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Huawei Training and Development of Human Resources

Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction 1
        1.1 The concept of training and development

        1.2 The importance of training and development

1-2

2

2.0 Content 3
        2.1 Description

                  2.1.1 Different type of trainees

                  2.1.2 Different forms of Training and Development

                  2.1.3 Different nature of Training and Development

                  2.1.4 Different content of Training and Development

        2.2 Discussion

        2.3 Theories or Concepts

        2.4 Contributions or significance of training and development

3

3

3-4

4

4

4

4-5

5-6

3.0 Case Development 7
        3.1 Profile of Company

        3.2 Human Resource Practices

        3.3 Data, article and statistic to support

        3.4 Advantages and Disadvantages

7

7-8

8-10

10-12

4.0 Recommendation 13-14
5.0 Conclusion 15
Reference 16-17

1.0 Introduction

At present, in the fierce market competition, an enterprise must have talents, technology, information and resources to support its rapid development. Among them, the quality of talents plays an immeasurable role in the development of enterprises because it faces the challenges of globalisation, high quality and high efficiency, training, and development are more important. It makes the knowledge, skills and attitude of employees improved and improved, so as to improve the enterprise efficiency and obtain the competitive advantage.

Under training and development of human resources refers to a series of planned and organised learning and training for employees in order to meet the needs of the continuous development of enterprises, improve the knowledge and skills of employees, improve the working attitude of employees, and enable them to be competent for their own work and constantly innovate Practice activities. Therefore, the synchronous growth of employees and enterprises can be realised by improving the ability of employees. Although training and development are similar in the same way, actually the two definitions of existence are quite different.

 

1.1 The Concept of Training and Development

Training is an organised knowledge transfer, skill transfer, standard transfer, information transfer, belief transfer and management admonition behavior. Among its, skill transfer is the main task because it is focusing on pre-employment. It is a planned activity to improve employees’ learning and work-related ability such as knowledge, skills and behaviors that play a key role in job performance. They are the necessary work of human resource development. For example, to the company’s newly recruited sales staff to demonstrate how to grasp the psychology of consumers better, promote the company’s products, and promote the company’s brand. In other words, the training focuses on short-term goals. It focuses on improving the performance of employees’ current work, so as to develop their technical skills and enable them to master the basic work knowledge, methods, steps and processes. Therefore, it is mandatory.

In contrast, development refers to the activities of formal education, on-the-job practice, interpersonal interaction, and evaluation of personality and ability for the future development of employees. In other words, development focuses on training and improving the relevant quality of managers such as creativity, comprehensiveness, abstract reasoning, personal development in order to help employees to prepare for other work in the enterprise, improve their ability to face a future career, and help employees better adapt to changes brought about by new technology, job design, customers or product market.

1.2 The Importance of Training and Development

Human resource training is an important means of human resource development. Human resource development is the primary way to continuously improve the quality of personnel, improve the quality and efficiency of work. It refers to the management activities that a certain organisation adopts various ways to train and train employees in a purposeful and planned way to meet the needs of developing business and cultivating talents. Its goal is to make employees constantly update their knowledge, to develop skills and improve employees’ motivation, attitude and behavior are to adapt to the new requirements, better competent for the current job or take on higher-level positions, so as to promote the improvement of organisational efficiency and the realisation of organisational goals.

Training and development are important parts for the employee because according to researchers Nda & Fard (2013) show that training and development are tools to help humans explore their dexterity. Therefore, training and development of the organisation’s productivity are essential to the workforce. In order for the organisation to get the best return from its investment, it is necessary to manage training and development programs to employees effectively. Moreover, the results of the research show that there is a strong relationship between training and development on employee performance and competitive advantage. Therefore, senior managers should not slack down on the requirement of staff training and development, in order to develop new ideas, so as to continuously improve and maintain on employee effectiveness and efficiency (Falola, Osibanjo, & Ojo, 2014).

