The present research aims to explore the effect of parental involvement in the academic achievement of their children. The research was conducted in urban city of Pakistan. A total of 150 students (boys and girls) of 1 to 5 classes of private schools were taken as respondents. Survey questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. After the analysis of data, it was found that parental involvement has significance effect in better academic performance of their children. The present research has proved that parental involvement enhanced the academic achievements of their children.
Education is essential for the development of society. The more educated the people of a society are, the more civilized and well-disciplined the society might be. Mainly, family has responsibility to socialize children for making them productive members of society. The more the parents involve in the process of imparting education to their children, the more the children might excel in their academic career and to become the productive and responsible members of society. It has been assumed that academic achievement of students may not only depend on the quality of schools and the teachers, rather the extent of parental involvement has vital role to play in academic achievement of their kids.
The focus of Wynn study is to examine a relationship (if any) between the extent of parental involvement in academic activities of their children and the level of their children’s academic achievement. Learning begins at home through interaction with one’s family. Parental involvement in a child’s education along with environmental and economic factors may affect child development in areas such as cognition, language, and social skills. Numerous studies in this area have demonstrated the importance of family interaction and involvement in the years prior to entering school (Wynn, 2002).
His research findings have also shown that a continued effort of parental involvement throughout the child’s education can improve academic achievement (Dresden, Smit & Sleegers, 2005). Academic failure has been linked with risk behaviors and negative outcomes such as; substance abuse, delinquency, and emotional and behavioral problems (Annunziata, Houge, Faw, & Liddle, 2006).
There is little research available on the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement of school students. A majority of the research in this area has been conducted solely with elementary school students (Marjoribanks, 2005). This study may provide an in-depth look at one aspect of parental involvement, involvement in academic activities of their children, and academic achievement of primary school students.
Although little research has been done in the area of parental involvement and primary school students, the literature review examines the many factors that may contribute to the level of parental involvement and academic achievement in primary school. This Master’s research project sought to identify the different levels of parental involvement in academic activities and how parental involvement affects academic achievement of primary school students.
What is Parental Involvement?
The term “parent” includes a legal guardian or other person standing in loco parentis (such as a grandparent or stepparent with whom the child lives, or a person who is legally responsible for the child’s welfare). [Section 9101(31),ESEA.]
The term “parental involvement” means the participation of parents in regular,two-way, meaningful communication involving student academic learning and other school activities, including ensuring that parents play an integral role in assisting their child’s learning;
• That parents are encouraged to be actively involved in their child’s education at school;
• That parents are full partners in their child’s education and are included, as appropriate, in decision-making and on advisory committees to assist in the education of their child; and
• The carrying out of other activities, such as those described in section 1118 of the ESEA. [Section 9101(32), ESEA.]
Parental involvement is may be different from culture to culture and society to society. Parental involvement may have different types, which might have differential influence on academic performance of their children. Parental expectations have a greater impact on student’s educational outcomes.
Parental involvement may include activities like helping children in reading, encouraging them to do their homework independently, monitoring their activities inside the house and outside the four walls of their house, and providing coaching services for improving their learning in different subjects. The role of parental involvement in children’s education has become a central issue in educational policy and research. Research findings support the existence of a positive relationship between parental involvement and educational success, especially in the primary school years.
However, current knowledge regarding the nature and magnitude of the effects of parental involvement in primary education is inconsistent and limited in scope (Singh, Bickley, et al., 1995).
Most of the existing research has investigated parental involvement in the primary and middle grades. Less is known about successful parental involvement in primary school.
Parents play a crucial role in both the home and school environments. In general, parental involvement is associated with children’s higher achievements in language and mathematics, enrolment in more challenging programs, greater academic persistence, better behavior, better social skills and adaptation to school, better attendance and lower drop-out rates (Henderson & Mapp, 2002).
