The Relationship Between Love of Learning, Perseverance and Academic Stress in Young Students
Academic stress is one of the main stresses. A type of distress academic mean taking different exams writing different text and assignments. In short academic measure what a person learns. A college students face different kind of stressors like professional pursuits academic deadlines exams paper and projects financial and school loan budgeting money life style behavior friendship intimate relationship (seaward, 2006).
Love of Learning is a positive thing which makes life healthy and free of stress. There are rare researches on love of learning perseverance and academic stress. Love of learning determines one’s ability to accomplish what is needed to interact effectively with people and institutions. Love of Learning is about interest of obtaining knowledge about person, things, and world. Hard work in college to learn, to improve skills and to pursue interesting things, application of this learning, possible ways to learning challenges, and trying to obtain more knowledge rather than stay fixed on previous knowledge (Richard, 2007).
The purpose of this study is to find out relationship between love of learning, perseverance and academic stress in young students.Love of learning, perseverance and academic stress are interrelated with each other because love of learning and perseverance are necessary to overcome the academic stress. This chapter will present definitions of love of learning, perseverance and academic stress and theoretical perspective will also presented. It will then provide a theoretical rationale for the relationship between variables. Stressful events of every level among children and adolescents are significantly related to the emotional and behavioral problems of youngsters(Ash, 2011). However level of problems are different for different individuals because experiences of stress are different. This difference is due to available resources and coping strategies for stressful events by adolescents (Ginsberg, 2011).
1.1 Academic Stress
The word stress means different effects to diverse people and expects from new scientist, no one has really to define it, although it has become part of our daily vocabulary. According to Seyle (1983) it is effort, fatigue, pain, fear, the need for concentration, the humiliation of censure, loss of blood pressure, or even an unexpected success that requires complete regulation of one’s life.
Stress has also been defined as a pattern of disruptive physiological and psychological reaction to event that threatens a person’s ability to cope (Adler, 1992).
Stress is not suitable term it can be defined in terms of external and internal conditions that create stressful occasion and the symptoms experienced by the people in stressful situation.In working place stress is a reaction of persons to novel or aggressive factors in their work surroundings.The reactions to stressful situations are different for different individuals and can effect in affecting, perceptual, behavioural, and physiological changes. Stress is a demonstration of opinion about the expectations (Andrew, 2004).
Stress is induced by the expectations about the future and anxieties about present and future. Good stress and bad stress are similar. Both are induced by thinking about future. Stress itself is not essentially terrible.The expression stress can be measured impartial with the words distress and eustress, distress is bad stress and eustress is good stress which motivates some persons. Stress is not forever pessimistic. It may be best for a person in different times with respect to different situations. It motivate or inspire individuals to find out modern and smarter way of doing things.This helpful aspect of stress is called as eustress, the term stress has a pessimistic suggestion, and this unenthusiastic feature of stress is termed as distress (Blai, 1972).
Stress is a reaction which may be psychological or physical to a long duration internal or external conditions in which an individual’s capabilities to cope with situation are extended more than normal situation. It is an adaptive reaction to a mindful or unconscious risk. It is a consequence of a apparent hazard, andit is not necessary that these situations are related to actual conditions. The quantity of stress that is created by a certain condition depends upon one’s observation of the position, not the circumstances itself. It is a relativistic experience (Williams & Huber, 1986).
Stress results from the dealings of an character and his/her surroundings, as well the relationships that are formed between self and the environment. It can manifest in behavioral, cognitive, and emotional ways. The effects may diminish with a decrease in the level of stress. When stress is prolonged, it can lead to psychological breakdown, social problems, physical ill health, and poor performance at work (Sowygh, 2013).
Albrecht (1979) classified the stress into four categories: first is instance stress, it is forever shaped by a genuine or fantasy goal, second is defensive stress, it is formed when a individual perceives that an future issue will be terrible. Third is situational stress, it can happen when a person is in an disagreeable situation, and they concern about what will occur subsequently, and fourth is encounter stress, it is created by get in touch with other people.
Academic stress along with students have inclusive been researched on, and researchers found and showed in their researches that as too much home work, there is a competition with other fellows, workload and too much lectures in educational setting cause academic stress (Fairbrother& Warn, 2003).
