Home > Subjects > Psychology > The Relationship Between Perceived Social Stigma and Psychological Distress in Mothers having a Child with Intellectual Disability

The Relationship Between Perceived Social Stigma and Psychological Distress in Mothers having a Child with Intellectual Disability


The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between Perceived Social stigma and Psychological Distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability. Correlation research design was used to recruit a sample of (N=80) which included (n=40) educated mothers chosen through purposive sampling while (n=40) uneducated mothers were also chosen by purposive sampling. The sample was taken from various institute of special child in Lahore. Affiliate Stigma Scale (Mack, 2008) and Psychological Distress Scale (Kessler, 2002) were used. Correlation, Independent sample t test and Regression were applied to assess the results. Correlation result showed significant positive relationship between Perceived Social Stigma and Psychological Distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability. The result of independent sample t test showed that there was no difference between Perceived Social Stigma and Psychological Distress in educated mothers and uneducated mothers having a child with intellectual disability. Regression analysis showed Perceived Social Stigma is positively predicted by the Psychological Distress. This research can create our awareness about the problems of mothers having a child with intellectual disability.


Chapter 1     


  • Definition of Perceived Social Stigma
  • 1.2 Definition of Psychological Distress
  • 1.3 Theoretical Background
  • 1.3.1 Interpersonal Theory
  • 1.3.2 Psychodynamic Theory
  • 1.3.3 Cognitive Theory
  • 1.3.4 Medical Model

Chapter 2  

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Rationale of the study
  • 2.2 Objective of the study
  • 2.3 Hypothesis

Chapter 3


  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Sampling Technique
  • 3.3 Sample
  • 3.4 inclusion Criteria
  • 3.5 Exclusion Criteria
  • 3.6 Operational Definition of the variables
  • 3.6.1 Perceived Social Stigma
  • 3.6.2 Psychological Distress
  • 3.7 Assessment Measures
  • 3.7.1 Demographic Information Table 1
  • 3.7.2 Affiliate Stigma Scale
  • 3.7.2 Psychological Distress Scale
  • 3.8 Procedure
  • 3.9 Ethical Consideration
  • 3.10 Statistical Analysis

Chapter 4


  • 4.1 Table 1 Relationship between Perceived Social Stigma and Psychological Distress
  • 4.2 Table 2 Independent sample t test the difference between educated and uneducated mother
  • 4.3 Table 3 Regression Analyses
  • 4.4 Summary of the findings

Chapter 5


  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Limitation of the study
  • 5.3 Suggestions
  • 5.4 Implications

Chapter I


The present research explored the perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers with children having a intellectual disability. Stigmatized people face many difficulties in our country. Experiencing social stigma affects the healthy behaviors of people living with intellectual disabled child. When stigma is increased it leads towards an, increase in psychological distress. Psychological distress is a major problem of present era especially for those individuals who suffered serious mental illnesses. They experienced a high level of stress which may have adverse impact on their emotional, psychological, cognitive, and behavioral state. Higher level of stress which lead to psychological distress and play an important role in development of different types of psychological disorders such as anxiety, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder  and various physical, social and emotional problems. Therefore the present research aimed to investigate the role of perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers with children having intellectually disabled child. Due to the ongoing impact of stigma, it is important that our understanding of these issues is current, in order to provide best quality care to intellectual disable child. And provide his mothers social, moral and emotional support.

1.1 Perceived Social Stigma

Stigma is conceptualized as a situated of biased disposition, generalizations, oppressive practices and one-sided social structures embraced by a sizeable gathering around a ruined subgroup (Corrigan, 2000).

There are different types of stigma have been conceptualized. The principal and most extraordinary kind of stigma is public stigma, which concentrates on mentality of the overall public to vilified persons (Lin,Struening, Rahav, Phelan, & Nuttbrock, 1997). The second sort of stigma is felt stigma, which concentrates on singular’s disguise of society’s negative perspective to themselves  (Corrigan & Watson, 2002). The third kind of stigma is family stigma, which is the stigma experienced by a people as a result of being connected with a relative with a sigmatic imprint (Goffman, 1963).

Similarly stigma may influence the single person as well as has a tendency to spread from the stigmatized individual to his or her nearby associations. Goffman called this courtesy stigma, specifically the stigma experienced by parents, siblings, mates, and children of individuals with mental sickness. Relatives may encounter stigma through their relationship with the individual with emotional instability, and the more extensive society may treat both people in some appreciation as one (Goffman, 1963).

The parents of people with scholarly handicaps do experience stigma (Kearneygriffin, 2001: Gray, 2002). Stigma builds the apparent load of consideration giving undertakings in folks (Green, 2003) sometimes accuse themselves for their child condition (mak & kwok.2010).

According to Goffman stigma isolates the individual, s connection to a stigma into three classifications. Initial one that the demonized are the individuals who bear the stigma .Second is that the ordinary are the individuals who do not bear the stigma and thirdly the shrewd are those among the typical who are acknowledged by the slandered as wise to their condition (pooli, 2004).

As for as social stigma is portrayed by biased mentality and segregating conduct controlled towards people with mental issues as a consequence of psychiatric name they have been given (Graham &d avey, 2013). Stigma refers to what singular things the vast majority accept about trashed gathering all in all and how the individual things society he/she actually as a part of stigmatized gathering (Label, 2008).Stigma of dysfunctional behavior has been had all the earmarks of being an obstruction to recuperation in patients with emotional instability. At the point when stigma is expanded it leads towards an increment in mental misery (Dallessio, 1947).

Similarly stigma is a social methodology experienced, or expected, described by rejection, dismissal, accuse or degrading, that result for a fact, recognition or sensible suspicion of an unfavorable social judgment around an individual or gathering (Weiss & Ramakrishna, 2008).

Therefore stigma may lead people to avoid socializing with, employing, working with are often stigmatized as having little to no quality of life or capacity for pleasure, resulting in ignorance of personal preferences cultural or religious beliefs (Graham et al., 2003).

According to Mehta and Farina (1988) being a nearby relative of an individual with serious emotional instability makes a specific trouble and sensitive situation on the possibility that they cannot uproot themselves, for they are both symbol and marked.

So stigmatization not just influences the individuals who have a stigmatized condition, it likewise affects others. Individuals connected with stigmatized people (e.g. family, companions and guardians) are routinely depreciated simply as a consequence of their association with somebody with criticized condition (Hebl & Mannix, 2003). Stigma by affiliation includes cognitive, full of feeling and behavioral viewpoints (Mak & Cheung, 2008). Stigma by affiliation involves double courses of action. Explicit attitudes a direct the spread of shame crosswise over colleagues with an important relationship (e.g. a relative), though understood demeanor direct the spread of stigma when the association is simply subjective and when the association is more significant (Pryor et al., 2012).

Therefore perception of stigma by affiliation have been discovered to be identified with lower self esteem and mental trouble in those associated with trashed people, which, in most observational examination, is crew. Individuals frequently attempt to conceal their relationship to a derided relative or urge that part to shroud his or her condition (Phelan, Bromet & Link, 1998).

However stigmatization can be unmistakable. It can show as antipathy for collaboration, evasion, social dismissal, marking down, disparaging, dehumanization, and denationalization of others into stereotypic caricatures (Dovidio et al, 2000).stigma can likewise be subtle. Stigma can emerge as non-verbal statements of distress (e.g. an absence of eye contact) that result in strained social associations in the middle of demonized and non stigmatized people (Hebl, Tickle & Heatherton, 2000).

In addition the learning of stigma in groups of patients with extreme emotional sickness it may be profitable to gauge parts of mental pain saw by part of these families. Seen social stigma has been connected with expanded level of psychological distress that covers an expansive range of psychological distress and mental health elements including tension and sadness (Markouitz.1998; Mays & cochran.2001). Perceived social stigma might likewise penetrate different realities of individual lives that possibly could irritate mental trouble in a roundabout way. Social Stigma has been recommended to expand psychological distress that decreases life fulfillment (Markowitz.1998).

1.2 Psychological Distress

Ridner (2004) for psychological distress as “the remarkable discomforting, passionate state, experienced by a single person because of particular stress or requests that result in mischief, either provisional or changeless, to the individual  will be utilized. Cases of damage can be in term of scholastic social connections, liquor and medication misuse, as well as self-destructive conduct.

So the psychological distress is characterized as the enthusiastic condition that one feels in light of needing to adapt to circumstances that are disquieting, dissatisfaction, or saw as unsafe or threatening (lazarus and Folkman,1984).

Similarly psychological distress is a general term for the finished after effect of the components (psychogenic agony, inward clashes, and outer stretch) that keep an individual from self actualization and uniting with noteworthy others (segen’s, 2012).

In addition psychological distress is characterized as a result of poor change or maladaptive mental working (Armitage, 2000). Psychological distress is to a great extent characterized as a condition of enthusiastic enduring described by indications of despondency (misfortune interest, pity, sadness) and nervousness (Mirowsky & Ross, 2002).

Similarly psychological distress is an enthusiastic state ,counting absence of eagerness ,issues with slumber ,feeling downcast ,feeling sad about the future, feeling passionate (i.e. crying effortlessly or feeling like crying ),feeling exhausted or a passing enthusiasm for things ,and considerations of suicide(burnette and Mui,1994).

