered (not muffled, please) by either a screen or a hand.

The examinee’s task is to determine whether the two words are the same or different. It’s quite a straightforward test provided the examiner isn’t suffering from a speech defect, has no heavy accent, and doesn’t mutter.

  • Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency: Designed for use with children aged 4½   to 14½, this instrument includes subtests that assess: running speed and agility, balance, strength, response speed, and dexterity.
  • Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test: This test consists of nine cards, on each of which is printed one design believed to assess perceptual maturation and neurological impairment. The test taker is shown each of the cards in turn and instructed to, “copy it as best you can.”

After all nine designs have been copied, the test taker is given a fresh sheet of paper with the instructions, “now please draw all of the designs you can remember”. Evidence in support of the use of the bender-gestalt to assess personality is tenuous. Early reviews on the validity were favorable, but they were found to include inappropriate subject selection procedures.

The bender visual-motor gestalt test, second edition (bender-gestalt II; brannigan & decker, 2003) added seven new items, extending the range of ability assessed by its predecessor.

  • Controlled Word Association Test (formerly the verbal associative fluency test): The examiner says a letter of the alphabet and then it is the subject’s task to say as many words as he or she can think of that begin with that letter. Each of three trials employs three different letters as a stimulus and lasts one minute; the test taker’s final score on the test reflects the total number of correct words produced.

Controlled word association test scores are related in the predicted direction to the ability of dementia patients to complete tasks of daily living, such as using the telephone or writing a check.

  • Reitan-Indiana Aphasia Screening Test (AST): Not to be confused with aphagia, aphasia contains a variety of tasks such as naming common objects, following verbal instructions, and writing familiar words. Factor analysis has suggested that these tasks load on two factors: language abilities and coordination involved in writing words or drawing objects.
  • California Verbal Learning Test-ii (CVLT-II): The task is to repeat a list of words that are read by the examiner. A series of trials are administered. The test yields recall and recognition scores as well as information related to learning rate, error types, and encoding strategies. Items administered in a forced-choice format may be useful in the detection of malingering.
  • Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV): The WMS-IV measures a client’s ability to learn and remember information presented both verbally and visually is the most recent revision of a brand of memory tests that was preceded by the WMS-III, the WMS-R, and the WMS.
  • The Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX): DEX is a 20-item questionnaire designed to sample emotional, motivational, behavioural and cognitive changes in a subject with DES.

One version is designed for the subject to complete and another version is designed for someone who is close to the individual, such as a relative or caregiver. Instructions are given to the participant to read 20 statements describing common problems of everyday life and to rate them according to their personal experience. Each item is scored on a 5-point scale according to its frequency from never (0 point) to very often (4 points). This test was designed to assess the behaviour of persons with DES.

  • The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST): WCST is a neuropsychological test of “set-shifting”. A number of stimulus cards are presented to the participant. The participant is told to match the cards, but not how to match,  however, he or she is told whether a particular match is right or wrong. The test takes approximately 12–20 minutes to carry out and generates a number of psychometric scores, including numbers, percentages, and percentiles of: categories achieved, trials, and errors. Since 1948, the test has been used by neuropsychologists and clinical psychologists in patients with acquired brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, or mental illness such as schizophrenia. It is administered to patients to measure frontal lobe dysfunction.

Following are 5 Neuropsychological Test Batteries:

Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery

The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery and allied procedures is a set of neuropsychological tests used to assess the condition and functioning of the brain, including type and localization of damage. It was developed by Ward C. Halstead, who was chairman of the Psychology Department at the University of Chicago, and his student, Ralph Reitan.

It includes:

Trail-Making Test, parts A and B (measures time to connect a sequence of numbers (Trail-Making, Part A) or alternating numbers and letters (Trail-Making, Part B).

Halstead Category Test (including seven subtests which form several factors: a Counting factor (subtests I and II), a Spatial Positional Reasoning factor (subtests III, IV, and VII), a Proportional Reasoning factor (subtests V, VI, and VII), and an Incidental Memory factor (subtest VII).

Tactual Performance Test, Seashore Rhythm Test, Speech Sounds Perception Test, Finger Oscillation Test, Sensory Perceptual Examination and Lateral Dominance Examination.

Category tests include measure of abstracting ability. Stimulus figures of varying size, shape, number, intensity, color, and location are flashed on an opaque screen. Subject determine what principle ties the stimulus figures together (such as color)

Tactual Performance includes a form board containing ten cut-out shapes, and ten wooden blocks matching those shapes are placed in front of a blindfolded individual.

In rhythm test the subject’s task is to discriminate between like and unlike pairs of musical beats. Difficulty with this task has been associated with right temporal brain damage.

Speech sounds perception consists of 60 nonsense words administered by means of an audiotape. The task is to discriminate a spoken syllable, selecting from four alternatives presented on a printed form. Performance on this subtest is related to left hemisphere functioning.

Finger-tapping (Finger-Oscillation) measures the tapping speed of the index finger of each hand on a tapping key. The number of taps from each hand is counted by an automatic counter over five consecutive, 10-second trials with a brief rest. The total score on this subtest represents the average of the five trials for each hand. 50 taps per 10-second period for the dominant hand.45 taps for the non-dominant hand (a 10% faster rate is expected for the dominant hand). Cortical lesions may differentially affect finger tapping rate of the two hands.

Time sense examinee watches the hand of a clock sweep across the clock and then has the task of reproducing that movement from sight. This test taps visual motor skills as well as ability to estimate time span.

Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB)

The LNNB has 11 scales on Form 1, and 12 scales on Form 2.The scales assess cognitive processes and functions. The LNNB is appealing because it takes about 1/3 the time of the Halstead-Reitan and can be administered at bedside.

The psychometric soundness has been challenged. It is presumed to be overly dependent on language and to yield a high rate of false negative findings.

  • Motor Function test examines basic and complex motor skills.
  • Rhythm test evaluates rhythm and pitch scale.
  • Tactile test evaluates kinesthetic (movement) and tactile (touch) abilities
  • Visual test investigates visual and spatial skills.
  • Receptive Speech Test investigates the ability to understand spoken language.
  • Expressive Speech test estimates ability to express speech orally.
  • Writing test identifies basic writing skills.
  • Reading test Identifies the reading skills.
  • Arithmetic test calculates simple numeric and algebraic abilities.
  • Memory test assesses verbal and nonverbal memory skills.
  • Intellectual Processes test evaluates intellectual level using similar items to those on traditional tests.
The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)

CANTAB was originally developed at the University of Cambridge in the 1980s but now provided in a commercial capacity by Cambridge Cognition, is a computer-based cognitive assessment system consisting of a battery of neuropsychological tests, administered to subjects using a touch screen computer. The CANTAB tests were co-invented by Professor Trevor Robbins and Professor Barbara Sahakian. The 25 tests in CANTAB examine various areas of cognitive function, including: general memory and learning, working memory and executive function, visual memory, attention and reaction time (RT),semantic/verbal memory, decision making and response control.

The CANTAB combines the accuracy and rigour of computerised psychological testing whilst retaining the wide range of ability measures demanded of a neuropsychological battery. It is suitable for young and old subjects, and aims to be culture and language independent through the use of non-verbal stimuli in the majority of the tests.

The Cognitive Function Scanner (CFS)

CFS was originally developed by Peter Laursen, DMedSc, DPsySc, and ThomasSams, in the early 1980s. It is a computer-aided cognitive assessment system consisting of a battery of neuropsychological tests, administered to subjects using computer screen, a dedicated keyboard and a graphics tablet as stimulus and response media, respectively. The nine tests in CFS examine various areas of cognitive function, including Short-term and long-term verbal memory (words and numbers), short-term and long-term visual memory (faces), working memory (numbers), visuomotor function (continuous and discrete for each hand), visuospatial function, concentration, attention, reaction time and vigilance (visual and auditory).

The CFS takes advantage of the precision and rigor of computer technology, whilst retaining the wide range of ability measures demanded from a neuropsychological battery. In contrast to other cognitive test batteries and in addition to its psychometric measures, the later versions of CFS includes detailed recording of every step of the full response process in all tests (collection of qualitative data to support interpretation of every psychometric outcome). Cognitive Function Scanner was one of the first psychological test methods to include an artificial neural network for scoring a test. The CFS is suitable for subjects who can read and understand numbers. Norms standardized on age, gender and education are based on a sample of 1,026 of the general Danish population, with an age range of 25–75 years. The CFS aims to be culture and language independent through the use of non-verbal stimuli in all tests, except the Word Learning and Memory Test.

CDR computerized assessment system (CDR system)

CDR is a computerized battery of cognitive tests designed in the late 1970s by Professor Keith Wesnes at the University of Reading in Berkshire, England, for repeated testing in clinical trials. Task stimuli are presented in a laptop computer and participants respond via ‘YES’ and ‘NO’ buttons on a two-button response box, which records both the accuracy and reaction time.