Sumalatha (2013) conducted a study and found academic stress is very harmful for the students, in the form of assignments, pressure from study, workload, exams anxiety, irritation, frustration and so on. As people aware of the educational terms feel great academic stress and anxiety. Those parents who have lack of children and ignore the abilities of their children produce much stress in their children than other.
Those students who observe huge knowledge and have a lack of time, and time management it is also caused academic stress (Carveth, 1996).
Students explain interpretation and experiencing educational pressure at conservative stage all semester with the most sources of learning anxiety significant from beautiful and studying for test, papers, position struggle, and the vast amount of pleased to master in a little measure of instance (Abouserie, 1994).
1.1.1.Predictors of Academic Stress.
In current study love of learning and perseverance are a predictors of academic stress that predict the academic stress.
- 126.96.36.199. Love of learning: Passion of learning and feel affection for of knowledge is indicated by the common mastering new skills, topics, and bodies of knowledge, learning on one’s own or through a proper procedure of training connected to the power of interest, but goes further to explain the tendency to methodically put in to what one knows, in feel with one’s greatest time, position, and method of knowledge excited to contribute to what is being educated from others. When students have love of learning than they have also stress In their educational level, the students who eager to learn more have more academic stress that is why love of learning is a predictor of academic stress (Park & Peterson, 2004).
- 188.8.131.52. Perseverance: Those people who are consisted in their tasks that are called finishers, they move forward through obstacles, they are flexible and optimistic, to be determined is to carry on and to be seriousness. Perseverance and determination is also a predictor of academic stress. When students are more persistence in their tasks than they feel more academic stress so perseverance also predicts academic stress (Park & Peterson, 2004).
There are some researches on the other predictors of academic stress that predict academic stress in different ways.
The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship and analytical assessment between the educational stress and its symptoms in the university students of different universities and also with the relationship of age and gender. In this research they collected data from the students. The main purpose of this study to find out the predictors of the stress and the symptoms of stress. The results revealed that the high level of stress due to pressure of work, assignments and too much work predict high level of academic stress. The results also revealed that female are more feel stress than males. We terminate that precise recognition of stressors could assist to appreciate pressure and its injurious possessions on college students (Asten, 1985).
In another study experienced the predictors of academic stress in college students. In which also described the coping skills, learning styles, parental support, relationship with parents, exams anxiety, social relationship are also examined. There are many students that take part in this study. Results revealed that lot of work in universities, assignments, anxiety about exams all that are experienced by the students caused stress in students are the best predictors of academic stress. Those students who feel much stress in their academic level they are less motivated and have poor performance, and those students who have more motivated and have great performance in academic level they experienced less stress (Kimberly, 2007).
1.1.2. Theoretical Framework.
A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and accessible theories that are used for your particular learning.
- 184.108.40.206 Stress Theories. Following are the theories of stress. That describes the theoretical framework of stress.
- 220.127.116.11. Hansseyle’s views about stress. In seyle formulation he pointed to stressor as being stimuli, which because of their great magnitude lead to the reaction he termed to the General Adaptation Syndrome conversely a person who manifested this syndrome is presumed to be in a state of stress.
- 18.104.22.168. Lazarus views about stress. Lazarus and Folkman (1984) defined stress as a particular association between the individual and the surroundings that is appreciated by the individual as demanding or greater than his or her possessions and endangering his or her well-being.
1.1.3. Factors of Academic stress.
Cheng, (2009) elaborate the factors of educational stress. Stress is a necessary experience in every part of the life of person life. It is usually an affecting difference which may be due to many reasons such as tests, assignments, competition in class, financial problems, future problems, job problems, and many other factors caused academic stress.
- 22.214.171.124. Passionate. It was observed that those students who studying in colleges are more eager to learn something new and are more passionate than those who studying in school and other institutes. Those students who studying in colleges have particular goals that they want to achieve they have proper pathway and need proper awareness in every step of life, but due to stress they also feel anxiety in their lives.
- 126.96.36.199. Adjustment problem. Another factor that causes academic stress in student that is adjustment problem. Most of the students face many problems in the academic life like learning problem, educational problems, occupational problems, financial problems that is why they cannot adjust in anywhere. report suggests that teenagers always face problems in adjusting with various stresses. Due to adjustment problem people are becoming dependent and students are starting to shift their needs and desires to other and have less passion about education.
- 188.8.131.52. Pressure of high grades. University students are often feel stress in their class due to competition in class, they also want to get good position and higher marks in their class it also caused academic stress in students.