Psychological distress is defined as s symptoms of anxiety and depression, and self rated sleep problems. Symptoms of anxiety and depression, subjective sleep problems often rate as the second most common symptoms of psychological distress, being reported by as much as one third of the population (Kirk & Martin, 1998). Psychological distress occurs as a result of internal psychological defenses such as denial, repression, or suppression of emotions (Pamela, 1996). Psychological distress is an emotional disturbance that may impact on the social functioning and day to day living of individuals (Wheaton, 2007). Psychological distress is usually described as a non specific mental health problem (Dohrenwend, 1982).

Similarly the psychological distress is a general term that is used to describe unpleasant feelings or emotions that impact the level of functioning. It is a psychological discomfort that interferes with the activities of daily living. Psychological distress can result in negative views of the environment, others and the self. Sadness, anxiety, distraction, and symptoms of mental illness are manifestations of psychological distress (Yolando, 2000).

Therefore Lerutla (2000) defined psychological distress as the emotional condition that one feels when it is necessary to cope with upsetting, frustrating, or harmful situations.

However psychological distress is an appearance of mental conformity, and nervousness and depressive side effect is the most incessant mental sign in ICD beneficiaries (Kamphuis et al, 2002).

In addition psychological distress is a result of poor conformity or maladaptive mental working. (Armitag , 2000).

However psychological distress is portrayed by uneasy emotions of uneasiness or discouragement in light of physical, otherworldly, or enthusiastic requests or a blend of numerous requests that result in transitory or perpetual damage. The signs and indications of physical misery are emotions of nervousness, pity, outrage, need to be separated from everyone else, feeling wild or overpowered quite a bit of time .Difficulty adapting to regular issues, not able to discuss approaches to take care of issues or discuss apprehensions, requiring the assistance of others to decide, inconvenience in dozing, note taking cure of self. Looking pitiful, crying effortlessly, loss of trust or feeling of solace (Fortin, Hudon,bayliss,soubhi. Lapointe .L, 2007).

Psychological distress as a typical passionate response to a stress raises the issue of delineating “ordinariness” in distinctive populaces and diverse circumstances. It is broadly concurred that the individual and aggregate experience of maladies is somewhat limited by social standards and that albeit negative perspectives, for example, feeling tragic, discouraged or on edge have a tendency to be all inclusive, the representation of these perspectives may shift in power and in structure crosswise over and inside social orders (Kirmayer, 1989).

Similarly psychological distress can likewise affect your day by day working; generally as dysfunctional behavior can impact all part of your life. Psychological distress can interfere with your work execution. For instance, you may think that it harder to focus and may end up effectively diverted while working. (Yolando, 2000).

1.3 Theoretical Framework

According to labeling theory (Sheff, 1966) when the stigmatized individual disguises rates, the part of a rationally sick individual constant emotional sickness may take after specifically as a result. Then again ,later naming speculations stress the part of the individual self esteem, social help system ,and work status as real hazard components to the improvement and prolongation of psychopathology (Dohrenwened and Dohrenwend ,1981:turner,1981:link, struening ,Cullen ,and Shrout ,1989:rosenfield,1997).

According to Goffman’s theory society build the method for arranging persons and the supplement of credits felt to be conventional and common for parts of each of these classifications. At the point when a more stranger comes into our vicinity, then, to start with, appearance is liable to be empowering us to envision his classification and qualities, his’ social identity. “we incline toward these expectations that we have, changing them into regulating desires into uprightly present requests .It is the point at which a dynamic inquiry emerges in respect to whether these interest will be filled that we are prone to understand that from the beginning we had been making sure presumptions regarding what the single person before us should be .These accepted requests and the character we credit to the individual will be calledhis real personality. While a more unusual is display before us ,prove an emerge of his having a trait that makes him unique in relation to others in the classification of an individual’s accessible for him to be ,and of a less attractive kind, in the amazing, an individual who is altogether terrible ,or unsafe ,or frail. He is in this way decreased in our personalities from an entire and ordinary individual to a spoiled, reduced one. Such a trait is a disgrace, particularly when its ruining in the middle of virtual and genuine social personality. There are different sorts of inconsistency  for instance the kind that cause us to redassify  a single person from one socially foreseen classification to an alternate yet similarly decently –anticipated one, and the kind that makes us adjust our estimation of the individual upward (Goffman,1963).

Social psychologist viewpoints, stigmatization may have various capacities. One is the capacity of misuse and mastery (holding individuals down). Individuals with more power may stigmatize individuals less power so as to keep up disparities between gatherings. An alternate capacity is social standards implementation (keeping individuals in). The danger of stigmatization is thought to urge freaks to adjust to in gathering standards. At last capacity is sickness evasion (Phelan, Link & Dovidio, 2008).

Two perceptual approaches and environmental theory of social perceptions may give understanding into the starting advancement of social stigma. According to deceptive connection methodology negative qualities will be credited to minority gathers as an aftereffect of incorrect view of the relationship between bunches’ attributes and gathering size. Therefore on the grounds that they are both less incessant, minority gatherings and negative practices will be especially different and subsequently will get to be related. Albeit intended to record for the advancement of social generalizations, deceptive relationship hypothesis additionally seems ready to record for stigma improvement for its desire that strange or rare attributes will be stigmatized. This theory is educational in light of the fact that it recommends that since marks of stigma are uncommon, they will likewise be related negative accepts (Gibson, 1979).

  • 1.3.1 Interpersonal Theory

Interpersonal theory attribute psychological difficulties to useless examples of communication (Carson et al., 1996). They stress that we are social creatures, and a lot of what we are is a result of our associations with others. Psychological distress is portrayed as the maladaptive conduct saw in relationship which is brought on by unsatisfactory connections of the past or present.

Psychological distress is characterized when looking at the pain individual’s distinctive examples of interpersonal connections.

  • 1.3.2 Psycho dynamic Theory

They emphasize the part of oblivious methods and resistance systems in the determination of both ordinary and unusual conduct. Early youth encounters are basic in later identity alteration. They comprehend the statement of side effect in the present as one augmentation of past clash (Box, 1998; St.clair, 1996).

Psychological distress in individual’s life may be portrayed as his endeavor to adapt to present challenges utilizing past youth barrier components, which may appear maladaptive and socially improper for the current circumstance.

  • 1.3.3 Cognitive Theory

According to cognitive model ,contrarily one-sided comprehension is a center process in psychological distress (Barlow and Durand,1999).This methodology reflected when troubled patients regularly have a negative perspective of themselves ,their surroundings and the future(weinrach,1998).they view themselves as useless lacking , unlovable  and inadequate.

  • 1.3.4 Medical Model

According to  medical model psychological distress is viewed as an ailments in the same as classification as some other physical disease, this model uses comparable model in characterizing psychological distress as that utilized by therapeutic professionals. As it were, psychological distress is some type of neurological deformity in charge of the disarranged thinking and conduct, and obliges therapeutic treatment and consideration (Carson, Butcher, &Mineka, 1996).

According to gendered response theory, men and women encounter the same measure of anxiety however vary in the way of their enthusiastic reaction to stress ( Aneshensel, Rutter, &Lachenbruch, 1991). Where men get angry and unfriendly, women get miserable and discouraged. According to gendered response theory, depression rises up out of the dissatisfaction of needs aspirations. Depression produces wrath and antagonistic vibe. Misery results when an individual turns that outrage internal, punishing the self for disappointment and deficiency. Men are standardized for focused and contentious parts that permit, and even energize, the outward representation of outrage and threatening vibe. Women are standardized for sustaining and strong part that demoralize. According to gendered response theory, women may seem more bothered then men. Men and women experience comparable level of dissatisfaction, yet men take it out on others and get annoyed with themselves (Rosenfield 1980, 1999).

Sociological social psychologist as a rule and identity theorists specifically, have concentrated on the relationship in the middle of self and social structure to clarify how outside conditions sway passionate states. Identity theorist clarifies how distress emerges from diverse social parts. The character control model determines four segments of personality, the identity standard, self relevant perceptions, a comparator, and output. The identity standard is the substance or significance the character holds for the single person. Self-relevant perceptions are situational components that illuminate the single person about the self, and constitute the information into the character framework. Self significant observation incorporate both a singular’s view of  the circumstances and also the individual impression of how others see the circumstances (Riley & Burke, 1991).The comparator is the procedure by which the harmoniousness between the personality standard and the self-applicable recognitions is assessed(burke, 1991).

There are four principle arrangement frameworks for intellectual disabilities: (1) the tenth correction of the global order sicknesses (ICD 10) (WHO, 1992),(2) the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder,  (American Psychiatric Association, 2000),(3) the universal characterization of working, handicap and health (WHO, 2001), (4) the American Association of Intellectual and formative handicaps (formely- American Association of mental Retardation), (5) the current Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental issue (DSM-V), (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) (Luckasson et al.,2002).

According to the tenth modification of the universal arrangement of sicknesses intellectual disability is characterized as a state of inadequate or captured improvement of the brain, described via hindrance of abilities (i.e. dialect, engine, cognitive and social capacities) that are showed amid the advancement period such that it helps individual level of knowledge. Inside the framework there are five classes used to order the individual, s specific findings: (1) Severity of wretchedness and conduct issues, (2) Associated medicinal conditions, (3) Associated psychiatric conditions, (4) Global assessment of psycho social disability, (5) Associated unusual psychosocial conditions (WHO, 1992).