The CDR system is a computer based cognitive testing tool, developed to assess both enhancement and impairment of human cognitive performance. The CDR system’s simplicity, sensitivity and specificity makes it acceptable to be used in clinical trials with either healthy subjects or diseased patient populations. The CDR system software is loaded onto laptop computers for testing in medical clinics. An internet version of the CDR system is available using keyboard commands to measure responses. Ancillary equipment is used for specific cognitive tests such as a postural stability (sway) meter, a critical flicker fusion device or joysticks for CDR’s tracking test.

The CDR system is a series of brief neuropsychological tests that assess major aspects of cognitive function known to be influenced by a wide variety of factors including trauma, fatigue, stress, nutrition, ageing, disease (both physical and mental), medicines and drugs. The standard battery of cognitive tests in The CDR system includes immediate/delayed word recall, word recognition, picture recognition, simple reaction time, digit vigilance, choice reaction time, numeric working memory, and spatial working memory. Individual tests can be added to or removed from the battery to target specific cognitive domains. Examples of tests that can be added include measurements of executive function, mood states, social cognition, motor function and postural stability. The standard battery of tests lasts 18 minutes.

The CDR system tasks have proven validity in definitively measuring cognitive function in a variety of domains including attention, working memory, episodic secondary memory, executive function, and motor skill.

References;
  • Carlson, N. R. (2005). Foundation of Physiological Psychology (6th ed.). UK: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Cohen,R.J.,&Swerdlik, M.E.(2009). Psychological testing and Assessment. (6thed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Kalat, J. W. Biological Psychology (7th ed.). USA: Woodsworth.
  • Pinel, J. P. (2006). Biopsychology (6th ed.). UK: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Smock, T. (1999). Physiological Psychology. USA: Prentice-Hall.

Lab Report No. 3

Dissection of Ruminant Brain

Abstract

The major goal of brain dissection is to develop a conceptual image of brain. Another significant objective is the comprehensive understanding of the different brain regions, their identification and location, anatomical specification and reviewing the diverse behaviors determined by them. Ruminant brain or buffalo brain mimics the anatomical details of human brain in term of its major structure therefore this experiment was executed to learn about human brain after carefully reviewing the details of ruminant brain. As a first step it was dipped in a specialized solution called formalin. In order to fixate its various tissues and to denature it, it was dipped for at least 15 days. On the day of dissection, Atlas of anatomy was consulted for the sake of brain dissection atlas. Comprehensive guidelines were derived from the atlas. Meninges were delayered. Various dimension of the brain regarding plain of reference were studied. Different cuts were performed to study the mid sagital, coronal and medial dimensions of human brain. The differentiation of different brain structures were closely observed. It was inferred from the current experiment that ruminant brain is simpler in formation yet this is quite similar to human brain.

Introduction

Neuroanatomy

Neuroanatomy is that branch of neuroscience which deals with the study of gross structure of the brain and the nervous system. The physical structure of neuroanatomy is that of the nervous system.

 Major Divisions of the Nervous System

The nervous system is essentially a biological information highway, and is responsible for controlling all the biological processes and movement in the body, and can also receive information and interpret it via electrical signals which are used in this nervous system

The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, and a complex network of neurons. This system is responsible for sending, receiving, and interpreting information from all parts of the body. The nervous system monitors and coordinates internal organ function and responds to changes in the external environment. This system can be divided into two parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The human nervous system is divided into the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, and plays a key role in controlling behavior. The peripheral nervous system is made up of all the neurons in the body outside of the central nervous system, and is further subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. The somatic nervous system is made up of afferent neurons that convey sensory information from the sense organs to the brain and spinal cord, and efferent neurons that carry motor instructions to the muscles. The autonomic nervous system also has two subdivisions. The sympathetic nervous system is a set of nerves that activate what has been called the “fight-or-flight” response that prepares the body for action. The parasympathetic nervous system instead prepares the body to rest and conserve energy

Central Nervous system (CNS)

The Central Nervous System consists of the Brain and Spinal Cord. It contains millions of neurons (nerve cells). If you slice through some fresh brain or spinal cord you will find some areas appear grey whilst other areas appear rather white. The white matter consists of axons; it appears white because it contains a lot of fatty material called myelin. The myelin sheath insulates an axon from its neighbors. This means that nerve cells can conduct electrical messages without interfering with one another. The grey matter consists of cell bodies and the branched dendrites which effectively connect them together. So this area is mainly cytoplasm of nerve cells which is why it appears white.

It is effectively the Centre of the nervous system, the part of it that processes the information received from the peripheral nervous system. It is responsible for receiving and interpreting signals from the peripheral nervous system and also sends out signals to it, either consciously or unconsciously. There are areas of the brain which deal with speech, hearing, smell, sight, movements, salivating, and so on. Some of these centers are concerned with the information coming into the brain (sensory areas) and others are concerned with making something happen (motor centers).

Brain

            The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body. It is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that communicate in trillions of connections called synapses. The brain is made up of many specialized areas that work together:

  • The cortex is the outermost layer of brain cells. Thinking and voluntary movements begin in the cortex.
  • The brain stem is between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain. Basic functions like breathing and sleep are controlled here.
  • The basal ganglia are a cluster of structures in the center of the brain. The basal ganglia coordinate messages between multiple other brain areas.
  • The cerebellum is at the base and back of brain. The cerebellum is responsible for coordination and balance.

The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. The term lateral fissure refers to the major groove that separates the superior temporal gyrus of the temporal lobe from the frontal lobe. In the human it is divided into the stem of the lateral fissure rostrally, the posterior limb of the lateral fissure (the central and major portion) and, at the caudal end, the terminal ascending limb of the lateral fissure and the terminal descending limb of the lateral fissure. It has four side branches into the frontal lobe. The parts of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes that protrude into and surround the lateral fissure are called the opercula. This indentation keeps the parietal and the temporal lobes separated.

Forebrain

The forebrain (pros-encephalon) is the largest part of the brain, most of which is made up of the cerebrum. Other important structures found in the forebrain include the thalamus, the hypothalamus and the limbic system. The cerebrum is divided into two cerebral hemispheres connected by a mass of white matter known as the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. The surface of each hemisphere is made up of grey matter known as the cerebral cortex and is highly folded to increase the cortical surface area available within the confines of the skull. Unfolded, the highly convoluted cortex of the brain would extend over 2 square meters. The cortex controls perception, memory, and all higher cognitive functions, including the ability to concentrate reason and think in abstract form. Beneath the cortex is white matter, within which a number of nuclei (grey matter), known as the basal nuclei are found. The basal nuclei receive information from the cortex to regulate skeletal movement and other higher motor functions. The thalamus functions to relay sensory information to the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus regulates visceral functions, such as temperature, reproductive functions, eating, sleeping and the display of emotion. The limbic system describes a collection of structures within the forebrain, including the amygdale hippocampus. Also known as the ’emotional brain’, the limbic system is important in the formation of memories and in controlling emotions, decisions, motivation and learning. Collectively, the forebrain functions to control cognitive, sensory and motor function, and regulate temperature, reproductive functions, eating, sleeping and the display of emotions.

Midbrain

The midbrain is the smallest region of the brain that acts as a sort of relay station for auditory and visual information. The midbrain controls many important functions such as the visual and auditory systems as well as eye movement. Portions of the midbrain called the red nucleus and the substantial nigra are involved in the control of body movement. The darkly pigmented substantial nigra contains a large number of dopamine-producing neurons are located. The degeneration of neurons in the substantial nigra is associated with Parkinson’s disease. Sometimes referred to as the “little brain,” the cerebellum lies on top of the Pons, behind the brain stem. The cerebellum is comprised of small lobes and receives information from the balance system of the inner ear, sensory nerves, and the auditory and visual systems. It is involved in the coordination of motor movements as well as basic facets of memory and learning.

Hindbrain                                                      

The hind brain includes cerebellum and two structures found in the lowest part of the brain stem, the medulla and the Pons. Medulla is the base of the brain stem and is attached to the spinal cord and form the relationship between brain and spinal cord. Pons means bridge. It includes budges of fibers that connect a brain stem with a cerebellum which lies adjacent to it. Cerebrum literally means little brain It influences learning and memory but the most obvious function in muscle control and order form cortex the cerebellum coordinates involuntary muscles.

Spinal Cord

            The spinal cord is a long, fragile tube-like structure that begins at the end of the brain stem and continues down almost to the bottom of the spine (spinal column). The spinal cord consists of nerves that carry incoming and outgoing messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It is also the center for reflexes, such as the knee jerk reflex. Like the brain, the spinal cord consists of gray and white matter. The butterfly-shaped center of the cord consists of gray matter. The front “wings” (called horns) contain motor nerve cells, which transmit information from the brain or spinal cord to muscles, stimulating movement. The back horns contain sensory nerve cells, which transmit sensory information from other parts of the body through the spinal cord to the brain. The surrounding white matter contains columns of nerve fibers that carry sensory information to the brain from the rest of the body (ascending tracts) and columns that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles (descending tracts).