There are many reasons for developing school, family and community partnerships. They can improve school programs and school climate, provide family services and support and increase parent’s skills and leadership, and connect families with others in the school and in the community and help teachers with their work. However, the main reason to create such partnerships is to help children succeed in school and in later life (Epstein, 1995).
Parental involvement categorized into four broad strands; Parental involvement in children’s school-based activities, Parental involvement in children’s at home-based activities, direct parental involvement in academic activities of children and Indirect parental involvement in academic activities of children. It is true that parental involvement level vary among parents. For example mother parent of young children, educated or uneducated parents, father’s involvement, their economic status, family background, social environment.
It is observed that parental involvement with children from early age has been found to equate with better outcomes specially in building their personalities parents are primary guides to them, children try to copy them, and considered them that they are always write so parents can shape their life as they can. Their involvement has positive impact on children academic achievement even when the background factor of such as social class, family size, has been taken into account (Deslorges & Abouchar, 2003).
Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental involvement in academic activities of their children and academic achievement in primary school students. If parents are aware of how their involvement and learning activities with their children affects their child’s learning ability and future, they may be more actively participate in their child’s education.
The objectives of the present study were:
• To study the level of parental participation in Child’s education.
• To study about the informal ways of communication.
• To study the effect of parental involvement on Child’s academic performance.
Hypothesis of the study were:
H0: There is no relationship between Parental participation and success of children in education.
H1: There is a significant relationship between Parental participation and success of children in education.
Significance of the Study
Parental involvement in education of their children has been significantly linked with the quality of education and academic achievement of children. Researchers took this study significant to be conducted to see the parental involvement influencing the academic achievement of students. After going through various studies on sociology of education, researchers have assumed that parental involvement in the study of their children might be a significant factor which enhances the academic achievement of their children.
The information obtained by completing this study will be beneficial to parents, students, and educators. The findings of this research may also be beneficial to educational institutions. The results can be utilized to develop school programs associated with parental involvement in school activities, decisions and homework.
Programs such as these can be implemented to bridge the gap between home and school while improving student’s academic achievement. The result of this study might be useful addition in the existing knowledge of sociology of education. The findings of the study might be useful for the policy planers in the education planning divisions. This would be the practical utility of this present empirical inquiry.
Population, Sample and sampling technique
The population consisted of students currently studying in class 1 to 5 in private schools, situated in Lahore .The sample consisted of 150 students currently studying in class 1 to 5 in private schools, situated in Lahore. The population was selected keeping in view the specific nature of the present research. The researchers wanted to select such a population where the parents might have somewhat orientations and relatively wider understanding about the parental involvement in the academic activities of their children for the last at least two years of their children’s education. The researchers did not select the parents of higher classes or colleges because the parental involvement might have less in higher or college level students. Therefore, the researchers selected the parents of primary level school going students which were studying in 1 to 5 classes (boys and girls) in private schools. The students of primary level were selected because parental involvement in primary level is more as compared to higher levels. In view of these reasons students studying in 1 to 5 class were considered population for conducting this research. The sampling procedure researchers have used for the present research was convenient sampling.
Technique and Tool for Data Collection
Technique used was Survey and questionnaire was used as a tool for the data collection. After reviewing the literature, a questionnaire was designed. Twenty three closed ended questions were included in the questionnaire about personal information; multi dimensions roles and styles of parental involvement related to the academic activities of their children and academic achievement of students. Then it was distributed to the parents of students studying in 1 to 5 classes of private schools.
The researchers administered the 10 questionnaires which were distributed among respondents for the purpose of its pre-testing. In this process, the researchers noted some flaws in the questionnaire, specifically in the ordering of some questions. The pre-testing was completed within a day. In the light of the experiences of pre-testing, the researchers incorporated certain changes (rewording and replacement of certain questions) in the questionnaire. The tool was finalized for the purpose of data collection. The final questionnaire comprised of total 23 questions.
Analysis of Data
Data was analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square test of association is applied to test the association between different variables of interest.