The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder has various criteria to group intellectual disability. They are as per the following: (1) an IQ of give or take 70% or beneath, (2) simultaneous shortfalls and hindrances in present versatile working in no less than two of the accompanying territories: self consideration, home living, social or interpersonal abilities, self course, utilization of group assets, practical scholarly aptitudes, health, work, recreation and safety(American Psychiatric Association, 2000).

According to DSM-V the accompanying three criteria must be met: (1) Deficits in intelligent capacities, for example, thinking, critical thinking, and arranging, dynamic considering, scholastic learning, judgment and gaining as a matter of fact. (2) Deficits in versatile working. (3) Onset of intellectual and versatile deficiencies during the development period (American psychiatric Association, 2013).

In addition terms, for example, mental inadequacy, mental handicap, feeblemindness and mental retardation have generally been connected to this gathering (Griffiths, Stavrakaki& Summers, 2002). In DSM –v we are utilizing the term intellectual disability. During the middle age in England, the term for such people was blockhead which was gotten from the Latin word, idiota,to mean and unmindful individual, and Greek word iditios, which implied unfit for open life (Payne & Patten, 1981).

Intellectual disability influences 1-3% of the population. They additionally presumed that the predominance rate of intellectual disability in a given population is as per the following: (1) for mild intellectual incapacity (IQ go between 50 -69), 2.5% of a given populace, (2) for moderate intellectual disability (IQ extend between 35-49), 0.4% of the populace, and (3) for extreme and significant intellectual disability (IQ go beneath 35), 0.1% of the populace (Arvio& Sillanpaa, 2003).

Pakistan has one of the most elevated reported rates of childhood intellectual disabilities in the world. Commonness appraisals fluctuate from 19.1/ 1000 for moderate intellectual disability to 65/1000 for mild intellectual disability (Mirza, 2009). The predominance rate for intellectual disability was harder to estimate than for extreme intellectual disability.

The etiology of intellectual disability has been subdivided into three general regions, pre-birth cause, pre-birth reasons and postnatal reasons, by the American Association and Intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Some danger element for intellectual disability incorporate low to greatly low conception weight in infants, maternal smoking amid pregnancy, maternal age, low financial status, maternal IQ, different births, low weight addition amid pregnancy, maternal iron deficiency, and maternal urinary tract function.(halsey, 1996) (Roeleveld, 1997)

For people with intellectual disabilities, the part of the essential guardian falls. On the folks and will probably proceed even as these people get to be grown-ups. As beforehand said, folks were one of the key backing gatherings uniquely mothers for distinguished of necessities, as far as help and administrations, for such people. Their mothers are cognizant that they cannot assemble a mental self view in a general public. Their mothers confront a considerable measure of anxiety on the grounds that they need to invest more often than not with the kid with erudite inability at home alongside doing all the family work and dealing with other non learned handicapped child.(shahida, 2011).

Mothers of children with intellectual disability, have fundamentally more negative enthusiastic states furthermore essentially more depressive indications (Marika, 1999). Climbing a child who is intellectually disabled require candidly quality and adaptability. The child has extraordinary needs notwithstanding the consistent needs of all child and folks uniquely mothers can end up overpowered by different restorative, consideration giving and instructive offices. Whether the unique needs of the youngster are negligible or complex, the folks are inescapably influenced. Help from family, companions the group or paid parental figures is basic to keeping up parity in the home. The guardian particularly mothers of a children with intellectual disability may need to manage complex issues identified with training. Either a private schooling must be looked for, or a sufficient state funded training must be accessible. Folks frequently need to promoter for their children to get a quality instructive experience that will advance her. This frequently obliges close parental contact with the educational system (Lucy, 2013).So this study was intended to discover the anxiety confronted by the mothers of children with intellectual disability.

 Chapter II

Literature Review

Different researches offer support on some aspect of perceived social stigma and psychological distress.

Godishala (2014) had done an exploration on parents of kids with mental retardation encounter abnormal state of passionate, financial, and physical anxiety. There are various issues of having rationally impeded youngsters in a gang. The issues are identified with the social mocking and social stigma. Mothers of youngsters with inability have the higher the impression of economic circumstance and wage inadequacy rearing social backing, and religious practice, and the bring down the side effects of dejection and found that minority mothers demonstrated the higher the religious adapting, the bring down the manifestations of gloom. The point of this examination was to study the guardian’s weight and social backing in mothers of kids with mental retardation in contrast with mothers of ordinary youngsters. The sample for the study comprised of a gathering of 30 mothers of kids with mental retardation control gathering comprised of 30 mothers of normal youngsters. The age scope of youngsters is 3 to 15 years and the age scope of the mothers is 25 to 45 years. Mothers of kids with mental impairment are encountering increasingly guardian’s weight and looking for more social backing than the mothers of normal youngsters (Godishala, 2014).

Mark (2014) had done a research on the impact of adolescence psychological well-being on later unemployment has not yet been built. In this article we survey whether youth mental trouble places youngsters at high danger of resulting unemployment and whether the vicinity of monetary subsidence fortifies this relationship. This study was in light of 19,217 people drawn from two broadly illustrative British forthcoming partner examines; the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) and the National Child Development Study (NODS). Both accomplices contain rich contemporaneous data itemizing the members’ initial life financial foundation, family unit attributes, and physical well being. In balanced examinations in the LSYPE test (N ¼ 10,232) the individuals who reported large amounts of pain at age 14 were 2 rate focuses more probable than those with low trouble to be unemployed between ages 16 and 21. In balanced investigations of the NCDS test (N ¼ 8985) kids evaluated as having high misery levels by their instructors at age 7 and 11 were 3 rate focuses more probable than those with low trouble to be unemployed between ages 16 and 23. Our examination of the 1980 UK subsidence in the NCDS associate discovered the distinction in normal unemployment level between those with high versus low pain ascended from 2.6 pct focuses in the prerecession period to 3.9 focuses in the post-retreat period. These discoveries point to a beforehand disregarded commitment of adolescence emotional well-being to youth unemployment, which may be especially professed amid times of financial retreat. Our discoveries additionally propose a further financial advantage to upgrading the provision of psychological wellness benefits right on time in life.

Mikami and Chung (2014) had done a research on parent’s perceptions and internationalization of social stigma about their kids’ unmindful and hyperactive side effects, and relationship between parental family stigma, parental pessimism communicated toward the child, and kid social working. Members were groups of 63 children (ages 6–10; 42 young men) with consideration shortage/hyperactivity issue, evaluated in a cross-sectional outline. After measurable control of kids’ seriousness of distracted and hyperactive/indiscreet indications (as reported by folks and instructors), folks’ reports toward oneself of more noteworthy member shame were connected with more watched negative child rearing. The relationship between high parental associate shame and youngsters’ poorer grown-up witness evaluated social abilities and more noteworthy watched hostility were incompletely interceded by expanded parental cynicism. Also, the positive relationship between kids’ grown-up source appraised forceful conduct and parental cynicism was in part intervened by folks’ expanded offshoot disgrace. Parental social disgrace about their youngsters’ heedless and hyperactive/rash indications may have negative implications for parent–child collaborations and kids’ social working. Clinical implications for parent preparing intercessions are discussed.

Werner and Shulman(2013) had done a research on a negative effect of social stigma on both physical and emotional well-being among disparaged people; in any case, the components through which social stigma influences the singular’s personal satisfaction and psychological well-being are not well caught on. This exploration all the while inspects the connections of a few determinants and intervening components of psychological distress and personal satisfaction. Information was gathered through a cross-sectional review among 1006 grown-up (overwhelmingly male) rural to-urban vagrants in 2004–2005 in Beijing, China. Members investigated their apparent social stigma, unfair encounters in everyday life, arrangement for movement, inconsistency in the middle of desire and reality, adapting to stigma related anxiety, mental trouble, and personal satisfaction. Structural comparison demonstrating was performed. We found that apparent social stigma and oppressive encounters had direct negative impacts on mental pain and personal satisfaction among country to-urban migrants. Desire reality inconsistency intervened the impacts of saw social disgrace and prejudicial encounters on mental trouble and personal satisfaction; adapting interceded the impact of social stigma on personal satisfaction. Psychological distress was connected with personal satisfaction. Planning preceding relocation was absolutely identified with adapting aptitudes, which were emphatically identified with personal satisfaction. We reason that apparent social stigma and day by day biased encounters have a huge impact on psychological distress and personal satisfaction among country to-urban migrants. Pr emigration preparing with an emphasis on foundation of successful adapting aptitudes and arrangement of movement may be useful to enhance their personal satisfaction and emotional wellness.

Cheng (2013) had done an examination on stigmatization towards depression has beforehand been accounted for among therapeutic understudies from a different kind of background. This study investigated individual and saw marks of stigma connected with sorrow, and their association with demographics, information of distress, levels of individual anxiety and history of therapeutic sickness among Australian-prepared restorative understudies. A cross-sectional study was attempted amongst understudies enlisted June-to-August 2009 over four Australian therapeutic schools. Altogether, 1010 understudies finished the review, a reaction rate of 29.6%. Roughly 25% of understudies reported a past history of depression. Higher anxiety (K-10 scores) was accounted for by females and those with a past history of depression. On a size of 0-to-5, the mean (±S.D.) individual and saw stigma discouragement scores were 1.83±1.49 and 4.05±1.42 individually. In multivariate examination, higher saw shame and K-10 scores, a past history of uneasiness and Year 3 of therapeutic school demonstrated higher individual disgrace scores. Seen disgrace was emphatically connected with K-10 scores, individual shame scores, and a Caucasian foundation. Our discoveries recommend an abnormal state of individual and especially saw stigma connected with distress among restorative understudies, particularly those showing more elevated amounts of anxiety. Sufficient bolster and screening for psychological distress might de-stigmatizing despondency and enhance emotional well-being among future Australian specialists.