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

The Peripheral Nervous System consists of all the sensory nerves (these save information into the spinal cord and brain) and the motor nerves (these carry messages to other parts of the body from the brain and spinal cord). Sensory nerves contain sensory neurons. Motor nerves contain motor neurons. Mixed nerves contain both sensory and motor neurons. Sensory neurons are usually connected to motor neurons by intermediate neurons (sometimes called inter neurons). Sensory, intermediate and motor nerves have gaps between them called synapses.

The autonomic nervous system

An involuntary nervous system that maintains homeostasis. As its name implies, this system works automatically and without voluntary input. Its parts include receptors within viscera (internal organs), the afferent nerves that relay the information to the CNS, and the efferent nerves that relay the action back to the effectors. The effectors in this system are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands, all structures that function without conscious control. An example of autonomic control is movement of food through the digestive tract during sleep.

Sympathetic nervous system

            The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Its general action is to mobilize the body’s fight-or-flight response. It controls the body’s response during perceived threat. It has very short neurons; faster system of neuronal pathways. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for intense physical activity and is often referred to as the fight-or-flight response.

Parasympathetic nervous system

            The parasympathetic nervous system is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Its general function is to control homeostasis and the body’s rest-and-digest response. It controls the body’s response while at rest. It has longer pathways, slower system. The effects of the parasympathetic nervous system can be summarized by the phrase ‘rest and digest’.

The somatic nervous system

A voluntary nervous system enables humans to react consciously to environmental changes. It includes 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. This system controls movements of skeletal (voluntary) muscles. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves emerge from various segments of the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve has a dorsal root and a ventral root. The dorsal root contains afferent (sensory) fibers that transmit information to the spinal cord from the sensory receptors. The ventral root contains efferent (motor) fibers that carry messages from the spinal cord to the effectors. Cell bodies of the efferent fibers reside in the spinal cord gray matter. These roots become nerves that innervate (transmit nerve impulses to) muscles and organs throughout the body. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves transmit from special sensory receptors information on the senses of balance, smell, sight, taste, and hearing. Cranial nerves also carry information from general sensory receptors in the body, mostly from the head region. This information is processed in the CNS; the resulting orders travel back through the cranial nerves to the skeletal muscles that control movements in the face and throat, such as for smiling and swallowing.

Limbic System

            The limbic system is a complex set of structures that lies on both sides of the thalamus, just under the cerebrum.  It includes the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, the amygdala, and several others nearby areas.  It appears to be primarily responsible for our emotional life, and has a lot to do with the formation of memories.  In this drawing, you are looking at the brain cut in half, but with the brain stem intact.  The basic structures have following functions:

  • The amygdala is the emotion center of the brain, while the hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of new memories about past experiences.
  • The thalamus and hypothalamus are associated with changes in emotional reactivity.
  • The cingulate gyrus coordinates smell and sight with pleasant memories, induces an emotional reaction to pain, and helps regulate aggressive behavior.
  • The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei lying deep in thesubcortical white matter of the frontal lobes; its functions include organizing motor behavior and coordinating rule-based, habit learning.
Afferent Neurons

      In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), an afferent nerve fiber is the axon of a sensory neuron. It is a long process extending far from the nerve cell body that carries an action potential from the sensory neuron toward the central nervous system (CNS). Bundles of these axons form a nerve known as an afferent nerve, or sensory nerve.

Efferent Neurons

Efferent neurons send signals from the brain to the muscles, glands and organs of the body in response to sensory input. The efferent nerve fiber is the axon of a motor neuron. Bundles of these axons form a motor nerve, or efferent nerve.

Ventricular System

The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. Within each ventricle is a region of choroid plexus, a network of ependymal cells involved in the production of CSF. The ventricular system is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord (from the fourth ventricle) allowing for the flow of CSF to circulate. All of the ventricular system and the central canal of the spinal cord is lined with ependyma, a specialized form of epithelium.

Layers of Meninges

            The meninges are three layers of protective tissue called the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater that surround the neuraxis. The meninges of the brain and spinal cord are continuous, being linked through the magnum foramen

Dura Mater

The dura mater is the most superior of the meningeal layers. Its name means “hard mother” in Latin and it is tough and inflexible. This tissue forms several structures that separate the cranial cavity into compartments and protect the brain from displacement.

Arachnoid Mater

The arachnoid or arachnoid mater is the middle layer of the meninges. In some areas, it projects into the sinuses formed by the dura mater. These projections are the arachnoid granulation/arachnoid villi. They transfer cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricles back into the bloodstream.

Pia Mater

The pia mater is the innermost layer of the meninges. Unlike the other layers, this tissue adheres closely to the brain, running down into the sulci and fissures of the cortex. It fuses with the ependyma, the membranous lining of the ventricles to form structures called the choroid plexes which produce cerebrospinal fluid.

Methodology

Apparatus

Following material is required for dissection of rumination brain:

  • Ruminant brain of a buffalo
  • Formalin
  • Surgical gloves
  • Dissection board
  • Boric powder
  • Water in a container
  • Scalpel, probe, scissors
  • Deep jar.
  • Probing clippers
  • Trimmers
  • Soap

Procedure

In order to explore various dimensions of human brain, the dissection was performed on a ruminant brain. The ruminant brain or buffalo’s brain mimics the dimensional clarity of human brain and this had easy availability due to which this was selected for study. Immediately after getting it, it was dipped in formalin solution of a deep bottom jar. For the sake of denaturing and fixation it was kept like this for minimum duration of 15 days. On 16 day it was taken out and was closely observed to check its denaturing. It was placed on a dissection board and its planes of references were revised. With the help of pointed scalpel the meninges was removed and it was observed that removal of greyish meningeal layer the pale yellowish texture of the lobe become apparent. Then with the help of sharp knife its midsagittal section was dissected. This gave us about the exact positioning of ventricles, corpus callosum, pons, medulla, leaf like structure of cerebellum, whitish inside layer of cerebrum, the mid line Ares of brain stem, and mammillary body. After this its ventricle cut was made that help us to gain inside about the hemispheric differentiation. Its coronal and horizontal sections were also exposed. The slides of various tissues were prepared and this was observed under an electron microscope in order to learn about its deeper region. From the lab experiment an in-depth inside was gained about the location of various regions of human beings.

References;
  • Allyn.(2011). Autonomic Nervous System. Retrieved from http://www.pharmainfo.net/introduction-autonomic-nervous-system/classification.
  • Brain Lateral Fissure. Retrieved from: http://bodterms.weebly.com/lateral-sulcus.html
  • Brain Structure. (2011). Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/biopsychology/ss/brainstructure_4.htm
  • CNS. (2010). Retrieved from: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/CNS.html
  • Forebrain. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.brainexplorer.org/glossary/forebrain.shtml
  • Hindbrain. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.brainexplorer.org/brain_atlas/Brainatlas_Hindbrain.shtml
  • Limbic System Retrieved from: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/biological-foundations-of-psychology-3/structure-and-function-of-the-brain-35/the-limbic-system-154-12689/
  • Layers of Meninges Retrieved from: http://www.csuchico.edu/~pmccaffrey//syllabi/CMSD%20320/362unit3.html
  • Mibrain. (2011). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midbrain
  • Nagappa, A. (2011). Nervous System. Retrieved from: http://www.besthealth.com/besthealth/bodyguide/nerv_sys_fin.html.
  • Spinal Cord Retrieved from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/biology-of-

Lab Report No. 4

Bender Gestalt Test (BGT)
(1958)

Bender Gestalt Test

Introduction

The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test (or Bender-Gestalt test) is a psychological assessment used to evaluate visual-motor functioning, visual-perceptual skills, neurological impairment, and emotional disturbances in children and adults ages three and older. The Bender-Gestalt is sometimes used in conjunction with other personality tests to determine the presence of emotional and psychiatric disturbances such as schizophrenia.

Population: Ages 4 and over can be included in this test.

Time: The test is not timed, although standard administration time is typically 10-15 minutes.

Author: The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test (or Bender-Gestalt test) was developed by Lauretta Bender.

Publisher: The American Orthopsychiatric Association, Inc.

Purpose: The Bender-Gestalt is used to evaluate visual-motor maturity and to screen children for developmental delays. The test is also used to assess brain damage and neurological deficits. Individuals who have suffered a traumatic brain injury may be given the Bender-Gestalt as part of a battery of neuropsychological measures, or tests.