- 184.108.40.206. Interpersonal Problems. It was observed that those students who studying in colleges are more eager to learn something new and are more passionate than those who studying in school and other institutes. Those students who studying in colleges have particular goals that they want to achieve they have proper pathway and need proper awareness in every step of life, but due to stress they also feel anxiety in their lives. Students have some interpersonal problems that also caused academic stress in students.
- 220.127.116.11. Excessive Homework. Another information suggests that only obtaining higher grades are not the single source of stress but also too much homework, assignments, workload, pressure of study also the factor of academic stress.
- 18.104.22.168. Financial Problems. Having many reasons of stress a one big reason is financial problem in student those who are not able to pay their dues regularly, they feel embraced and this is a big factor of stress in students
- 22.214.171.124. Problem with faculty. Some other factors relationship with the faculty members are also a big factor that cause pressure and anxiety in students.
- 126.96.36.199. Relation with Family. Some other factors relationship with the family members are also a big factor that cause pressure and anxiety in students, change in appetite and sleep patterns and feel loneliness in gathering caused stress.
- 188.8.131.52. Influence of gender. The level of stress is different in different people like boys and girls in university students. So the pressure of gender is also a reason of stress in university students in educational settings.
1.2. Character Strength
Personality strengths are those aspects of character that are ethically appreciated. As Baum rind (1998) noted, It takes virtuous character to will the good, and competence to do good well. Many higher education and social programs today focus on helping young people acquire academic skills and abilities such as thinking critically. These help young people achieve their life goals, and of course are important. Nonetheless, without good character, individuals may lack the desire to do the right thing.
We have found that students’ academic achievement is influenced by a set of character strengths. Among middle-school students, the character strengths of perseverance, love, gratitude, hope, and perspective predict academic achievement. Similar results are found as well among college students. Learning occurs not just within people but among them, and character strengths can facilitate the process (Park & Peterson, 2004).
Strengths-based models embody a student-centered form of education with the primary goal of transforming students into confident, efficacious, lifelong learners whose work is infused with a sense of purpose (Anderson, 2000). As noted previously, a foundational assumption of strengths-based education is that potential exists in all students and that educators do well to discover and implement the kinds of learning experiences that can help their students realize this potential.
1.3 Love of Learning
Learning is a enduring change of behavior and its potential as a result of experience and it cannot be caused by the change in body state like illness, fatigue (Bresseler, 2007).
Grip and perfection of new skills, topics and new knowledge either by self-attempt or by any other institutional source; it depends on interest and thirst of knowledge to assimilate new knowledge in the previous learning (Park& Peterson, 2008).
Love of learning is about passionately learning new skills, topics, and new phenomenon. The people with passion of learning deals with hurdles and problems during the procedure of learning, either formal learning or informal learning(Park& Peterson, 2008).
Learning is about to manage critical situations that is learn through experience. Learning gives us skills to extract meaning out of situation, people’s reactions and what’s going in our mind. As children we learn that every action has a reaction by adults as we grow older, we learn to analyze these reactions and manage our behavior. A wide social environment helps people to learn these skills because they insist individuals to reevaluate the signals they get from their environment (Black, 1976).
The process of learning to focus on social cues read social cues and give reaction according to the situation is to being socialized into a society. While the learning process start from home environment for children, it is difficult for young people to develop these skills in a broad social setting and to engage in these skills. Among different cultures differently taught about situation and management of situation to the children, but this learning process going on with the passage of time and with respect of age. While no one is a true learner or skilled person to manage the impressions and reactions because the teenage years are the time of developing these skills with the help of experiences (Deborah, 2001).
1.3.1. Components of Love of Learning.
Richard, 2007 has describe the components of love of learning Youth who demonstrate intrinsic motivation, persist in spite of challenges, and have a growth mindset the three main components of Love of Learning are much more likely to achieve goals that are important to them.
- 184.108.40.206 Greater academic success. Researchers found that youth study due to some reason like they enjoy studying, they have interest in deeper learning, richer, and longer lasting. They are also more determined, more artistic and more prone to accept challenging work.
- 220.127.116.11 Better emotional health. Youth who want to learn how to relax them than the students who face threats and hurdles while achieving more knowledge than previous. Youth with a love of learning may also have lower levels of depression because they develop skills to overcome obstacles, rather than ruminate over problems and setbacks.