Surratt’s (2012) had done a research on the effect of stigma on respect toward oneself and self-improvement of patients who are diagnosed with mental and physiological ailment. The example comprised of 188 out-entryway patients; 100 Psychiatric patients of wretchedness and 88 physical patients of diabetes taken from Khawaja Fareed Hospital and Ashraf Nseer Hospital in Multan. The discoveries demonstrated that psychiatric patients see higher stigma and report lower level of respect toward oneself and self-awareness in diabetic patients. Result further demonstrated that apparent stigma is adversely connected with toward oneself regard and Personal development and this relationship is higher for psychiatric patients than diabetic patients.

Halen (2012) has examined the relationship between psychological well being and psychological distress. Phone meetings of agent test (1933) gathered data about sociodemographic variables, an institutionalized measure of mental trouble, and three brief existing scales to evaluate parts of mental prosperity. Positive relations with others, natural authority, and fulfillment with life. The aggregate of these three scales was likewise processed and investigated as a measure of mental prosperity. Variables emphatically connected with mental prosperity and contrarily connected with mental pain. Mental prosperity is not precisely the inverse end of the continuum to mental pain, however more level headed discussion is required about whether and when, research members need to made inquiry about both.

Ying and Achim (2012) had done a research on experienced stigma and self stigma toward oneself in patients with schizophrenia in mainland China. Ninety-five patients with schizophrenia, selected between January 2011 and March 2011, finished Chinese adaptations of two report toward oneself polls. The Internalized Stigma of emotional instability (ISMI) scale and the adjusted shopper encounters of Stigma Questionnaire (MCESQ). They likewise finished two other report toward oneself surveys, the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) poll. Patients were likewise evaluated by a senior specialist utilizing the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). All investigations were performed utilizing SPSS 17.0 and included elucidating measurements, relationship investigation and numerous straight relapses. On the ISMI, the rate of members who appraised themselves over the mid-purpose of 2.5 (importance abnormal state of disfavor toward oneself) on sub scales and general score was 44.2% (n=42) for estrangement, 14.7% (n=14) for generalization underwriting, 25.3% (n=24) for saw segregation, 32.6% (n=31) for social withdrawal and 20.0% (n=19) on the general score. On the MCESQ, the rate of members who appraised themselves over the mid-purpose of 3.0 on subscales and general score was 24.2% (n=23) for shame, 1.1% (n= 1) for segregation and 1.1% (n=1) on the general score. Some financial variables, yet not positive or negative manifestations, were identified with the seriousness of psychiatric disgrace. Results record the earnestness of experienced stigma and stigma toward oneself in persons with schizophrenia. Techniques are expected to enhance how governments and persons with schizophrenia adapt to stigma.

Sarkar (2010) had done a research on stigma can influence the stigmatized people, as well as those nearly connected with that individual, for example, parents. Three target of the current study were to test the interior textures of three scales meant to gauge encounters of parents of grown-ups with intellectual disabilities, test the interconnection between the scales and portray the guardian’s experience. A controlled toward oneself overview containing the three scales was sent to the folks of grown-ups with educated inabilities by organization staff for the specialists benefit. An aggregate of 97 members (folks) were qualified for the study. Every one of the three scales attained to great to superb inward textures when tried in the current specimen. Mothers and more youthful folks (under 65 years) were more prone to report that stigma influenced their capacity to cooperate with their relatives than father and more seasoned parents. Parents  of grown-ups with double analyses (having both a savvy handicap and psychological wellness issues) were more prone to report that stigma  influenced their family’s personal satisfaction than folks of grown-ups with an educated inability just. Certain gathering of parents of parents of grown-ups with intellectual disabilities experience stigma uniquely in contrast to others (Sarkar, 2010).

Winnie and Mak (2008) had done a research on social stigma refers to the degree of feedback toward oneself among partners of the focused on minority. Two hundred and ten parental figures of an individual with intelligent incapacity and 108 guardians of maladjustment. The moms were matured somewhere around 24 and 58 (M = 42.81, SD=5.41). The outcome demonstrated that parental figure of individuals with erudite inability feels more weight as contrast with the normal parents of an individual.

Kerenhappachu and Godishala (2014) had done an examination on the parents of kids with mental retardation encounters abnormal state of enthusiastic, monetary and physical anxiety. They said that sentiments of dejection are basic, especially when acknowledgment of the tyke’s impediment is later. The point of this examination was to study the caregiver’s burden and social backing in mothers of youngsters with mental retardation as contrast with the mothers of typical kids. The sample for the study comprised of a gathering of a 30 mothers of a kid with mental retardation and the control gathering comprised of 30 mothers of an ordinary kids. Mothers of kids with mental retardation are encountering more parental figure weight and looking for more social backing than the mothers of a normal child.

Hong and Zhang (2014) had done an exploration on the commonness and particular indications of psychological distress in elderly disease patients. In this cross-sectional study, 153 elderly patients with disease admitted to two tertiary healing facilities were explored utilizing the accommodation inspecting technique. Trouble thermometer and the issue rundown, prescribed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and were utilized to evaluate the mental pain and its particular indications. A self-composed survey was utilized to gather demographic data.A aggregate of 67 members (43.8%) showed psychological distress to some degree. The investigation of the sub-classifications in the issue rundown indicated huge contrasts (p < 0.001). The most elevated scoring class was the enthusiastic issues, took after by down to earth issues, physiological issues, and family ssues. Among 34 things included in the measurable examination, the main five were stress (73.9%), despondency (55.6%), agony (54.2%), monetary issues (52.3%), and dread (49.7%). Hitched members, those with advanced education and higher month to month salary had altogether lower psychological distress score contrasted and single patients, those with lower training, and lower month to month pay (p < 0.05). Psychological pain is common among elderly patients with malignancy and, in this manner, ought to be considered by the well being experts treating these patients.

Moretta and Trojano (2014) had done on a research on psychological distress in a sample of parental figures of patients influenced by delayed issue of cognizance amid healing center stay in the Neurorehabilitation Unit. Twenty-four parental figures of 22 patients influenced by delayed issue of awareness confessed to post intense recovery focus, finished self-reported surveys for evaluation of depressive manifestations, state and quality uneasiness, psycho physiological unsettling influences, delayed sadness issue, mental adapting procedures, nature of saw needs, saw social backing, and guardian load; at confirmation, and following four and eight months. At affirmation depressive manifestations were found in 20/24 parental figures, large amounts of tension in 16, and pertinent psycho physiological unsettling influences in 10 members; eight guardians (32%) met criteria for delayed sadness issue. The scores on surveys did not vary as an element of relatives’ finding (vegetative state versus negligibly cognizant state). The longitudinal study (n = 18) demonstrated a dynamic and factually huge increment of “passionate weight” amid the healing facility stay, while the remaining variables did not change altogether. The study demonstrates the vicinity of extreme mental issues in parental figures of patients with delayed issue of cognizance. The levels of psychological distress have a tendency to be steady over the long haul, while the enthusiastic weight increments.

Girma (2014) had done a research on monetary and material weights; guardians of individuals with emotional instability are presented to psycho-social difficulties. Social stigma is among the mental difficulties that can be exacerbated by inherent and/or outward elements. Parental figures’ social-stigma can adversely impact the patients’ treatment and restoration process. The goal of this study was to quantify the level and connects of social stigma among parental figures of individuals with mental illness.An questioner managed cross-sectional study was directed in the Jimma University Specialized Hospital Psychiatry Clinic in Ethiopia on an example of 422 guardians. Information were gathered via prepared attendants working in the center utilizing a pretested survey. Multivariate direct relapse was performed to distinguish the connects of social-stigma among parental figures of individuals with mental illness. The dominant parts (70.38%) of the guardians were male. On a size of 0 to 15, with 0 being low and 15 being high, the normal destroying toward oneself mentality score was 4.68 (±4.11). A factually huge distinction in mean disgrace toward oneself score was found in the middle of urban and rural respondents (t=3.95, P<0.05). Stigma toward oneself of parental figures indicated noteworthy positive relationship with saw indications of emotional sickness (r=0.18, P<0.001), saw otherworldly clarifications of dysfunctional behavior (r=0.26, P<0.001), and saw psycho social and organic clarifications of maladjustment (r=0.12, P<0.01). The main autonomous indicator of parental figures’ social-stigma was seen otherworldly clarification of emotional sickness (institutionalized β=0.22, P<0.001). The propensity of guardians to abstain from being related to the patients was watched. Low presentation to psychological well-being data was likewise reported. Parental figures’ social-disgrace in this study was essentially connected with saw otherworldly clarification of dysfunctional behavior. Since parental figures’ social-disgrace might contrarily impact patients’ treatment-looking for, adherence, and recovery procedures, programs that upgrade adapting systems by fortifying social-regard and strengthening by human services suppliers and make family care groups may be useful to handle social-stigma among parents of individuals with dysfunctional behavior.