Description: The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (Bender-Gestalt) is the most frequently administered and thoroughly researched of all of the drawing (copying) tests. It consists of nine geometric designs (numbered A and 1-8) originally developed by Wertheimer to demonstrate the perceptual tendencies to organize visual stimuli into configural wholes (Gestalten). Each design is presented sequentially to the subject whose task is to reproduce them on a blank sheet of paper.

Administration: The standard Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test consists of nine figures, each on its own 3 × 5 card. An examiner presents each figure to the test subject one at a time and asks the subject to copy it onto a single piece of blank paper. The only instruction given to the subject is that he or she should make the best reproduction of the figure possible. After testing is complete, the results are scored based on accuracy and organization. Interpretation depends on the form of the test in use. The Bender-Gestalt can also be administered in a group setting. In group testing, the figures are shown to test subjects with a slide projector, in a test booklet, or on larger versions of the individual test cards. Both the individual and group- administered Bender-Gestalt evaluation may take place in either an outpatient or hospital setting. Patients should check with their insurance plans to determine if these or other mental health services are covered.

Scoring: Scoring is usually relatively easy and rapid, rarely requiring more than three or four minutes, regardless of whether a formalized or intuitive scoring system is employed.

Reliability: The results involving the Bender with young children reveal inters corer reliability to be very high with correlations of .90 and above. Test-retest reliability coefficients with children range from a low of about .50 with kindergarten children measured 8 months apart to .90 with the same age group measured two weeks apart. The majorities of more than 20 different reliability studies reported by Koppitz reveal correlation coefficients in the .80+ range and suggest that normal elementary school children show relatively stable patterns of Bender-Gestalt scores from one administration to the next.

Validity: With respect to the validity of the Bender with children, Koppitz reported correlation coefficients from about .50 to as high as .80 between the Bender-Gestalt and intelligence as measured by the Stanford-Binet or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children up to about the age of 10. Beyond this age the correlations drop to essentially zero as older children obtain nearly perfect scores. She also reported relatively high correlations between Bender scores and subsequent educational achievement of first-grade children. Koppitz also reported a relatively high correlation between the Bender and intellectual and academic performance for retarded children as well. With children diagnosed as having minimal brain damage, she reported that the Bender is a valuable diagnostic tool but cautioned that it should not be used alone but in combination with other psychological tests and any background information available.

Norms: Norms for a wide variety of clinical groups, including mentally retarded, organically brain-damaged, psychotic, and normal adults are included in Bender’s classic research monograph.

Precautions: Psychometric testing requires a clinically trained examiner. The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test should be administered and interpreted by a trained psychologist or psychiatrist. The Bender-Gestalt should always be employed as only one element of a complete battery of psychological or developmental tests, and should never be used alone as the sole basis for a diagnosis.

Results

Both quantitative and qualitative interpretation of findings is possible in BGT (Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test). Many of the available scoring systems focus on specific difficulties experienced by the test taker. These difficulties may indicate poor visual-motor deficits of client. These include:

  • Angular difficulty: This includes increasing, decreasing, distorting, or omitting an angle in a figure.
  • Bizarre doodling: This involves adding peculiar components to the drawing that have no relationship to the original Bender Gestalt figure.
  • Closure difficulty: This occurs when the examinee has difficulty closing open spaces on a figure, or connecting various parts of the figure. This results in a gap in the copied figure.
  • Cohesion: This involves drawing a part of a figure larger or smaller than shown on the original figure and out of proportion with the rest of the figure. This error may also include drawing a figure or part of a figure significantly out of proportion with other figures that have been drawn.
  • Collision : This involves crowding the designs or allowing the end of one design to overlap or touch a part of another design.
  • Contamination: This occurs when a previous figure, or part of a figure, influences the examinee in adequate completion of the current figure. For example, an examinee may combine two different Bender Gestalt figures.
  • Fragmentation: This involves destroying part of the figure by not completing or breaking up the figures in ways that entirely lose the original design.
  • Impotence: This occurs when the examinee draws a figure inaccurately and seems to recognize the error, then, he or she makes several unsuccessful attempts to improve the drawing.
  • Irregular line: The quality or lack of motor coordination: This involves drawing rough lines, particularly when the examinee shows a tremor motion, during the drawing of the figure
  • Line extension: This involves adding or extending a part of the copied figure that was not on the original figure.
  • Omission: This involves failing to adequately connect the parts of a figure or reproducing only parts of a figure.
  • Overlapping difficulty: This includes problems in drawing portions of the figures that overlap, simplifying the drawing at the point that it overlaps, sketching or redrawing the overlapping portions, or otherwise distorting the figure at the point at which it overlaps.
  • Perseveration: This includes increasing, prolonging, or continuing the number of units in a figure. For example, an examinee may draw significantly more dots or circles than shown on the original figure.
  • Retrogression: This involves substituting more primitive figures for the original design—for example, substituting solid lines or loops for circles, dashes for dots, dots for circles, circles for dots, or filling in circles. There must be evidence that the examinee is capable of drawing more mature figures.
  • Rotation: This involves rotating a figure or part of a figure by 45° or more. This error is also scored when the examinee rotates the stimulus card that is being copied.
  • Scribbling: This involves drawing primitive lines that have no relationship to the original Bender Gestalt figure.
  • Simplification: This involves replacing a part of the figure with a more simplified figure. This error is not due to maturation. Drawings that are primitive in terms of maturation would be categorized under “Retrogression.”
  • Superimposition of design: This involves drawing one or more of the figures on top of each other.
  • Workover: This involves reinforcing, increased pressure, or overworking a line or lines in a whole or part of a figure.

Administration, scoring and Interpretation of Bender Gestalt Test on a person with Normal functioning

Administration of Bender Gestalt Test on a Healthy Person

Bio data of Normal Person
  • Name                                                       F.Y
  • Age                                                           21
  • Gender                                                  Female
  • Education                                            BS (hons.)
  • No of siblings                                            5
  • Marital status                                     Unmarried
  • Children                                                   no
  • Mother tongue                                       ——-
  • Socioeconomic Status                            Middle
  • Religion                                                    ——-
  • Date of administration                      March 20, 2017.
Background Information

The client lived in the nuclear family system. Her father was the gazette government officer in session court and the mother was housewife. She has 5 siblings and she is the eldest one. She is a student of B.S(hons.) Psychology in Government college. She is an extraverted introvert person. She is sociable and at the same time she needs to be alone. She has the normal medical and psychological history.

Test Administration

The bender gestalt test was administered on the normal person in the laboratory. The environment of the room was moderate and there were no obstruction during the practical. She was seated comfortably and she was not looking tensed rather she was relaxed and curious about the test.

Instructions

The normal person was given several instructions. She was asked to sit normally and be relaxed. She was instructed to draw the diagram as it is but if she deviated from the actual design she was not instructed to correct it. Firstly she was instructed to see diagrams and then she was asked to make them.

General Observation

During the practical the person’s general behavior was also observed. She looked calm and relaxed. When given instructions she had few questions in mind that she asked. After clearing the questions she drew the entire diagram easily. She was a bit confused about the rotation of the diagrams. She keenly completed the test. 

Quantitative and Qualitative analysis

Quantitative Analysis
Sr. NoDesigns Errors
1    1   0
2    2   0
3    3   0
4    4   0
5    5   1
6    6   0
7    7   1
8    8   0
9Configuration   0

Raw score: 2

Standard score: 33

Cut off score: 60-80

Qualitative Analysis

The design shows good visual motor skills, spatial organization and healthy neuro psychological functioning of well adjusted state. An error made by her was no of dots. No other major error area was there. This refers to normal functioning and good psycho motor coordination which indicates that the client does not need any help in the psychiatric domain.

Discussion

The person’s design shows good visual motor skills, spatial organization and healthy neuro psychological functioning of well adjusted state. An error made by her was no. of dots. No other major error area was there. This refers to normal functioning and good psycho motor coordination which indicates that the client does not need any help in the psychiatric domain.

References;
  • American Psychiatric Association, (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revised (TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  • Rascal, R. G., Barbara, J. & Suttell, M.S. (1951).Bender gestalt test. Grune and Stratton, Inc.

Lab Report No. 5

Administration, scoring and Interpretation of Bender Gestalt Test on a person with Depression

Introduction of Depression

Definition

“Depression is mood or emotional state that is marked by feelings of low self-worth or guilt and a reduced ability to enjoy life”. A person who is depressed usually experiences several of the following symptoms: feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or pessimism; lowered self-esteem and heightened self-depreciation; a decrease or loss of ability to take pleasure in ordinary activities; reduced energy and vitality; slowness of thought or action; loss of appetite; and disturbed sleep or insomnia.

Depression differs from simple grief or mourning, which are appropriate emotional responses to the loss of loved persons or objects. Where there are clear grounds for a person’s unhappiness, depression is considered to be present if the depressed mood is disproportionately long or severe vis-à-vis the precipitating event. A person who experiences alternating states of depression and mania (abnormal elevation of mood) or hypomania (distinct, though not necessarily abnormal, elevation of mood) is said to suffer from bipolar disorder.