2.0 Content

2.1 Description

Employee training and development refers to a kind of planned and continuous training and training activities carried out by the organisation according to the needs of employees and organisational development, in order to improve employees’ knowledge and skills, change their working attitude, improve their performance and enhance the overall performance of the organisation. In order to get positive and obvious ideal effect, employee training and development must be constantly innovated in the concept and method of training.

2.1.1 Different Type of Trainees

Therefore, in practice, it is found that there are various forms of training and development, and the identification of these types will help to deepen understanding of training and development. According to different standards, training and development can be divided into different types. Firstly, based on the different training objects, training development can be divided into two categories which are new staff training and on-the-job staff training. New employee training refers to the training of new employees who have just entered the enterprise; on-the-job staff training refers to the training of employees who have already worked in the enterprise.

Huawei Training and Development of Human Resources

Since the different training objects, there is a big difference between the two types of training. The training of new employees is relatively simple, so the training development is usually aimed at the latter. However, the on-the-job staff training can be further divided into three categories which are grass-roots employee training, middle-level employee training and senior employee training. Based on the different positions, responsibilities and functions of these three types of employees in the organisation, so the management will treat them differently, focus on different contents and adopt different methods.

2.1.2 Different forms of Training and Development

Training forms are different because the company can divide training development into on-the-job training and off-the-job training. On the job training refers to that employees do not leave their jobs and receive training in the actual work process; off the job training refers to employees leaving their jobs and receiving specialised training. These two forms of training have their own advantages and disadvantages. The organisation need to choose the appropriate form according to the actual situation in the implementation process.

2.1.3 Different nature of Training and Development

Training and development can be divided into imparting training and changing training. Imparting training refers to the training that enables employees to master the contents that they do not have. For example, employees do not know how to operate machine tools, and they can operate through training. This kind of training is imparting training. Transformative training refers to the training that changes the content of employees. For example, employees know how to operate the machine tool, but the operation method is wrong. Through training, they can master the correct operation method. This kind of training is called transformative training.

2.1.4 Different content of Training and Development

Training development can be divided into knowledge training, skill training and attitude training. Knowledge training refers to the training with professional knowledge as the main content, skill training refers to the training with working technology and working ability as the main content, and attitude training refers to the training with working attitude as the main content. These three kinds of training are of considerable significance to the improvement of employees’ effectiveness and efficiency, so the organisation require to pay enough attention to them in training.

2.2 Discussion

Training and development must be designed and delivered to meet the needs of all employees so that employees are not only productive but also satisfied. It will help employee work more efficiently, strengthen interpersonal and technical skills, work in teams, self-confidence and motivation (Kate, Cherrie, Brian, Zhang & Shao 2009). As a result, knowledge, skills, and capabilities are the determinants of employee performance to determine for organisations need to continue to invest wisely to improve employee productivity.

2.3 Theories or Concepts

Scientific Management theory as relevant theories that are associated with the training and development on employee’s effectiveness and efficiency when the theorists Frederick Winslow Taylor mention that if company want to replace the limited output with the maximum output, each of employee require to give full play to the maximum work efficiency and obtain the greatest success. That is to replace the low-cost production model with the high-efficiency production mode, so as to strengthen the labour cost control (Myers, 2011). Therefore, through scientific observation, recording and analysis, the organisation are committed to “time action research”, explore the best way to improve labour productivity and formulate a reasonable daily workload. Next, select and train first-class workers. The so-called first-class workers refer to those who are suitable for a certain job and are willing to work hard. Then, provide training, educate and develop their skills in order to make the workers master the standardised operation method, use the standardised tools, machines and materials, and operate in the regulated working environment.