Chiu and Yung (2013) had done on a research parental figures of youngsters with intelligent inabilities are troubled in all aspects of the world; it is suspected that specific settings may exacerbate things. There is little writing on parental figures in China, where familial and faction obligation instead of individual exertion is underlined, and where collective bolster, while loved, is frequently deficient. An aggregate of 211 guardians in two urban communities, one with and the other without randomized outline, took part in a review consider that surveyed social stigma, loss of face, nervousness, emotional wellness and strengthening. An extent of 60.6% of members was discovered to be notable cases with mental unsettling influence of a level which obliged further proficient consideration. Members with better asset seemed to have adapted better, getting a charge out of lower mental trouble, lower tension and a larger amount of individual strengthening. Different relapse investigation uncovered that psychological wellness is identified with the emotional measurement of social shame, loss of face and uneasiness level. This was found to record for more than a large portion of the difference (55%).

Meijer  and Roseman (2013) had done a research on to assess the impact of screening tumor patients for psychological distress by evaluating the (1) viability of intercessions to lessen trouble among patients recognized as bothered; and (2) impacts of screening for pain on distress results. A few practice rules prescribe routine screening for psychological distress in growth care. CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were sought through April 6, 2011 with manual ventures of 45 pertinent diaries, reference rundown survey, reference following of included articles, and trial registry audits through June 30, 2012. Articles in any dialect on tumor patients were incorporated in the event that they (1) contrasted treatment for patients and mental pain to placebo or regular care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) surveyed the impact of screening on mental trouble in a RCT the model comprised of 100 disease patients’. There were 14 qualified RCTs for treatment of trouble, and 1 RCT on the impacts of screening on patient misery. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and shared consideration medication by and large diminished distress with little to direct impacts.  One study researched impacts of screening for trouble on mental results, and it discovered no change. Treatment studies reported unassuming change in pain indications, however just a solitary qualified study was found on the impacts of screening disease patients for trouble, and distress did not enhance in screened patients versus those getting normal consideration. On account of the absence of confirmation of advantageous impacts of screening tumor patients for pain, it is untimely to prescribe or order usage of routine screening.

Osborne and Reed (2009) had done a research  on the connections between child rearing anxiety and saw toward oneself child rearing practices in 138 parents of youngsters with extremely introverted range conditions were concentrated on more than 9–10 months. Aside from saw correspondence being weakened, there were no real zones of saw toward oneself child rearing shortcoming. Child rearing stretch nearly communicated with self-saw inclusion, correspondence, and utmost setting over the long run. In parents of youthful kids (underneath 4), high introductory levels of child rearing anxiety brought about less ensuing self-saw association, and poorer correspondence, with the kid. Great saw toward oneself starting abilities for breaking point setting brought about lower levels of child rearing anxiety. These connections help to clarify the effect of child rearing weight on youngster conduct issues, and may be steady with advancement of parental versatile behavioral systems to manage amazing anxiety level.

Waqas and Zubair (2014) had done a research to investigate the information and state of mind of Pakistani college understudies toward mental illness. Individuals with emotional sicknesses are tested by their manifestations as well as by the prejudice connected with their disease. A cross-sectional review was directed at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-grounds Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-controlled poll comprised of three segments: demographics, general information of psychiatric sicknesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The survey was dispersed to 650 members enlisted in distinctive controls (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Reaction rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. The greater part of the understudies (331, 62.8%) had a urban foundation and examined Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion critical and most respondents considered therapists (334, 63.4%) and profound pioneers (72, 13.7%) to be best ready to treat emotional instabilities. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered dark enchantment to be a reason for emotional sickness. Just 215 (41%) respondents had ever perused an article on emotional instabilities. Various relapse examination uncovered study discipline, introduction, and saw reasons for emotional instabilities and superstitions to be fundamentally connected with mentality towards maladjustments (p < .05). Albeit low mindfulness and presentation were found in this example of Pakistani college understudies, their disposition towards emotional instabilities was for the most part positive. Most respondents gave extraordinary clarifications for emotional instabilities however just a couple of accepted that otherworldly pioneers can assume a part in treatment.

Ali (2012) had done a research on individuals with intellectual disability are of the stigmatized group in a public area. Regardless of this, examination around there has been constrained. This study gives a survey of disfavor toward oneself in individuals with intellectual disability, and saw social stigma in family minds. The model comprises of 100 members. 5O members are intellectual incapacitated and 50 members are family cares. The discoveries show that both people and family considerations experience stigma and that it may have a contrary effect on mental well being. Consciousness of stigma in individuals with educated incapacity seems, by all accounts, to be identified with the degree to which people acknowledge the name of intelligent handicap.

Gilani (2012) had done a research on social stigma and impact of tuberculosis in Pakistan. This nationwide survey was carried out by face to face interviews with 2742 men and women. Multiple stage random area probability sampling was used for this purpose. Trained interviewers conducted interviews using structured questionnaire focusing knowledge, diagnosis, treatment, and impact of TB. Data was weighted to correspond with census distribution of population across rural and urban areas of all four provinces. SPSS 10 was used for data analysis. Ninety percent (2478) of the respondents were familiar with the term TB. Common symptoms associated by respondents were cough (59%), haemoptysis (51%) and fever (40%). Majority (61%) mentioned that TB can be diagnosed by clinical examination by a doctor, 45% laboratory analysis of sputum, and 33% X-ray chest as a diagnostic modality. Ninety-three percent were of the opinion that TB is treatable; 90% were in favor of treatment by doctor, and 16% by homeopathic or hakim treatment. About 91% favored to continue TB treatment according to doctor’s advice, 4% thought it can be stopped within 1-2 months of resolution of symptoms, while 73% regarded TB as a communicable disease. More than 33% respondents considered that TB affects education, occupation, getting married, and having children. Pakistani population has deficient knowledge and misconceptions regarding symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and impact of TB. And they are stigmatized in our society because nobody likes to talk with him.

Aziz (2010) had done a research to evaluate the stigmatization psycho social issues of persons with epilepsy in Pakistan. A population based, cross sectional epidemiological investigation of 241 persons with epilepsy distinguished from at danger population of 24,130 people (64.7% from urban 35.3% from provincial regions). Of these patients, 77% experienced intermittent non-febrile generalized convulsions. We assessed level of stigmatization, and the impacts of epilepsy on other psycho social viewpoints, furthermore the connections in the middle of sex and level of training of the patients and defamation. Patients with epilepsy in Pakistan don’t have all the earmarks of being profoundly derided, however their training and grades are influenced by the issue. They experience issues performing exercises of everyday living and think that it difficult to settle on choices about whether to wed or to have kids. Ladies accepted that they were more hazardous to others, got less assistance from their families and, more as often as possible as men, and urged others to evade them. Ladies were additionally more probable than men to express the conviction that individuals with epilepsy ought not wed, yet indeed, ladies all the more much of the time wedded as thought about men-a certainty affected by social and social weights, including weight from family, on the grounds that it is almost dependably the obligation of the folks to organize the marriage of a little girl. Impact of instruction shows that individuals with epilepsy who have advanced education, as contrasted and those with less training, had less kids, were less frequently evaded by their schoolmates and neighbors, had less issues with arrangements for instruction, less as often as possible urged others to evade them, were all the more regularly wedded, and accepted that they were more risky to others. The vast majority accepted that their conditions had a physical premise; just 3.1% credited their epilepsy to heavenly causes. Trashing in regards to epilepsy has not been ended up being an imperative highlight in the way of life of Pakistan in light of the fact that none of the perceptions are factually critical according to P-value.

Thair and Sultan (2013) had done a research e on stress level in parental figures of patients with schizophrenia and to focus the relationship of stress with demographic variables of guardians. Schizophrenia is a staggering issue for the patients as well as for their parental figures. The guardians of the patients experience the ill effects of psychological distress however get least backing from psychiatric administrations. It was a distinct clinic based study did in Psychiatry Department of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. 50 guardians were incorporated in the study amid a time of one year. Socio-demographic variables were recorded on uniquely outlined star forma. Stress level was surveyed by utilizing Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) with a cut off score of 9 being taken as focused. Mean age of the parental figures was 45.44±14.25 years. Forty-two (84%) parental figures were guys and 8 (16%) were females. Twenty-eight (56%) were uneducated, 16 (32%) had Primary instruction, 4 (8%) were registers and 2 (4%) graduates. Thirty-four (68%) of the guardians were hitched 8 (16%each unmarried and widows/widowers. Thirty-two (64%) were unemployed and 18 (36%) were utilized. Two (4%) had been giving consideration to under 6 months, 4 (8%) for under 12 months, 10 (20%) for under 18 months, 2 (4%) for under 24 months and 32 (64%) for over 24 months. 22 (44%) were folks, 14 (28%) were kin, 2 (4%) were offspring of the patients. Thirty-six (72%) parental figures were having score of more than 9 on SRQ-20. Stress demonstrated a factually noteworthy affiliation just with age (p-value>0.004). The study show psychological distress is introduced in larger part of the parental figures of the patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, there is a statically noteworthy relationship between age of the parental figures and mental pain, while sexual orientation, instructive status, conjugal status, word related status, length of time of consideration and connection with the patient are not connected with psychological distress.