Depression is probably the most common psychiatric complaint and has been described by physicians since before the time of Hippocrates, who called it melancholia. The course of the disorder is extremely variable from person to person; it may be mild or severe, acute or chronic. Untreated, depression may last an average of four months or longer. Depression is twice more prevalent in women than in men. The typical age of onset is in the 20s, but it may occur at any age.

Diagnostic DSM-IV Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

  • Depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities for more than two weeks.
  • Mood represents a change from the person’s baseline.
  • Impaired function: social, occupational, educational.
  • Specific symptoms, at least 5 of these 9, present nearly every day:
  1. Depressed mood or irritable most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad or empty) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful).
  2. Decreased interest or pleasure in most activities, most of each day.
  3. Significant weight change (5%) or change in appetite.
  4. Change in sleep: Insomnia or hypersomnia.
  5. Change in activity: Psychomotor agitation or retardation.
  6. Fatigue or loss of energy.
  7. Guilt/worthlessness: Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt.
  8. Concentration: diminished ability to think or concentrate, or more indecisiveness.
  9. Suicidality: Thoughts of death or suicide, or has suicide plan.

Causes

Depression may have many causes. Some of them are as given below.

  • Unfavorable life events can increase a person’s vulnerability to depression or trigger a depressive episode.
  • Negative thoughts about oneself and the world are also important in producing and maintaining depressive symptoms.
  • Both psychosocial and biochemical mechanisms seem to be important causes; the chief biochemical cause appears to be the defective regulation of the release of one or more naturally occurring neurotransmitters in the brain, particularly norepinephrine and serotonin.

Symptoms of Depression

The picture of depression may vary from person to person. The symptoms, which often exacerbate one another, span five areas of functioning: emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, and physical.

  • Emotional Symptoms: Most people who are depressed feel sad and dejected. They describe themselves as feeling miserable, empty, and humiliated. They tend to lose their sense of humor, report getting little pleasure from anything, and in some cases display anhedonia, an inability to experience any pleasure at all.
  • Motivational Symptoms: Depressed people typically lose the desire to pursue their usual activities. Almost all report a lack of drive, initiative, and spontaneity. They may have to force themselves to go to work, talk with friends, eat meals, or have sex.
  • Behavioral Symptoms: Depressed people are usually less active and less productive. They spend more time alone and may stay in bed for long periods. Depressed people may also move and even speak more slowly.
  • Cognitive Symptoms: Depressed people hold extremely negative views of themselves. They consider themselves inadequate, undesirable, inferior, and perhaps evil. They also blame themselves for nearly every unfortunate event, even things that have nothing to do with them, and they rarely credit themselves for positive achievements.
  • Physical Symptoms: People who are depressed frequently have such physical ailments as headaches, indigestion, constipation, dizzy spells, and general pain. In fact, many depressions are misdiagnosed as medical problems at first. Disturbances in appetite and sleep are particularly common. Most depressed people eat less, sleep less, and feel more fatigued than they did prior to the disorder. Some, however, eat and sleep excessively.
The Psychodynamic View

According to Freud and Abraham, a series of unconscious processes is set in motion when a loved one dies. Unable to accept the loss, mourners at first regress to the oral stage of development, the period of total dependency when infants cannot distinguish themselves from their parents. By regressing to this stage, the mourners merge their own identity with that of the person they have lost, and so symbolically regain the lost person. In this process, they direct all their feelings for the loved one, including sadness and anger, toward themselves. Of course, many people become depressed without losing a loved one. To explain why, Freud proposed the concept of symbolic, or imagined, loss, in which persons equate other kinds of events with loss of a loved one.

The Behavioral View

Behaviorists believe that depression results from significant changes in the number of rewards and punishments people receive in their lives. In a number of studies, behaviorists have found that the number of rewards people receive in life is indeed related to the presence or absence of depression. Research shows that depressed persons experience fewer social rewards than non depressed persons and that as their mood improves, their social rewards increase.

Cognitive Views

Cognitive theorists believe that people with depression persistently view events in negative ways and that such perceptions lead to their disorder. Aaron Beck believes that negative thinking, rather than underlying conflicts or a reduction in positive rewards, lies at the heart of depression. Other cognitive theorists also point to maladaptive thinking as a key to depression, but Beck’s theory is the one most often associated with the disorder. According to Beck, maladaptive attitudes, a cognitive triad, errors in thinking and automatic thoughts combine to produce depression. Seligman has developed the learned helplessness theory of depression. It holds that people become depressed when they think that they no longer have control over the reinforcements (the rewards and punishments) in their lives and that they themselves are responsible for this helpless state.

Treatment for Depression

  • Psychodynamic Therapy, Free Association
  • Behavioral Therapy
  • Cognitive Therapy
  • Interpersonal Psychotherapy
  • Antidepressant Drugs
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • Brain Simulation

Administration of Bender Gestalt Test on a Patient with Depression

Bio data of depression patient
  • Name:                                            R.R
  • Age:                                            41 years
  • Gender:                                         Male
  • Education:                                     M.A
  • No of sibling:                                   4
  • Marital status                             Divorced
  • Children:                                        no
  • Mother tongue:                             —–
  • Religion:                                       —–
  • Socioeconomic Status:                  Middle
  • Date of administration                 March 22, 2017.
Background Information

The client lived in the fountain house for about one year. The client was educated and had 4 siblings, 2 brothers and 2 sisters. His father was the bank officer and mother was housewife. About 9 years ago, the client lived in Dubai and worked as a cashier in a mall. He was divorced after two years of marriage. After divorced, he lived in his own city with his parents and did not do any job. Due to the client disturbed mental health, his mother admits him in the fountain house for recovery and stable mental health.

Test Administration

The Bender Gestalt test was administered on the depression patient at Fountain house Lahore. The environment of the room was moderate and there were no obstruction during the practical. He was seated comfortably and he was not looking stressed rather he was relaxed.

Instructions

The depressive patient was given several instructions. He was asked to sit normally and be relaxed. He was instructed that the cards will be shown to him and then he had to draw that design by seeing the figure. He was not asked to correct the incorrect designs.

General observation

During the practical the person’s general behavior was also observed. He was not much interested in the test but he was motivated and reinforced to do the test. He completed the test in 15 min then he was relaxed.

Quantitative and Qualitative analysis

Quantitative Analysis
Sr. NoDesigns Errors
1114
2236
3314
4412
5511
6617
7714
889
9   Configuration20

Raw score: 148

Standard score: 190

Cut off score: 60-80

Qualitative Analysis

Quantitative scores of the patient were 190 which were above the cut off scores. This shows severe depressive symptoms in the patient. It shows that the patient was not well adjusted and was creating disturbances for the people around him.

Discussion

Quantitative scores of the patient were about the cut off scores. This shows severe depressive symptoms in the patient. It shows that the patient was not well adjusted and was creating disturbances for the people around him. He needs the psychiatric help for recovery from depression.

References;
  • American Psychiatric Association, (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revised (TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  • Rascal, R. G., Barbara, J. & Suttell, M.S., (1951). Bender gestalt test. Grune and Stratton, Inc.

Lab report no. 6

Administration, Scoring and Interpretation of Bender Gestalt Test on a Person with Drug Addiction

Administration of Bender Gestalt Test on a Person with Drug Addiction 

Bio data of a Drug Addict
  • Name                                                       S.A
  • Age                                                          25
  • Gender                                                               Male
  • Education                                               Graduation
  • No. of siblings                                          4
  • Marital status                                       Unmarried
  • Children                                                     no
  • Mother tongue                                         —–
  • Socioeconomic Status                             Middle
  • Religion                                                    —–
  • Date of Administration                     March 24, 2017.
 Background Information

The client lived in the fountain house for about 7 months. His father was a business man while mother was housewife. He had 4 siblings, 3 brothers and one sister. The client was the eldest among his siblings. Two years ago, the client done his graduation and did not continued his studies.  The client spent most of the time with his friends and in fun and fun he became the victim of drugs. When he has no control over the drugs and his disturbed mental and physical health, the client was admitted to the fountain house for recovery by his parents.

Test Administration

The Bender Gestalt test was administered on the drug addiction patient at Fountain House. The environment of the room was moderate and there were no obstruction during the practical. He was seated comfortably and he was not looking a bit stressed.

Instructions

The drug addiction patient was given several instructions. He was asked to sit normally and be relaxed .He was instructed to draw the diagram as it is but if he deviated from the actual design he was not instructed to correct it. He was instructed to draw diagrams by seeing it.

General observation

During the practical the person’s general behavior was also observed. He looked little confused and was not relaxed. He fined these figures difficult to draw accurately. When given instructions he had few questions in mind that he asked. After clearing the questions he drew the entire diagram, generally was not happy.