- 18.104.22.168 Increase Feelings of Competence. Nothing motivates youth more than a feeling of competence. Feelings of competence do not merely come from achieving success, but rather, from achieving success at challenging tasks. These are tasks that require youth to develop new skills, but are not so difficult that they discourage them. Conversely, if the task is too easy, youth are less likely to exert effort or find rewards in accomplishment.
- 22.214.171.124 Allow Autonomy and Choice. Youth, like adults, are more highly motivated by activities that they choose rather than activities they are told to do. To build youth motivation: Ask youth what they want to do rather than dictating what they should do. Give youth control over their learning processes while providing the appropriate amount of structure. Provide the minimum level of monitoring and rules required, as such limitations can undermine their feelings of control and decrease motivation.
- 126.96.36.199 Set Learning Goals. Studies have demonstrated repeatedly that youth with learning goals both learn better and enjoy it more. Learning goals encourage youth to focus on mastery and learning, which are more under the youth’s control, rather than focusing on getting a high score, which is out of the youth’s control. The latter can cause wasteful perfectionism and shallow learning. Adults can encourage motivation through learning goals by, emphasizing the value of learning and deemphasizing external evaluation of performance. Giving substantive feedback that shows students where they were successful, why they improved, and how they can improve further.
- 188.8.131.52 Avoid Extrinsic Rewards. Extrinsic rewards can undermine a youth’s intrinsic motivation. If used incorrectly, young people can become addicted to extrinsic rewards, and they may only perform tasks when there is a reward, even for those who were previously intrinsically motivated. Adults avoid this by Using tangible extrinsic rewards as little as possible, using the most modest of rewards, and ending the offer of rewards as soon as possible. Making rewards contingent upon the quality of work or improvement on a challenging task, not simply on engaging in an activity. Giving rewards some of the time (partial reinforcement), rather than continuously.
- 184.108.40.206 Encourage Persistence. Self-disciplined children are more likely to work hard and persist for long-term rewards. Adults can promote persistent behavior by: Sharing role models of people who experienced initial difficulty followed by gradual success to demonstrate that persistent effort can help overcome difficulties. Reinforce the belief that success is possible. Promoting the feeling of belonging among minority students, especially in the face of adversity.
- 220.127.116.11 Develop a Sense of Purpose. Research by Quigley Institute for Student Aspirations shows that when students see a purpose to their learning, they are more motivated to succeed. Help youth reflect on how what they’re learning, whether a topic, skill or strategy, is relevant, and how the effort serves a greater purpose.
1.3.2. Theories of Learning.
Following are the theories of learning that describe the theoretical framework of learning. Richard describes these theories of learning.
- 18.104.22.168 Plato theory of Learning. Plato was the first major rationalist and the first natives. He proposed a reminiscence theory of knowledge where knowing was explained as remembering the pure knowledge that the soul had experienced before entering the body.
- 22.214.171.124 Aristotle theory of learning. He believed sensory experience to be the basis of all knowledge; he was the first major empiric. He also proposed the law of similarity, contrast, contiguity, and frequency to explain how ideas become associated with other ideas.
- 126.96.36.199 Berkeley, George theory of learning. He said we can have no direct knowledge of the external world; we experience only the ideas that is causes us to have. His belief that nothing exist unless it is perceived led to his famous dictum to be is to be perceived (Berkeley, 1685).
- 188.8.131.52. Ebbinghaus, Hermann theory of learning. He was the first to study learning and memory experimentally. Demonstrating how the law of frequency worked in the forming of new associations, he invented nonsense material to control for previous experience in a learning situation.
- 184.108.40.206. Hobbes, Thomas theory of learning. He reasserted Aristotle’s doctrine of associations and also suggested that experiences of pleasure and pain influence how associations are formed.
- 220.127.116.11. Romanes, George John theory of learning. An early comparative psychologist who’s evident for the continuity between nonhuman and human mental process was anecdotal and replete with anthropomorphizing.
- 18.104.22.168. Thorndike theory of learning. Thorndike observed that in the learning of also nation is a factor in addition to contiguity and the law of effect was often involved. If the element of an association somehow belonged together, the association between them was learned and retained more readily than if the element did not belong together.
