Intellectual development disorder also consider as intellectual disability(ID) and officially known as Mental retardation, is a disorganization that is describe by the existence of deficiency in a person’s mental capacity. These deficiencies are existed in areas such as thinking logical, resolve problem, intellectual thinking, common sense, designing, qualification and gain an understanding through historic material. A person, who has ID, will also suffer partially characterized it’s working, which can be reached to a loser in achieving mental standards that are very much compulsory for a person to generate reasonable social responsibility and personal freedom.
Intellectual development disorder(IDD), in the past consider as intellectual development disorder, is a phrase that is utilize when a person has lower sense of fumier or poor mental condition. Shortage of ability compulsory for daily routine life is also generally related with this type of order. When we talk about intellectual development disorder, there are different degrees fall between light to critical. Small Childs and teenagers with intellectual development disorder have power to learn new abilities, but a little bit slow then other peoples. These children have to face a lot of problems during conveying their requirements and needs and normally face tough situation during their take care. In many occurrences, these sorts of individuals require helper for walking, speaking, dressing and eating.
Within the first two years of a child’s life can be verified that he or she has some serious intellectual disabilities by hold up in motor functioning, language problems and social hurdles. Normally, light intellectual disorder may not be recognizable until child is stretch out to school age, when academic provocations are ready for child. While it commonly happen during growing period, but there is also a chance to create intellectual disability due to any disease or brain injury.
IDD is a life time condition need deliberation of developmental terms and life events. A development approach which includes complicated factors known to effect the possession of well known skills and characterized behavior is compulsory to learn IDD, and to give the reasonable involvement and care for long time period that guides a person in approaching his or her capability for development.
People with intellectual disabilities are mostly treat as insignificant from mainstream healthcare services just because of difficulties of their disabilities. They are treated by such specialist who have little knowledge of this role and less competent with work just like relieving pain without dealing with the cause. As well as, caring of people professionally with intellectual disabilities and care services without knowing actual reason, mostly having shortage of knowledge about this matter and having less confidence about their skills regarding intellectual development disorder.
Types of Intellectual Development Disorder
An intellectual development disorder may happen because of heredity problem, complications during pregnancy and birth, any specific disease or health issue and environmental issue.
In Australia, 3% people are facing this problem by consider this a common initial disorder, and consequential problems in daily routine that is self care, communication, meeting with other people and safety.
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS)
All over the world FXS is most commonly known genetic intellectual development disorder . FXS is happen because of genetically change occur in DNA structure, in X chromosome.
People who have FXS have to face a huge span of problems of bodily, growth, behavioral and feelings but height of seriousness may be change. Few similar symptoms comprise delay in growth, intellectual development disorder, problem in conveying message, nervousness, ADHD and behavior just like mentally retarded children such as moving hands, difficult to meet different people, difficult to process sensory information and confusion in eye contact. With this problem, boys are more affected then girls, such as 1 boy in 3600 boys and 1 girl in 4000-6000 girls.
Down syndrome is basically not the illness; it is heredity confusion which happen then a person by birth having completed or half, in their DNA another pair of chromosome 21 .In every year in Australia, almost children in2700 quantity or single in 1100 children having Down syndrome. Down syndrome is very common heredity chromosome disorder which causes disability in children. Down syndrome keeps a span of similar attributes of bodily and growth also has a high rate of respiratory and heart problems. People having Down syndrome having different kind of disabilities but these may vary from one person to another person. Attributes related to down syndrome are small physic, round shape face and slight upward slant of the eyes. Although .down syndrome have same physical attributes but they also very much resemble with their family members.
When a child physically grow slower as compare to other children of the same age then he has development delay. More than one areas of its growth may effect which includes their efficiency to move, communication, learn, understand and meeting with difficulty with other children. Children growth rate and their maturity rate are different from each other. Some times their growth rate is improved according to age but their behavior, their movements and talk not resemble with the children of same age group. This type of development delay can create many problems on their learning and understanding.
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)
Prader willi syndrome is unique and complicated heredity confusion almost single in 10000-20000 people. This disability is too much complicated and its reason is deformity of genes chromosome 15.
Most common symptoms of PWS is continuously and unsustainable hunger which starts from the age of 2 years. Because their brain did not send message that they have enough food so they always feel empty and recommend of food every time. Although the symptoms are very unique but muscle problems and small structure are very common. Children find difficulties in solving problems, in language and in maths.Some pws may have specific feature by birth like almond eyes shape, a tapered head, a tiny upper lip, dull skin and hair and not balance mouth.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
FASD related to a series of states which are because of vulnerability of unborn fatus with alcohol. When a mother become pregnant, alcohol from blood stream can reached to baby’s body and includes in his body.
The symptoms can be changed but mostly, specific feature, distortion of joints, organs damaged like kidney and heart, difficult in understanding and learning. Poor judgement, behavioral issues, social meeting issues and growth problems. Sometimes .due to same symptoms, misdigonose like Autism and ADHD.
Causes of Intellectual Development Disorder
Intellectual development disorder can be happen due to many reasons that exist during pregnancy in the brain, during birth or in the childhood years. A large number of reasons have discovered but still one-third disorder couldn’t be recognized. Few of them are given below:
These are because of heredity abnormalities from parents to children. problem occur when genetic combination occur or made different disorder of genes while baby birth due to any infection, high use of x rays and any other issue. Many times of genetic diseases are related to intellectual development disorder. PKU is given as example, solo gene confusion. Because of unpresent or defective enzyme, children having no complete protein part called phenylalanine. If no proper conduction done, phenylalanine creates in blood and become cause of mental development disorder like Down syndrome.
Problem During Pregnancy
During pregnancy, use of drugs and alcohol can cause intellectual development disorder. In real, alcohol consider as major cause of intellectual development disorder. Recent research shows that smoking is also the cause of disorder. Other factors such as malnutrition, environmental toxics and illness of mother during pregnancy. Problem at birth, premature or low weight birth can also be the serious causes. Problems during birth like serious injury or oxygen deprivation may also cause intellectual disorder.
After Birth Issues
All problems or sickness like Whooping cough, chicken pox, measles, and hib illness are the after childhood problems which may cause damage mind, as can injuries such as a movement of head and moving around .harmful toxics like lead, mercury and other may destroy nervous system and mind.
Poverty and Cultural Deprivation
Childhood development in poverty may cause a childhood disease, malnutrition, unhealthy hazards, and often unreasonable healthcare. All given points are the reasons of mental development disorder. Peers live in poor atmosphere may face many cultural, educational atmosphere which other young children didn’t know. Research suggests that such causes May irreversible damage and can cause intellectual development disorder. Fragile X syndrome is an example of this problem.