Quantitative and Qualitative analysis

Quantitative Analysis
Sr. NoDesigns Errors
1110
2215
3323
4431
5525
6615
7743
8835
9    Configuration15

Raw score: 212

Standard score: 201

Cut off score: 60-80

Qualitative Analysis

            The qualitative analysis of the client on Bender Gestalt Test showed that he had scored larger than specified range as provided by the manual. The clients’ z score was above the cutoff score. The dimensional analysis of the client’s performance indicates the neural malfunctioning of the client. When the patient’s designs were analyzed then it is found that, initially the patient drew the patterns more attentively and make less no. of errors but as he move to mid of his work he made more errors, which seems that he lose his concentration. The error that was common in his patterns was tremor which may be due to the withdrawal symptoms, as the result of his treatment. He produced wavy, blur lines and also reduced the size of designs which reflect his anxiety, depression, drained of energy, lack of interest in the activity, emotional disturbance and also indicated his poor motor coordination, and spatial organization was poor. The results indicated that the client had low neuropsychological functioning.

Discussion

The patient’s z score was above the cutoff point which showed that the patient had poor psychomotor coordination and visual motor skills. The designs showed poor visual motor skills, spatial organization and a low neuropsychological functioning indicating that he needs help in psychiatric domain.

References;
  • American Psychiatric Association, (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revised (TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  • Rascal, R. G., Barbara, J. & Suttell, M.S., (1951). Bender gestalt test. Grune and Stratton, Inc.

Lab Report No. 7

Administration, scoring and Interpretation of Bender Gestalt Test on a person with Schizophrenia

Administration of Bender Gestalt Test on a patient with Schizophrenia

Bio data
  • Name                                                 S.M.
  • Age                                                    28
  • Gender                                             Male
  • Education                                       Primary
  • No of sibling                                      3
  • Marital status                                 Single
  • Children                                           no
  • Mother tongue                               —–
  • Religion                                           —–
  • Socioeconomic Status                  lower class
Background Information

He was referred to Fountain House, due to the psychotic symptoms like self-talk, fear of outside world, severe impairment in social interaction. He also suffered from hallucination (auditory + visual). He was paranoid towards family. He was observed with such symptoms for last six year. He was not aware of anything happening in the surroundings.

Test Administration

The bender gestalt test was administered on the psychotic patient in fountain house Lahore. The patient was seated comfortably on a chair and table. The environment was quiet and calm.

Instructions

The schizophrenia patient was given several instructions. He was asked to sit normally and be relaxed .He was instructed to draw the diagram as it is but if he deviated from the actual design he was not instructed to correct it. He was instructed to draw diagrams by seeing it.

General observation

During the practical the person’s general behavior was also observed. He was trying to draw the designs by continuously watching it. He was continuously smiling. There were agitations in the hands of the patient.

Quantitative Analysis
Sr. NoDesigns Errors
11 2
2219
3318
4420
5540
6641
7722
8812
9   Configuration18

Raw score: 192

Standard score: 201

Cut off score: 60-80

Qualitative analysis

The quantitative scores of the patient were 201 which were above the cutoff scores. This shows severe symptoms of schizophrenia in the patient. It shows that the patient was not well adjusted and was creating disturbances for the people around him. He needs a serious help in psychiatric domain.

References;
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revised (TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  • Rascal, R. G., Barbara, J. & Suttell, M.S. (1951). Bender gestalt test. Grune and Stratton, Inc.
Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT)

(Arthur Benton, 1963)

Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT)

Introduction:

The Benton Revised Visual Retention Test is a widely used instrument that assesses visual perception, visual memory, visual-constructive abilities and psychomotor ability. Because it measures perception of spatial relations and memory for newly learned material, it is used in clinical diagnosis of brain damage and dysfunction in children and adults, as well as in research. The Benton, as it is usually called, has three alternate forms, each of which consists of ten designs. In addition, there are four possible modes of administration.

Purpose:

The Benton Revised Visual Retention Test is designed to assess visual perception, visual memory, and visuoconstructive abilities. The Benton is recommended for use as part of a neuropsychological battery to assess specific dysfunction.

  • Population: Ages 8 and over can be included in this test.
  • Time: The test is not timed, although standard administration time is typically 5 minutes.
  • Author: The BVRT (Benton Revised Visual Retention Test) was developed by Arthur Benton in 1963.
  • Publisher: The Psychological Corporation.

History:

Disorders of perception and/or short-term visual memory are characteristic of many organic and mental illnesses so, since the time of Binet and Simon, psychologists are trying to design appropriate methods for evaluating these functions. Among the tests created over the years clearly distinguishes that proposed in 1963 by Benton. By simple manipulation of instructions (referred to as Administrations A, B, C and D) and thanks to its three parallel forms, BVRT can cover all clinically relevant fields of perception and short-term visual memory. After the first edition several test is further processed with each new version is shown increasing reliability and validity. Bulgarian adaptation is based on the last of the fifth revision in 1992 BVRT.

Description:

The revised visual test is a clinical and research instrument designed to assess visual perception, visual memory, and visual constructive abilities. Three drawing forms of the test (C, D, and E) consist of ten designs each upon which one or more figures have been drawn. Various modes of administration of the drawing forms of the test are as follows:

  • Administration A: 10 sec exposure of each design with immediate reproduction from memory on the part of subject.
  • Administration B: 5 sec exposure of each design with immediate reproduction from memory on the part of subject.
  • Administration C: copying of the designs by the subject.
  • Administration D: 10 sec exposure of each design with reproduction from memory by the subject after a delay of 15 sec.

Administration:

BVRT evaluates immediate visual memory. After the presentation for 10 seconds of a stimulus card displaying a geometric figure, subjects are asked to choose the initial figure among four possibilities; 15 figures are successively presented. The score ranges from 0 to 15. The test is not timed, although standard administration time is typically 5 minutes.

Scoring:

Test interpretation is based on an assessment of the number and a type of errors made and involves several levels of analysis for diagnostic purposes. The examiner compares the examinee’s obtained scores with the expected scores found in the norm tables. When examining the difference between these scores for the number corrects, the wider the discrepancy in favor of the expected score, the more probable it is that the examinee has suffered neurological impairment. Scoring is objective and is accomplished on the basis of explicit principle. Two scoring systems are available for the evaluation of subject performances on the drawing forms.

  1. Number of correct reproductions: It provides a measure of general efficiency of performance. Each design is scored on an “all or none” basis and given a credit of 1 to 0. Therefore, the range of possible scores is 0 – 10 for any single drawing form of the test.
  2. Error score: It takes account of the specific types of error made by the subject. In any less than perfect performance on a drawing form of the test one or more specific types of the error are necessarily made by the subject. The “error score” system of evaluation details the specific types of error which are made and provides not only a total error score which is an index of general efficiency of performance, but also basic information for an analysis of qualitative characteristics of a subject performance. The specific types of error which may be made have been classified into six major categories: omissions, distortions, perseverations, rotations, misplacement, and size error.

Psychometric Properties:

Reliability:

The inter scorer agreement for total error score is high (r = .95) and for major categories of errors reliability is moderate to high (r = .66 to .97). The category of errors having the lowest inter scorer reliability is substitutions (.66), whereas distortion and omission/addition categories produce a correlation of .75. All other categories have correlations over .85. Alternate form reliability for Forms C, D, and E is high (r= .85) for Administration A. The multiple-choice forms (F and G) are reported to have a moderate internal consistency; split-half reliability is .76. To determine test-retest reliability, Administration C was given to 194 Kindergarten children twice in a four-month interval. The correlation of .75 between the two sets of scores is very promising.

Validity:

A correlation of .42 was found between the Benton and the Digit Span WAIS subtest. This low correlation indicates discriminate validity since the Benton was created to supplement the Digit Span test. Various studies have examined the ability of the Benton to assist in the diagnosis. Using a cutoff score of -3, the test identified as brain-injured 22% of the suspected brain injured, 24% of the true brain injured, and 6% of normal.

Norms and Standardization:

600 people were used for the norms of this test, but the manual does not indicate the demographic distribution of its sample. The Benton is recommended for use as part of a neuropsychological battery to assess specific dysfunction.

References;
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revised (TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  • Benton, L.A. (1963). The Revised Visual Retention Test, Clinical and Experimental Applications.
  • (3rd ed.). New York: The Psychological Corporation.

Lab Report No. 8

Administration, scoring and Interpretation of Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT)
On a Person with Normal Functioning

Abstract

A clinical neuropsychological test The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on Ms F.Y. She was a normal healthy person and quiet well-adjusted in her environment. The revised visual test is a clinical and research instrument designed to assess visual perception, visual memory, and visual constructive abilities. It is also used to identify people with learning disability. The subject had normal neuropsychological and neurophysiologic functioning. The Benton Revised Visual Retention Test was administered on healthy person in order to compare & contrast the differences in pathologies and deviations with that of psychiatric population. The subject was normal in her psychomotor coordination and brain distortions as the client did not show any error as provided by the manual. As the participant’s score on Benton visual retention test on Form C was 10 and on Form D was 10.