Sahar (2012) had done a research to recognize the psychological distress in epilepsy client .The quarters of the 50 million individuals with epilepsy live in creating nations and 94% of them are untreated. A few studies from creating nations have reported more negative disposition and stigma about epilepsy when contrasted with the created nation’s .This circumstance is not distinctive in Pakistan. In Pakistan general predominance of epilepsy is evaluated to be 9.99per 1000 population with the most noteworthy rate in youthful adulthood .Here the weight of epilepsy is twice a high rural area (14.8|1000) when contrasted with the urban zones (7.4|1000).The high rate of epilepsy builds the need to research all the more about the epilepsy. An examination led by Aziz, Akhtar, And Hassan from Pakistan reported that epilepsy face trouble performing enacts of everyday living and think that it difficult to settle on choices about whether to marry or to have kids.

Abas and Amer (2012) had done a research on relatives caring for the patients contribute enormously to decreasing human services cost by serving to oversee patients at home. They encounter psychological distress when natural requests surpass their versatile limit. It makes them experience the ill effects of passionate issues. This stress makes an inclination of distress in them and antagonistically influences their capacity to adapt. The reason for this study is to evaluate the recurrence of discouragement in the essential parental figures of patients experiencing change issue. It is a clear cross sectional study, directed at Sarhad Hospital for Psychiatric Diseases, Peshawar, from June 2011 to April 2012. A sum of 150 parental figures of patients experiencing change issue was incorporated in the study. Sadness was surveyed in the parental figures utilizing Hamilton wretchedness rating scale. Demographic information and ailment related information was recorded on a semi organized. In this study 65.9% of the parental figures were discouraged, 22% were seriously discouraged. Larger part of the patients was cared for by folks and mates. 84% of the parental figures were hitched. Despondency in the parental figures was connected with number of confirmations and term of ailment of the patient. Age, sex, conjugal status and relationship to the patient had no critical relationship. Dominant part of the guardians experienced moderate to serious dejection. Depression in the parental figures was connected with expanded indication seriousness in the patients.

Khalid and Aslam (2011) had done a research on to see the distinction of Psychological distress among the patients of Epilepsy; the examinations on the variables of the study were made between sex, age, conjugal status, instruction, financial status and sort of Epilepsy. Epilepsy is an issue of the mind portrayed by intermittent seizures which are physical responses to sudden, generally short, an excessive amount of electrical releases in a gathering of cerebrum cells. Psychological distress frequently goes hand in hand with epilepsy. It gravely influences the sickness and the treatment result. Sample comprised of 50 patients with epilepsy. These members were isolated into three subgroups as indicated by their ages that are youngsters, adolescence and adults. Patients were taken from healing centers Islamabad and Muzaffarabad (AJK).The result demonstrated that psychological distress is higher among male patients with generalized epilepsy and among the individuals who are single, unqualified, having low financial status and lower familial social maintain.

With the help of previous studies on perceived social stigma and psychological distress exposed that there is a relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress.

2.1 Rationale of the Study

The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having children with intellectual disability. Researches show that most of the mothers of intellectually disable children are stigmatized in our society. They are depressed and they cannot look after them very well (Mirza, 2009).Due to these factors they feel a psychological distress. The present study is intended to find out the severity level of psychological distress in mothers of intellectually disabled children due to social stigmatization. Intellectual disability in a child is a severe form of mental illness and their mothers face many difficulties in a society when they take care of them. They are stigmatized socially because their children’ level of functioning is impaired. They feel that their children can never get a job as most of the other normal child get in a society. People prejudice them when they participate in social activities and they cannot build a good ‘relationship in the society. Sometime they do not come for their child’s treatment due to lack of awareness about the treatment. Due to social

stigma they perceived his or her child as mentally and physically impaired. So I feel I should do work in this era and I want to know their problems and difficulties they are facing in our society. And I want to really solve their issues which they are facing in our society. It is our moral duty to work in this era and solved their difficulties and provides their child a social acceptance in our society as soon as possible.

2.2 Objective of the Study

  • To investigate a relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability.
  • To explore a significant differences between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in educated and un-educated mothers having a child with intellectual disability.

2.3 Hypotheses

  • There is likely to be a positive relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability.
  • There is likely to be a difference between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in over the educated mothers and un-educated mothers having a child with intellectual disability.
  • Perceived social stigma will be predicted by the psychological distress.

Chapter III


This chapter consists of research design, sample, and sampling strategy, assessment measures, procedures and ethical considerations.

3.1 Research design

Correlation research design was used in the current study.

3.2 Sampling Technique

            Purposive Sampling Technique was used for sampling.

3.3 Sample

The sample was consisted of (N=80) which include n=40 educated mothers and n=40 uneducated mothers having a child with intellectual disability.

3.4 Inclusion Criteria

  • Only mothers having a child with intellectual disability were selected.
  • Mothers in the age of (25-50) were selected.
  • Both educated and uneducated women were selected.

3.5 Exclusion Criteria

  • Those mothers were not selected whose children were normal.
  • Any physical disabilities in the child were not selected.
  • Other respondents (father, teacher and siblings) were not selected.

3.6 Operational Definition

  • 3.6.1 Perceived Social Stigma

            Perceived Social Stigma represents targeted persons internalization of society negative views towards themselves. In this internalization procedure targeted individual extend negative self estimate, experience powerless concerning their affiliation with the stigmatized individual and perceive a negative influence on them and it was measured by Affiliate Stigma Scale (Mack, 2008)

  • 3.6.2 Psychological distress

            Psychological distress is mostly defined as a condition of emotional pain characterized by symptoms of sadness and nervousness and it was measured by Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (Kessler, 2002).

3.7 Assessment Measures

Following assessment measure were used to collect the data.

  •  3.7.1 Demographic Information

                     Self constructed demographic form was used to get the background information of the participants. Demographic information was consisted of age, education, marital status, family system, family income, child age, number of children other than the one having disability and number of children having a intellectual disability.

 Table 1

Demographic characteristics of sample (N=80)

Characteristics F % mean St.D







Marital Status













Family System







Age 35.56 6.75
Family income 2.16 24495.81
Number of children other than the one having disability 2.16 24495.81
Number intellectual disabled child 1.04 .44
Child age 6.78 4.55
  • 3.7.2 Affiliate Stigma Scale

The Affiliate Stigma Scale developed by Mack was used to assess perceived social stigma in mothers having a child with intellectual disability. The Stigma Scale consisted of 22 items and every item is rated on four point likert scale. The reliability of this scale is .95 and every item is rated on four point scale.

  • 3.7.3 Psychological distress Scale

The Psychological Distress Scale developed by Kessler (2002) to assess psychological distress in general community. It is easy access of psychological distress and comprises of 10 items assessing emotional condition and every item is rated on five point likert scale .The reliability of the scale is .66.

3.8 Procedure

First of all, earlier permission from the authors of the scales was taken. And Affiliate Stigma Scale was translated into Urdu as per the requirement of the research sample. In arrange to collect data the authority letter of department was signed by the thesis supervisor and chairperson of the department. The authority letter was presented to the concerned the authority of different institutes for special children to ask for permission. After having permission the sample was selected according to the specific criteria. The purpose of the research was described to the participants. A consent form was given to the participants and they were ensured that the given information from them will be kept confidential and will not be used for any other purpose other than this research. After short instruction, the participants were provided demographic form and both scales. The uneducated mothers finished the questionnaires with the aid of researcher. All the participants have given the consent to take part in the research. It took 10 to 15 minutes for self administration and 15 to 20 minutes for uneducated participants. After collecting the data the researcher thanked the participants.  And data was entered in SPSS for analysis. Different statistical analyses were run and find out the result.

3.9 Ethical Consideration

Following ethical consideration were kept in mind while doing research.

  • Assessment tools were used with the permission of the authors.
  • To start the study, permission letter was signed by the chairperson and supervisor to collect the data.
  • Permission by the head of the departments of different institute for special children was also used to collect the data.
  • The intention of the study was explained to the participants and informed consent was given to the participants.
  • The participants were permitted to give up anytime from the research if they think, their participation is risk to their strength.
  • The participants were secured the confidentiality and anonymity of the research will be maintained.
  • Correct reporting of the result was completed.
3.10 Statistical Analysis

            Descriptive statistics, Pearson product movement correlation, Regression analysis and independent sample t-test were used to generate result.

Chapter IV


The current research aimed to explore the relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability. The data strategy involved performing (1) Pearson product moment correlation analysis assessing the relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability (2) independent sample t-test was performed to find out the differences between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in over the educated and un educated mothers, (3) Regression analysis was performed to see whether perceived social stigma predicted the psychological distress in mothers

It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a positive relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability. Pearson product movement was used to find out the relationship.

Table 4.1

 Relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability (N=80)

  Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 M SD
1 Age .59 .68 .89 .02 .13 .18 .72 .82 .71 35.56 6.75
2 Education .00 .00 .01 .10 .68 .74 .28 .36 1.50 .503
3 Marital status .00 .08 .09 .80 .74 .04 .11 3.03 1.12
4 Family system .15 .93 .33 .76 .21 .09 1.48 .50
5 Family income .73 .78 .94 .65 .71 2.15 24495.81
6 Child age .00 .64 .20 .33 6.77 4.55
7 No. of children other than the one having disability .39 .62 .99 1.97 1.60
8 Number of intellectual disabled child .72 .27 1.03 .34
9 SUMPSS .00 43.36 11.05
10 SUMPD               27.53 7.67

Note: N=80, PSS=Perceived social stigma, PD= Psychological distress, M=Mean, SD= Standard Deviation

**p<.01(two tailed), *p<.005 (two tailed)

As the p (.000) is less than .05, so it is a significant value which shows that there is a positive relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability. So, hypothesis was accepted.

