Aspects of Morphology
“It is the study of how words are formed.”
Some morphemes can’t be used independently, they are called “bound morphemes.” Here we have such morphemes as e.g. although = al+though, fallen = fall+en, ignoble = ig+noble. In all above examples each one has two morphemes ‘al’ is one and ‘though’ is another morpheme but the morphemes ‘al’, ‘en’, ig’ can’t be used separately whereas ‘though’, ‘fall’, ‘noble’ are used independently and they are called “free morphemes”
Bound morphemes are used for prefixation, suffixation and affixation. Sometimes they change the sense of the word e.g. “impossible” ‘ignoble’ here ‘im’ & ‘ig’ change positive sense of word ‘possible’, noble into negative sense they come under ‘Derivational Morphology’ and ‘Inflectional Morphology’
”Derivational affixes” often involve a change of class. Derivational prefixes don’t always change the function of the word to which they are prefixed e.g. here ‘return’(v) = prefix + turn (v), enjoy (v) = prefix + joy (N) here morphemes ‘re’ and ‘en’ are used as prefixes which make new words not always changing he function of he word.
But commonly occurring suffixes always change the class of word to which they are suffixed e.g. Here the word “quickly” = quick+suffix the word quick is an ‘adj’ but when we add ‘ly’ it becomes an ‘adverb’ and he word ‘engagement’ = engage + suffix “engage” is a ‘verb’ but with the addiction of ‘ment’ it becomes a ‘noun’.
”Inflectional suffixes” never involve a change of class. In nouns, inflection marks plurality in regular nouns e.g. here ‘s’ is used to make two morpheme as ‘village’, posts, here ‘s’ marks plurality in regular nouns-village, post irregular nouns often form their plurals by a vowel change e.g. here we see the word ‘women’ it becomes plural by a vowel change from ‘a’-woman to ‘e’-women.
With regard to verbs, inflectional suffixes are used to indicate present tense present participle as here he word eating = (v)eat+ing, seeing = (v)see+ing.
Whereas with irregular verbs, past tense and past participle are often signaled by a vowel change or a vowel change+suffix e.g. here in he word ‘gave’ then in a change of vowel ‘I’ give to ‘a’ – gave.
I have discussed here some aspects of morphology & now I would deal with this section involving lexicology.
“Lexicology is the study of words what do we mean by word?” a better approach to defining words is to acknowledge that there is no one totally satisfactory definition but that we can isolate four of the most frequently implied meanings of “word”: he orthographic, the morphological word, the lexical word and the semantic word. A morphological word is a unique form and considers only form not meaning but lexical word comprehends the various forms of items which are closely related by meaning e.g. here ‘hold, ‘held’ ‘holding’ are three morphological words but only one lexical word. Similarly a semantic word involves distinguishing between items which may be morphological identical but differ in meaning e.g. here the word “back” has two distinct meaning: ‘to return to he sample lace’––go back and a part of body––clap him on he back. But they are the same morphological word.
The comment type of word-formation is called “compounding”: joining two words together to form a third compounding frequently involves two nouns e.g. here ‘bulldog’ is formed by joining two noun –– bull+dog and stoneflag = stone(n)+flag(n). Other parts of speech can also combine to form new words e.g. here ‘empty feeling’ = empty(adj)+feeling(v) and “go back” = go(verb)+back(adverb).
“To sort words into classes according to he way they function” word can function in many different ways e.g. here the word ‘rush’ is used as a noun in “They yelled for he rush of killing” and as a verb in:
“He would place himself to rush through he other attackers”
We can distinguish a number of word classes as nouns, determiners, pronouns, adjectives, verb, adverb, prepositions, conjunctions and exclamations. Nouns ‘A noun is defined as the name of a person, place or thing e.g. here we have Anselmo, Anjustin, Knines, villaconejos determiner. “It is an adjective like word which precedes both adjective and nouns e.g. ‘he has no better feeling’ here determine ‘no’ precedes both adj(beter) and noun (feeling).
There are three main kinds of determiners:
(1) articles as here we have ‘the feeling, a sack, an engagement
(2) demonstratives as here we have ‘that year’, ‘this manage’, ‘those villages’ etc
(3) possessives as here are ‘his head, his hand, his teeth, his mouth, his fists.