Administration of Benton Visual Retention Test on a Healthy Person

Bio Data
  • Name                                                       F.Y
  • Age                                                           21
  • Gender                                                  Female
  • Education                                            BS (hons.)
  • No of siblings                                            5
  • Marital status                                     Unmarried
  • Children                                                   no
  • Mother tongue                                       —–
  • Socioeconomic Status                            Middle
  • Religion                                                   —–
Background Information

The client lived in the nuclear family system. Her father was the gazette government officer in session court and the mother was housewife. She has 5 siblings and she is the eldest one. She is a student of B.S(hons.) Psychology in government college. She is an extraverted introvert person. She is sociable and at the same time she needs to be alone. She has the normal medical and psychological history.

Test Administration

Test was administered on a normal person. There was no distraction in the environment. It was well lighted and airy room. Temperature of the room was also comfortable. All the basic requirement of the test was available. Test was administered in a peaceful cooperative atmosphere and the person showed interest in drawing the designs. It took 15 minutes to complete the test.

Instructions

            Form C of Bender Visual Retention Test was given to subject. All the instructions were given to the subject according to manual before the beginning of the test. She was shown ten designs for 10 seconds, once at a time and to reproduce each one accurately as possible on the plain paper.

Quantitative Analysis

Form C

Design No.ErrorsScores
101
201
301
401
501
601
701
801
901
1001
Total10
 Qualitative Analysis

The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on Ms F.Y with normal Social and Psychological Functioning. The Benton Visual Retention Test is used to assess visual perception, visual memory, and visual constructive abilities. It is an individual administered for people of 10.8 age groups. Group administration is not recommended for Benton Revised Visual Retention. The test is also used for identifying people with learning disability. The subject’s score on Form C was 10 which show that she had average visual perception and fine motor skills. She showed no impairment in Brain functioning. Her brain functioning was normal. She had good psychomotor coordination. She had no major brain distortions as described earlier that his brain functioning was normal as reveled by the manual of Benton Visual Retention Test

References;
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Schizophrenia. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from                              http://www.psychiatry.org/schizophrenia
  • Benton, L.A. (1963). The revised visual retention test, clinical and experimental applications. New York: The psychological corporation
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2014). Depression. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from             http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/depression.html
  • Nordqvist, C. (2009). Addiction. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/addiction/

Lab Report No. 9

Administration, scoring and Interpretation of Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT)
On a person with Schizophrenia

Abstract

A clinical neuropsychological test Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on Mr. S.M. He was a Schizophrenic patient in fountain house. He was maladjusted in his environment. The revised visual test is a clinical and research instrument designed to assess visual perception, visual memory, and visual constructive abilities. It is also used to identify people with learning disability. He had impaired neuropsychological and neurophysiologic functioning. The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on patient with schizophrenic features in order to compare & contrast the differences in pathologies and deviations with that of normal population. As the participant’s score on Benton visual retention test on Form C was 3. Errors include rotation and distortion showed that his perception derailment and discrimination is poor and incoherent organization. Low score are coherent with the medical history of the patient as he was on strict medical supervision.

Administration of Benton Visual Retention Test on a patient with Schizophrenia

Bio data
  • Name                                                 S.M
  • Age                                                    28
  • Gender                                             Male
  • Education                                       Primary
  • No of sibling                                      3
  • Marital status                                 Single
  • Children                                           no
  • Mother tongue                               —–
  • Religion                                           —–
  • Socioeconomic Status                  lower class
Background Information

He was referred to Fountain House, due to the psychotic symptoms like self-talk, fear of outside world, severe impairment in social interaction. He also suffered from hallucination (auditory + visual). He was paranoid towards family. He was observed with such symptoms for last six year. He was not aware of anything happening in the surroundings.

Test Administration

Test was administrated in Institute of Mental Health .The test was attempted in a very quiet and calm environment. The patient was sat on the chair. No any fluctuating object was placed near the client who may either distract his attention. Patient was provided with paper, pencil, pen, and eraser. One by one each diagram was shown to the patient and asked him to reproduce it at his best. The patient was very cooperative and drawn the figures under the instruction of the test taker.

General observation

The reaction of the client towards test was normal as he was quite cooperative and willing to do the test. He showed a little interest in the test administration. The client was encouraged to do the test. He did the test in the thirty minutes. During that time a little chit chat was continued between the client and the test taker. He was normally doing his test as well as the chat.

Quantitative Analysis

       Form C

Design No.ErrorsScores
1___1
2OSM0
3­___1
4S2MR0
5SMR,SML,SPR,SPL0
6___1
7SPR,UPL,SPL0
8SPL0
9IML,SMR,MISPL0
10IML,IMR,IM0
Total3
Qualitative Analysis

The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on Mr. S.M. with schizophrenic features. The Benton Visual Retention Test is used to assess visual perception, visual memory, and visual constructive abilities. It is an individual administered for people of 10.8 age groups. Group administration is not recommended for Benton Revised Visual Retention. The test is also used for identifying people with learning disability. The subject’s score on Form C was 3. Benton visual retention test indicates the presence of brain pathology and the disturbance of visual memory, visual perception, and visual construction skills. His high score in BVRT also indicates the presence of brain damage that is specially related to the parietal lobes. The results suggested that he has poor stability in performance. The Errors of distortions represent inaccurate drawings of the figure. The results showed that subject has poorer judgment, poorer perceptual ability, bizarre analytical ability and deviant visual memory also showed that subject’s memory is disturbed. Errors include rotation showed that his perception derailment and discrimination is poor, incoherent organization. Patient showed seven errors in distortion and rotation in designs.. Patient was under strict medical observation. He is quite stable. Collectively as subjects showed more distortion and rotation of patterns at right peripheral figure which suggest potential brain trauma and disturbances in left hemisphere, poorer reasoning and deterioration in brain areas as reveled by manual

References;
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Schizophrenia. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from http://www.psychiatry.org/schizophrenia
  • Benton, L.A. (1963). The revised visual retention test, clinical and experimental applications. New York: The psychological corporation
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2014). Depression. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from             http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/depression.html
  • Nordqvist, C. (2009). Addiction. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/addiction/

Lab Report No. 10

Administration, scoring and Interpretation of Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT)
On a person with Drug Addiction

Abstract

A clinical neuropsychological test Benton Visual Retention test was administered on Mr. S.A. He was an addicted patient in fountain house Lahore. The revised visual test is a clinical and research instrument designed to assess visual perception, visual memory, and visual constructive abilities. It is also used to identify people with learning disability. This test also identifies neuro-behavioral malfunctioning. The patient’s social and occupational functioning was very impaired. He had impaired neuropsychological and neurophysiological functioning. The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on addictive patient in order to compare & contrast the differences in pathologies and deviations with that of normal population. As the participant’s score on Benton visual retention test on Form C was 3. Errors of distortion  and misplacement shows that his perception derailment and discrimination is poor , incoherent organization, poor judgment, perceptual disability, bizarre analytical ability, poor discrimination, disturbed visual motor skills deviant visual memory and perceptual disturbance and major memory deficits.

Administration of Benton Visual Retention Test on a patient with Drug Addiction

Bio Data
  • Name                                                       S.A
  • Age                                                          25
  • Gender                                                    Male
  • Education                                               Graduation
  • No. of siblings                                          4
  • Marital status                                       Unmarried
  • Children                                                   no
  • Mother tongue                                       —–
  • Socioeconomic Status                           Middle
  • Religion                                                    ——-
Background Information

The client lived in the fountain house for about 7 months. His father was a business man while mother was housewife. He had 4 siblings, 3 brothers and one sister. The client was the eldest among his siblings. Two years ago, the client done his B.com and did not continued his studies.  The client spent most of the time with his friends and in fun and fun he became the victim of drugs. When he has no control over the drugs and his disturbed mental and physical health, the client was admitted to the fountain house for recovery by his parents.

Test Administration

Test was administrated in Fountain House; the test was attempted in a very quiet and calm environment. The client was instructed by the test taker. He attentively listen all the instructions. The patient was sat on the bench; some fluctuating object was present near the client who may either distract his attention. Patient was provided with paper, pencil, pen, and eraser.  One by one each diagram was shown to the patient and asked him to reproduce it at its best. The patient was very cooperative and drawn the figures under the instruction of the test taker.

General observation

The reaction of the client towards test was normal .He was quite cooperative and willing to do the test. He showed his full interest in the test administration. The client was motivated to do the test. He did the test in the thirty minutes. During that time a little chit chat was continued between the client and the test taker. He said that he found it very interesting.