It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a difference between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability. Independent sample t-test was used to find out differences.

Table 4.2

Independent Sample t-test finding the education differences between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in educated mothers (n=40) and uneducated mothers (n=40).

Variable educated


   M               SD


     M               SD



P 95% CI

LL          UL

Cohen’s d
SUMPD 26.75 7.21 28.32 8.12 -.92 .36 -4.99 1.85 -0.21

Note. CI= Class Interval, LL= Lower Limit, UL= Upper Limit, PD=Psychological distress

As the p (.36) is greater than .05, so there is no significant difference between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in over the educated and uneducated mothers. The result indicated that education differences were not found in perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability. It means that both educated and uneducated mothers are similarly affected by perceived social stigma and psychological distress.  So the hypothesis was rejected.

It was hypothesized that perceived social stigma will be positively predicted by the psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability. Regression analysis was used to predict the psychological distress.

Table 4.3

Regression analysis for predictors of psychological distress   (N=80)

Variable Model B 95% CI
Constant 12.91 [6.79, 19.03]
SUMPSS .34 [.20, .47]
R2 .24
F 24.12
ΔR2 .23

Note: N=80. CI = Confidence interval.

*p< .05 (two tailed) **p< .01 (two tailed)

As p (.000) is less than .05, so perceived social stigma is significantly predict by the psychological distress. The result of multiple regression analysis revealed that overall regression model explained that perceived social stigma positively predicted by the psychological distress.

4.5 Summary of the findings

The results of the research indicated

  • There was a positive relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers.
  • Education differences were not found in perceived social stigma and psychological distress.
  • Perceived social stigma was predicted by psychological distress.


Chapter V


The present research was conducted to explore the relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability

The result showed that there was likely to be a positive relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers having a child with intellectual disability.  The result of the current study also exposed that there was a positive relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress. This outcome was supported by the work of Karenhappachu and Godishala (2014), who investigated the relationship between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers. The outcome of their study was consistent with the result of the current research such as perceived social stigma correlated with the psychological distress.

Similarly Wang, Bonita and Fang (2010) also showed that social stigma among stigmatized individuals was correlated with the psychological distress. Another study was also conducted by Werner and Shulman (2013) also showed that social stigma have a huge impact on psychological distress. In the same way Harding (2014) explored the correlation between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in HIV patients. The result of their studies revealed that perceived social stigma and psychological distress was positively correlated in HIV patients.

Similar study was also conducted by Anne and Wallston (2014) also showed that perceived social stigma and psychological distress was correlated in children with emotional and behavioral problems and their families. Another study was conducted by Shrivastava and Johnston (2012) and their findings also showed that perceived social stigma and psychological distress was correlated in mental illnesses patients. So their findings were consistent with the outcome of the present study.

Similarly Ebrahimi and Mohammadi (2015) investigated the perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers of deaf children. The result of their findings revealed that most mothers suffer perceived social stigma and psychological distress. So the outcome of the study also supports the findings of the current study. In the same way Azeem and Dogar (2013) was explored the correlation between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in mothers of children with intellectual disability in Pakistan. The result of their studies was also revealed that perceived social stigma was positively correlated with the psychological distress in mothers of children with intellectual disability in Pakistan. So their findings were supports with the outcome of the present study.

The result of the current study exposed that there were no differences found in the educated mothers and uneducated mothers. There could be a lot of reasons.  In our culture educated mothers and uneducated mothers are equally stigmatized. Their children are not accepted in our society as the mothers of normal child. They equally bear the hardships in our society such as care, education etc. This outcome are supported by the result of (Bromley& Emerson, 2004) investigated the difference between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in educated mothers and uneducated mothers of autism child. The outcome of the study also supports the findings of the current study, showed that there was no difference between educated mothers and uneducated mothers in perceived social stigma and psychological distress.

Similarly Shetty and Menezes (2013) also investigated that there was no difference between perceived social stigma and psychological distress in educated and uneducated mothers problems handling by the disabled child.  So their findings were consistent with the outcome of the current study.

The result showed that perceived social stigma predicted by the psychological distress. The result of the current research also exposed that perceived social stigma predicted the psychological distress. The findings of the current study are matched with the findings of the study conducted by the Ballroom (2013), who investigated the perceived social stigma will be predicted by psychological distress in cancer patients. They found that perceived social stigma were the significant predictor of psychological distress. If the individual is stigmatized there is a lot of chance for psychological distress.

Similarly Corning, A.F (2002) investigated that social stigma predicted by the psychological distress in schizophrenic parents. Their result exposed that social stigma is a strong predicator of psychological distress in schizophrenic parents. Another study was conducted by Quin and Earnshaw (2013) also showed that perceived social stigma is a strong predicator of psychological distress in HIV patients.

Similar study was conducted by the Chien (2013) and their findings were showed that perceived social stigma predicted by the psychological distress in learning disabilities child. So their findings were consistent with the outcome of the present studies. However another studies was conducted by Paterson (2007) also showed that perceived social stigma was positively correlated with the psychological distress in adults with a learning disabilities.

In the same way Khamis (2006) investigated that social stigma predicted by the psychological distress among parents of children with mental retardation in the United Arab Emirates. Their findings exposed that perceived social stigma is a strong predicator of psychological distress among parents of mental retardation.

5.1 Conclusions

  • On the bases of the obtained findings, it was concluded that perceived social stigma was correlated with the psychological distress. There was a positive relationship between them.
  • There were no differences found in educated and uneducated mothers. Both are similarly stigmatized in our society.
  • It was also found that perceived social stigma is the predictor of the psychological distress. Some researches support the findings of this research.

5.2 Limitations of the Study

  • Sample was taken from 2 special institute of Lahore and the sample size was little. Sample size should be large enough and data should be taken from more special institute to increase the generalizability of the study.
  • Mother did not show attention in taking part in the study. They hesitate to provide the information about themselves which might affect the result of this study.
  • Only child mothers were taken as a sample. Adult mothers should also take to increase the validity of the result.
  • Mostly mothers were not well educated. It also made the procedure of data collection quite difficult.

5.3 Suggestions

Suggestions in the light of these limitations are given to future researches regarding betterment of the research work.

  • The sample should be large enough so that the findings can be generalized.
  • The data should be collected from other areas as well as to authenticate the findings.
  • There should be a more time span to collect data.

5.4 Implications

    Some implication of the present research is given in the following.