Moreover, Behavioural Theory of Management are also associated with the training and development on employee’s effectiveness and efficiency due to the results of Hawthorne’s experiment negate the hypothesis of human in traditional management theory and show that employees are not passive and isolated individuals. Their behaviour is not only stimulated by wages, but also the interpersonal relationship in work. In other words, people’s behavior is not simply motivated by the pursuit of money, but also by social and psychological needs, that is, the search of friendship, security, belonging and respect among people. Therefore, if the company provide the training and development for particulars employee so the employees will be more productive because it can improve workers’ satisfaction and they know they being studied by upper management.

2.4 Contributions or Significance of Training and Development

The organisation is able to create team cohesion among the employees because the organisation is continuously carrying out training and development, inculcating organisation values to employees, cultivating ethical behavior norms so that employees can work consciously and form a good and harmonious working atmosphere. Training can enhance the employee’s sense of identity with the organisation, enhance the cohesion of everyone in the team, and have more team spirit. Next, it also encourages employee in drive work enthusiasm because it’s allowing employees with outstanding training performance to visit the advanced organisation in other places, encouraging employees to take advantage of their spare time for further study and reimbursement of expenses by training measures of an organisation. Moreover, it brings an improvement of skill and ability level for employees. Training and development are aimed at the post needs of each employee. The requirements of post specification, professional knowledge and professional ability are regarded as the important objectives of on-the-job training in the order they are more inclined to the higher level of technical upgrading and job promotion, so as to improve the professional knowledge and technical ability of employees and adapt to the needs of future posts.

3.0 Case Development

3.1 Profile of Company

Huawei Technologies CO., LTD. is the world’s leading information and communication technology (ICT) solution provider. It focuses on ICT, adheres to steady operation, continuous innovation and open cooperation. It has built an end-to-end solution advantage in telecom operators, enterprises, terminals and cloud computing, providing competitive ICT solutions, products and services for operators, enterprises and consumers in order to commit to the realisation of the future information society and the construction of a better-connected world. In other words, Huawei focuses on the field of ICT infrastructure, continuously innovates around the needs of the government and public. In term of utilities, finance, energy, power and transportation, and provides ICT products and solutions that can be integrated by partners to help enterprises improve the efficiency of communication, office and production systems and reduce operating costs.

3.2 Human Resource Practices

Human resource management refers to the process of using scientific methods to coordinate the relationship between people and task by deal with the contradictions between people, give full play to employee’s potential, make them become the best to use of their talents, make things suitable for them, and achieve organisational goals. In order to help their employees constantly surpass themselves, Huawei has established various training centers because the founder of Huawei, Ren Zhengfei realise that training is vital. It is an important means to implement the company’s strategic intention, promote management progress and train cadres, and is an important step for the company to lead to the future and tomorrow. The company encourage their employee to make full use of this “big platform” and strive to learn advanced science and technology, management skills, scientific thinking methods and working methods.

Firstly, Huawei has established a global network of training centers to train tens of thousands of employees around the world. At present, Huawei’s overseas training centers have covered Latin America, Asia Pacific, Middle East and North Africa, CIS and other regions. In China, in addition to its training headquarters in Shenzhen, Huawei has established regional training centers in Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Kunming, Hangzhou and Chongqing. Huawei’s training system is a “classified, hierarchical and systematic” system, including new employee training system, management training system, technical training system, marketing training system, professional training system and production training system.

Next, Huawei’s training and development cover many fields. When taking pre-job training as an example, the training able to help new employees integrate into Huawei as soon as possible, Huawei University conducts training on new employees in terms of corporate culture, organisational process, product knowledge, marketing skills, etc. In addition, Huawei has developed different training and developments plans for on-the-job employees with diverse professional qualifications, levels and categories, and has targeted technical and management training for employees, providing persuasive help for the career development of each employee. In order to adapt to the international development strategy, the company requires the employee to learn English and understand English.