Quantitative Analysis

Form C

Design No.ErrorsScores
1___1
2SMR,SPR0
3___1
4___1
5SPL,Rev0
690ML,SML,PR0
7SPR, Rev0
8SML,PL,SMR0
9SMIR, SML,PR0
10SML,PR, SMR0
Total3
 Qualitative Analysis

The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on Mr. S.A. with addictive features. The Benton Visual Retention Test is used to assess visual perception, visual memory, and visual constructive abilities. It is an individual administered for people of 10.8 age groups. Group administration is not recommended for Benton Revised Visual Retention. The test is also used for identifying people with learning disability. Benton visual retention test indicates the presence of brain pathology and the disturbance of visual memory, visual perception, and visual construction skills. The subject’s score on Form C was 3. The Errors of distortions represent inaccurate drawings of the figure. The results showed that subject has poorer judgment, poorer perceptual ability, bizarre analytical ability and deviant visual memory also showed that subject’s memory is disturbed. Collectively as subjects showed more distortion and rotation of patterns at right peripheral figure which suggest potential brain trauma and disturbances in left hemisphere, poorer reasoning and deterioration in brain areas as reveled by manual.

References;
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Schizophrenia. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from                              http://www.psychiatry.org/schizophrenia
  • Benton, L.A. (1963). The revised visual retention test, clinical and experimental applications. New York: The psychological corporation
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2014). Depression. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from             http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/depression.html
  • Nordqvist, C. (2009). Addiction. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/addiction/

Lab Report No. 11

Administration, scoring and Interpretation of Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT)
On a person with Depression

Abstract

A clinical neuropsychological test The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on Mr. R.R. He was a Depressive Patient, Lahore, for the psychological assessment and therapeutic intervention for his depressive symptoms which include sleep disturbance, feelings of worthlessness, dieting problems, and decreased interest in everyday activities. He was maladjusted in his environment. He had impaired neuropsychological and neurophysiologic functioning. The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on patient of depression in order to compare & contrast the differences in pathologies and deviations with that of normal population. As the participant’s score on Benton visual retention test on Form C was 8. Errors of Omission, Persive, Misplacement and distortion showed that his perception derailment and discrimination is poor, incoherent organization and have major memory deficits.

Administration of Benton Visual Retention Test on a patient with Drug Addiction

Bio data
  • Name:                                            R.R
  • Age:                                            41 years
  • Gender:                                         Male
  • Education:                                     M.A
  • No of sibling:                                   4
  • Marital status                             Divorced
  • Children:                                        no
  • Mother tongue:                           —–
  • Religion:                                       —–
  • Socioeconomic Status:               Middle
  • Date of administration              March 22, 2017.
Background Information

The client lived in the fountain house for about one year. The client was educated and had 4 siblings, 2 brothers and 2 sisters. His father was the bank officer and mother was housewife. About 9 years ago, the client lived in Dubai and worked as a cashier in a mall. He was divorced after two years of marriage. After divorced, he lived in Lahore with his parents and did not do any job. Due to the client disturbed mental health, his mother admits him in the fountain house for recovery and stable mental health.

Test Administration

The bender gestalt test was administered on the depressive patient at Fountain house, Lahore. The environment of the ward was moderate and there were no obstruction during the practical. He was seated comfortably and he was looking confused and depressed. The patient was given several instructions. He was asked to sit normally and be relaxed. He was instructed to draw the diagram as it is but if he deviated from the actual design he was instructed not to correct it.

General Observation during the Test Administration

During the practical the patient’s general behavior was also observed. He looked a little confused, tired but not irritated. He tried to do the test keenly. He took 17 to 25 minutes to complete the test. He asked some questions regarding how to do the test and cleared his confusions. He looked so dull and sleepy by face. The client was referred for purpose of administration of BVRT.

Instructions

This test is untimed & it was informed to subject. Form C of Bender Visual Retention Test was given to subject. All the instructions were given to the subject according to manual before the begging of the test. He was shown ten designs, once at a time and to reproduce each one accurately as possible on the plain paper. He was free to make the designs in his own way.

Quantitative and Qualitative Interpretation

Quantitative Analysis

Form C

Design No.ErrorsScores
1___1
2___1
3___1
4___1
5___1
6___1
7SPR0
8___1
9___1
10SPR0
Total8
Qualitative Analysis

The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on Mr. R.R with Depressive Functioning. The Benton Visual Retention Test is used to assess visual perception, visual memory, and visual constructive abilities. It is an individually administered test. Group administration is not recommended for Benton Revised Visual Retention. The test is also used for identifying people with learning disability. The subject’s score on Form C was 8. Most error categories include IMR Omission of a peripheral figure in the subject’s right visual field. The results suggested that he has poor stability in performance. The Distortions show that subject has poorer judgment, poorer perceptual ability, bizarre analytical ability and deviant visual memory. The error of size shows that subject’s memory is disturbed and he is using the phenomenon of magnifying and overgeneralization. Errors include rotation showed that his perception derailment and discrimination is poor, incoherent organization. Collectively as subjects showed more omission, distortion and rotation of patterns at right peripheral figure which suggest potential brain trauma and disturbances in left hemisphere, poorer reasoning and deterioration in brain areas as reveled by manual.

Integrative Analysis of BVRT on four Subjects

The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on four individuals with different functioning levels in order to compare and contrast their neuro-psychological and neuro-physiological deficits. The detailed findings of each of the participant are as given

The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on Ms. F.Y. with normal Social and Psychological Functioning. The subject’s score on Form C was 10 which show that she had average visual perception and fine motor skills. She showed no impairment in Brain functioning. She had good psychomotor coordination. She had no major brain distortions as described earlier that his brain functioning was normal as reveled by the manual of Benton Visual Retention Test.

The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on Mr. R.R. with Depressive Functioning. The subject’s score on Form C was 8. Errors of omission showed that he had major memory deficits. The Distortions show that subject has poorer judgment, poorer perceptual ability, bizarre analytical ability and deviant visual memory. Size errors showed that his memory is disturbed and he is using the phenomenon of magnifying and overgeneralization. Collectively as subjects showed more omission and distortion of patterns at right peripheral figure which suggest potential brain trauma and disturbances in left hemisphere, poorer reasoning and deterioration in brain areas as reveled by manual.

The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on Mr. S.M. with schizophrenic features. The subject’s score on Form C was 3. Errors of  rotation, distortion and misplacement shows that his perception derailment and discrimination is poor , incoherent organization, poor judgment, perceptual disability, bizarre analytical ability, poor discrimination, disturbed visual motor skills deviant visual memory and perceptual disturbance and major memory deficits. Collectively as subjects showed more distortion and rotation of patterns at right peripheral figure which suggest potential brain trauma and disturbances in left hemisphere, poorer reasoning and deterioration in brain areas as reveled by manual.

The Benton Visual Retention Test was administered on Mr. S.A. with addictive features. The subject’s score on Form C was 3. Errors of  rotation, distortion and misplacement shows that his perception derailment and discrimination is poor , incoherent organization, poor judgment, perceptual disability, bizarre analytical ability, poor discrimination, disturbed visual motor skills deviant visual memory and perceptual disturbance and major memory deficits. Collectively as subjects showed more omission, distortion and rotation of patterns at right peripheral figure which suggest potential brain trauma and disturbances in left hemisphere, poorer reasoning and deterioration in brain areas as reveled by manual.

Conclusion

So Benton Visual Retention Test is a precise test to evaluate the neuropsychological and neurophysiological functioning.

References;
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Schizophrenia. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from                              http://www.psychiatry.org/schizophrenia
  • Benton, L.A. (1963). The revised visual retention test, clinical and experimental applications. New York: The psychological corporation
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2014). Depression. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from             http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/depression.html
  • Nordqvist, C. (2009). Addiction. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/addiction/
Lab Report of Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory (NFI)
Kreutres, Seel, & Marwitz, (1999)

Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory

Introduction

Neurobehavioral functioning inventory was designed to collect information on a wide spectrum of behavior and symptoms commonly associated with brain injury and it provides information regarding the frequencies of difficulty allowing of change over time. Two versions of NFI are available, one for completing by family members and second by person in injury. Both versions address identical content areas. The responses of family member and patients can be compared to identifying different perceptions.

The items of NFI address problem, commonly encountered in daily living for e:g, inquiry is made regarding the extent to which people misplace things, they miss their appointments, they forget phone numbers and they have difficulties in finding numbers. Other item reflects behavioral and emotional things like breaking things, feeling emotionless and arguing with each other. The board section of item has contributed to the utility of measures in evaluating health related quality of life.

References;
  • Kreutzer, J. S., Seel, R. T., & Merwitz, J. H. (1999). Neurobehavioral functioning inventory.USA: Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Brace & Company.
  • Pinel, J. P. (2006). Biopsychology. India: Dorling kindersky.

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