  • The findings of this research could be helpful to develop insight in our society about the critical issue of stigmatization.
  • The findings could also contribute to take some steps in managing their psychological distress so they can take care of their children in a best way.
  • It will also help to improve the quality of life, and take positive step to handle the children most effectively.
  • Abbas, A., Amer, A.S,.& Tariq, M (2012).Psychological Distress in the caregivers of Conversion Disorder Patients. Journal of KJMS Vol-6, No.1
  • Ali, A. (2012). Self stigma in People with Intellectual Disabilities and Courtesy Stigma in Family Caregivers. Journal of Research in Developmental Disabilities Volume 33, Issue 6, Pages 2122-2140
  • Aline, D.(2011).Department of Psychiatry University of Canada. Retrieved from edn. Intechweb.org on/pdfs/O5512.pdf
  • Anne, C., Wallston, K.A. (2014). The Stigma of Childhood Mental Disorders. Journal of HHS public Access PMC 2904965 49(2):92-198
  • Azeem,W.A.,Dogar, A.I.(2013). Anxiety and Depression among parents of children with intellectual disability in Pakistan. Journal of J can Asad Child Adoles psychiatry22(4):290-295
  • Aziz, H. (2005). Epilepsy in Pakistan Stigma and Psychosocial Problems Department of Neurology, Jinnah postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of the International League Against Epilepsey, Volume 38, Issue 10, pages 1069- 1073
  • Bales, M,.Pambrun, E,.& Melchior.M (2014). Prenatal Psychological Distress and access to mental health care in the ELFE Cohort, University Department of Adult Psychiatry, Charles Parents Hospital, Bardeaux, France
  • Ballroom, G (2013). Lifer after Cancer: How does Public Stigma increases Psychological Distress of childhood cancer. Journal of society for social work and research 703-352-7797
  • Basharat, A., Zubair,A,. &Mujeeb, A (2014).Psychological Distress and Coping Strategies among Families of Missing Persons in Pakistan. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology Vol.40, No 2,211-220
  • Bromley, H., Emerson,C (2004). Mothers Supporting Children with Autistic Disorder. Journal of  Applied Research in Intellectual disability doi: 1177/ 1362361304047224 vol 8 no 4.pp. 409-423
  • Burnette&Mui (1994).Nursing outecomes edited by Diane Doran. Retrieved from            books.google.Com.pk|books
  • Cheng, D.R. (2013). Stigma and Perception of Psychological Distress and Depression in Australian- trained medical students: Journal of Psychiatry Research Volume 209, Issue 3, 30 October 2013, pages 684-690
  • Chien, T.(2013). An Exploratory Study of Parents Perceived Educational Needs for Parenting a child with Learning disabilities. Journal of Asian Nursing Research volume 7, issue 1, pages 16-25
  • Chiu, M.Y.L,.&Yang,X. (2013). Caregiving of a Child with Intellectual disabilities in China an Examation of Social Stigma and the Cultural thesis. Journal of Intellectual disability.
  • Clloway, S. J (2008). Attending a small Rural university. The University of Taxes Health Service Center at San Antonio
  • Corning, A.F (2002). Perceived Social Stigma effects on Psychological Distress. Journal of  Clinical Researchvolume30096977
  • Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (2013). American Psychiatric Association (5th ed).Washington, DC London, England
  • Dohrenwend, B.P. (1982).Perspectives on the past and the future of psychiatric epidemiology American. Journal of Public Health no. 72:1271-1279
  • Ebrahmi, H., Mohammadi, E (2015). Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children. Iranian Journal of Othorhinolaryngology, 27(79):109-118
  • Egan, M,.Delancy, L,.& Daly. M (2014).Childhood Psychological Distress and Youth Unemployment, Behavioral Sciences Centre, Stirring Management School, Stiring University. Fk94, United Kingdom. Retrieved from www.Elesiver. Com/ locate/ Socscimed
  • Fortin, M.,Hudon,C.,Bayliss,E.A.,Soubhi,H.,& Lapointe. L.(2007).Caring for body and soul. International Journal of Psychology in Medicine 37(1),1-9.
  • Girma, E. (2014). Social Stigma among Caregivers of People with Mental Illness toward Caregivers Empowerment. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 7:37-43
  • Goffman, E. (1963).Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity .USA: prentice Hall Inc.
  • Halen, R.W. (2012). Psychological well being and Psychological distress it necessary to measure both. Retrieved from www.psywb.com
  • Haraks,P(2008). Depressive Symptoms ,perceived stigma and social Retrieved from http||www.google.com.pk|books
  • Harding, R.(2014). Experience of Persistant Psychological Symptoms and Perceived Stigma among People with HIV on Anterritrovial therapy (ART). International Journal of Nursing Studies volume 51, issue 8, pageg1171-1189
  • Harding., R. (2014). Experience of Persistant Psychological Symptoms and Perceived Stigma among people with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART). International Journal of Nursing Studies volume 51, issue8, August 2014, pages 1171-1189
  • Hebl,M.R., & Mannix, L.M.(2003).The weight of obesity in evaluating others: A more proximity effect. Personality and social psychology Bulletin.29.28-38
  • Hebl,M.R.,Tickle,J., & Heatherton,T.F.(2000).Awkward moments in interactions between nonstigmatized and stigmatized individuals. The social psychology of stigma(pp.243-272)
  • Hong, J.F., Zhang, W., Wang, W.L & Xie, L.F (2014). Psychological Distress in Elderly Cancer Patients. International Journal of Nursing Sciences https:||dx.doi.org|10.101.6|so272-7358 (98)0008-7 Intellectual Disabilities Volume 21,Issue 6,pages 532-545
  • John,.M & Catherine.,E.(2003).Social causes of Psychological distress(2nd ed).Walter de Gruyter.Inc., New York. Retrived from https://books.google.com.pk
  • Karenhappachu, M.S., Sridevi, G. (2014). Caregiver burden and Perceived Social Support in mothers of children with mental Retardation. International journal of scientific research  and publication. Volume 4ISSN2250-3153
  • Kessler,R.C.,Andrews,G.(2002). Short Screening Scales to monitor population prevalence and trends in non-specific Psychological Distress International Journel of Psychology in Medicine 32,959-956
  • Khalid, A., & Aslam, N. (2011).Psychological Distress among Patients with Epilepsy. Indian Journal of Psychology Medicine ; 33 (1) : 45-48
  • Khamis, V. (2006). Psychological Distress among Parents of Mental Retardation in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Social Science and Medicine,03/2007;64(4):850-7
  • Kiesler, S (2014). Current of the Internet (1st ed.).  Psychological Press, New York.
  • Kirmayer, L.J.(1989).Cultural Variation in the response to the psychiatric disorder and psychological distress. Social science and medicine numbers 29:327-339
  • Kristen, M., Michael, D. L. (1991).Using identity discrepancy theory to predict psychological distress. Retrieved from link.springer.com
  • LeBel. (2008).Perceptions of and response to stigma. Sociology compass. Retrieved from 2(2), 409-432.doi:10.1111|j.1751-9020.2007.00081.X
  • Lucy, B. (2013). Problem faced by Parents of Mentally Challenged Children. Retrieved from  www. Live strong. Com/article/79436
  • Mak,W.W.S.,& Cheung,R.Y.M.(2008). Affiliate Stigma among caregivers of people with intellectual disability or mental illness. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual disabilities 21,532-545
  • Margareta, O. (2001). Department of Clinical Neuroscience division of psychiatry, University Hospital. Retrieved from bjp.Repsych.Org/ content/ 181/6/494.full
  • Megan,.F.L (2011). Perceived Stigma in caregivers of persons with dementia and its impact on depressive symptoms Graduate College of University of Lowa
  • Meijer, A., & Roseman, M  (2013). Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer. International Journal of Psychiatric Research 75(2013). 1-17
  • Mikami, A.Y,.Chong.G.K,.Saporito.M,.& Jesinnifer, J.N. (2014).Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia. Journal of Clinical Child  and Adolescent Psychology ,0(0), 1-9,2014
  • Moretta, P.,  &Trojano, L (2013). A Study of the Psychological Distress in Family Caregivers of a Patients with prolonged disorder of Consciousness during in Hospital Rehabilitation. Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation Vol 28, Issue 7 ,28: 626, doi. 1177/0269215514539626
  • Namovada , Prince.N. (1999). Perceived Stigma and community integration among people with serios illness saved by assertive model university team, Ottawa, onterio.
  • Osborne, L.A,.& Reed, P (2009).Self – Perceived and Parenting Behaviors of a Parents of Children with Autistic Spectrurm Conditions. Journal of Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 405-44
  • Pamela, M., Kato & Traci,M.(1996). Handbook of Diversity Issues in Health Psychology. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.pk/books.
  • Paterson, L.(2007). Stigma, Social Comparison and Psychological Distress in adults with a Learning Disability.  The University of Edinburg.
  • Pooli, R.D. (2004).Stigma notes on the management of spoiled identity. Retrieved from https:||dx.doi.org|10.101.6|so272-7358 (98)0008-7
  • Pryor,E.R.Bos. (2008).Stigma advances in theory and research open University, Heerlen, the Netherlands. Retrieved from Portal.ou.nl/document/pdf
  • Quinn, D.M., Earnshaw, V.A.(2014). Conceable Stigmatized Identities and Pychological Wellbeing. Journal of National Library of Medicine 7(1) 40-51doi: 101111/spc3312005
  • Quinn., D.M & Earnshaw,. V.A.(2013). Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Psychological  wellbeing previewed accepted for publication. H.H.H author peer- reviewed doi; 10,1111
  • Rangnhild, B.N (2007). Wellbeing and Psychological distress faculty of social sciences, University of Oslo No.92
  • Segen,s. (2012). Retrieved from medical dictionary. The free dictionary.com
  • Shetty,S., Menezes, A. (2013). Problems of Mother Handling by the disabled child. Journal of Indian academy neural 14(3) 158-163 doi:104103097232785873
  • Shristava, A., Johnston, M (2012). Stigma of Mental Illness. Journal of National Library of Medicine PMC3353607 10(1)70-84
  • Their, S., & Sultan, S.M. (2013).Psychological distress  among  Caregivers of Patients with Schizophrenia. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad ;25 (3-4) :27-30
  • Thonicraft.G , & Tansella. M. (2010). Mental Health outcome measures. The Royal College of Psychiatrists
  • Todd, F., Heatherton, Robert, E. Kleck, Michelle, R. Hebl, & G. Hull. (2003). The social psychology  of  Stigma. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.pk/books
  • Wang, B., Bonita. S., F.X. (2010). The influence of social stigma and discriminatory experience on psychological distress and quality of life among rural-to-urban migrants in China. International Journal of Social Science and Medicine volume71,issue1,page 84-92.
  • Waqas, A,. & Zubair, M (2014).Social Stigma Associated with Mental Illness in Pakistan University Students. Journal of PMC doi: 10.7717/Peerj.698
  • Wheaton, B. (2007). The twain meets: distress disorder and the continuing conundrum of  categories Health number.11:303-319
  • Williams, Y.(2000). Retrieved from education portal.com/
  • Wim. H.V, Brakel,. K. (2008).Recent evidence and Insights into leprosy related stigma. Retrieved from www.ilep.org.uk
  • Winnie, W.S. Mak & Rebecca, Y.M.,Cheung (2008). Affiliate Stigma Journal of Applied  Research in Intellectual Disabilities Volume 21, Issue 6, pages 532-545
  • Ying. L.V., Wolf. A., & Wang, Xiaoping. (2012). Experienced Stigma and Self –Stigma in Chinese Patients with Schizophrenia General Hospital Psychiatry 35 83-88. Journal homepage:http;//www.ghpjournal.com
  • Zafer, S.A., &Tasheen, R.S (2008).Perceptions about the Cause of the Schizophrenia and the Subsequent Help Seeking Behavior in a Pakistan Population.

Related Posts

Leave a Comment

thirteen − five =