According to Rossman, (1985) perseverance can be defined as the ability to stick with the same point of view as previous after negative influences, resistance, or discouragement. As young adolescents deals with challenges and hurdles that can be physical , social, academic, ethical, and moral, they will need to stick to their point of view to cope with this situation. It is necessary to be satisfied with this and coping with these challenges and hurdles before they experience them.
Physically, young adolescence bodies are growing; this may induce them feeling of self-conscious and uncontrolled. They need to introduce to school athletics that required this kind of temperament and stamina to deal with difficult situation. They must stick to this to accept such kind of changes and to build self-confident image. And it necessary to understand that it required practice and repetition to develop perseverance and to improve you to take participate athletic task to achieve their goals in physical competitions. Socially, students are starting and changing their views about social norms. Capability to maintain a positive self-image and confident among others that are going through the same procedure or change as you are, is often embarrassed and confusing (Beane, 1993).
Early stages of youth must persist in the center of changes among their peers. Academically, the strictness is growing and requiring more focus and responsibility in facilitating given tasks. Young students have fresh mind which continuously formulating and evaluating what they have been taught. They need respect from others but challenged. Heard, but helped. Morally, adolescents are more puzzled than ever and will require logical perspective approaches to analyze evaluate idea and judgments. They must stick to all of these changes (Beane, 1993).
However, to find stability in perseverance you need to be capable to cope all of these difficulties very politely and efficiently. Perseverance is when you are capable to deal with hurdles rationally rather than complaining. Instead of being irritated about any task you need to move further efficient. It may obtain some time before you understand this point, but when you do, you will have a skill to move further that could never end you no issue what (Beane, 1993).
A stable and continues performance of one’s work or duties even when it is painful or risky, loyalty, hard work, persistence and stamina is called perseverance (Park Peterson, 2007).
Working hard and long lasting is not only applied frequently but also a way of simple life. It is persistently power full. Without giving up and trying again it is a capability to deal with failure (Reiff, Gerber, & Ginsberg, 1992).
People have faith that they can create most wanted effects by their dealings, they are slightly motivated about their beliefs to influence aspirations and power of objective commitments, intensity of inspiration and insistence to deal with difficulties and setbacks, strictness to difficulty, worth of logical view, fundamental attributes for successes and failures, and exposure to pressure and sadness (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, &Pastorelli, 1996).
1.4. Theories of Perseverance.
Following are the theories of perseverance that describe the theoretical framework of perseverance.
- 22.214.171.124. Affect Perseverance Theory. Affect perseverance is a theory about our mental state. It is about affections and emotions towards a individual of love. Influence insistence is a situation of the mentality when expressive partiality for a particular someone or objective continues even though the unique feeling and consideration are unacceptable. In simple words, it is maintenance of care for somebody even after the thing or criteria which we liked in that person do not survive any longer (Ginsberg, 2011).
- 126.96.36.199. Belief Perseverance Theory. Belief perseverance theory argued that when cognitive changes occur idea is strongly associated to feeling, and may continue intact still. Even if he changes and becomes abusive, the feeling of love may persist. This theory is relevant for anybody who is engaged in motivating people, whether in business or in the classroom (Strup, 2011).
1.5. Love of learning and Perseverance
Love of learning has positive association with perseverance. Basically character strength are individual characteristics which indicate the inside emotional and psychological processes that identified and précised the different aspects of personality that are ethically valued. Our inborn strength talent, capabilities, power of skills, and potency of outside possessions and support are different from the important feature of our personality. While all of these aspects of strength are significant, character strengths provide a opportunity to build these areas (Park,2004).
For example, students’ academic capabilities like love about education was initiate to be considerable predictors of cognitive amendment in humanity, optimistic emotions and coping with pressure. Usually, purposive education abilities as calculated by aptitude tests have been straight associated with cognitive adjustment to school and grades of school. Interestingly, in this study, the logical strengths, which have been termed the power of the head Park and Peterson (2010), constituted by inspirational parts of knowledge such as inquisitiveness and passion for education, extrapolated to cognitive modification to middle school.
The pleasure religion, appreciation, anticipate, keenness, and interest are significantly correlated with character strength, those most correlated with the commitment means to joy are passion, inquisitiveness, trust, firmness, and feel affection for of education. Finally, those correlated with the enjoyment way to cheerfulness are humor, passion, hope, shared brain power, and care for of education In common, the Big pleasure Strengths those life satisfaction character strengths have significant association with love of learning and perseverance (Park & Peterson, 2010).