Moreover, Huawei training system has gathered first-class teachers, teaching technology and teaching environment, with more than 1000 full-time and part-time training teachers. These teachers have been evaluated and screened through strict procedures. Among them, there are both senior trainers and experienced Huawei experts and engineers, which is the guarantee for employees to acquire work-related knowledge and skills through training. In order to make the majority of employees face their work and life with a better mentality, Huawei also employs several highly respected retired experts and professors to work in Huawei. They have rich life experience and scientific research methods. Through ideological exchange and emotional counselling, they can effectively help employees establish correct concepts, master scientific methods, and promote the growth and development of employees.

3.3 Data, Article and Statistic to Support

With Huawei becoming the most important cross-cultural organisation in the world, the source of human resources in a considerable number of enterprises is increasingly showing an international trend. More and more employees from different countries and nationalities have different cultural backgrounds, and their values, needs, attitudes and behaviours are quite different. This kind of cultural differences within enterprises will inevitably lead to cultural conflicts. Huawei highlighted one of the important points which is when employees lack the knowledge and skills of cross-cultural communication, and cultural differences will lead to misunderstanding and unnecessary friction, which will affect work efficiency and reduce the competitiveness of enterprises. Therefore, Huawei implements the cross-cultural training strategy and lets its employees receive relevant training in the training department before going abroad, such as local culture and related products. Daily training also includes seminars, language training, books, websites, discussions and simulation exercises. These training improve the adaptability of employees with different cultural backgrounds and promote communication and understanding between employees with different cultural backgrounds (UKEssays. 2018).

Huawei Raining and Development of Human Resources

Table 1 shows the total number of trainees, the total training time per person and the average training hours of Huawei employees from 2011 to 2013 can be seen that the number of employees participating in the training gradually increases because Huawei has its own training system and progress to train its employees to have sufficient working skills. Training methods, training principles and results are very typical. There are many Chinese elements in staff training (Zhou, 2015). Huawei’s employee training system includes the existing staff training system, management training system, technical training system, marketing training system, production system and professional knowledge system as Huawei four ways to train its employees (Bai 2011; Ren 2013). Huawei University employs teachers from the company’s outstanding marketing managers and requires them to impart experience to new employees in practice. Everyone in Huawei University has a private teacher to provide relevant training and development for employees to solve their current or future work difficulties. It can help employees get to know Huawei and become one of them as soon as possible. (Ren 2013) 

In 2019, Huawei opened more than 36000 offline courses to more than 120000 employees, with a total attendance rate of over 300000. These offline courses account for 48% of Huawei’s total staff, which means that the employees spent an average of more than 30 training hours. Huawei has also established an online learning platform through which employees can receive online training anytime, anywhere. This platform allows them to keep up with the latest development of practical skills required for their work and profession. The iLearning platform provides a large number of high-quality training courses. Its interactive mode makes training possible, both efficient and attractive (Huawei, 2019). Training on this platform requires many different forms, including live courses, micro-courses and small private online courses. By the end of 2019, 139 series course and 16322 learning resources will be available to employees.

3.4 Advantages and Disadvantages

According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs show that human needs are various, and the highest need is self-development and self-actualisation. Receiving education and training according to their own needs, is the affirmation and satisfaction of self-actualisation needs. The ultimate purpose of training is to Huawei’s development strategy, and at the same time, it should be combined with the personal career development of employees, so as to realise the matching of the quality of employees and the business strategy of Huawei. This system integrates the personal development of employees into Huawei’s development track so that employees can not only serve the company to promote the realisation of Huawei’s strategic goals. However, it also achieves personal development and personal achievements by participating in training at corresponding levels according to the clear career development goals. In addition, the fierce competition in the talent market also makes employees realise that improving their skills and abilities is the basis of their foothold in the current society.

Moreover, Huawei as one of the international company in China would have ranked 61st on the Fortune 500 list, so it requires more and more compound management talents are needed to lay a good talent foundation for opening up a broader world market. On the other hand, employee training and development can improve Huawei’s Research and Development (R&D) ability of new products. It is an indisputable fact that employee training is to train and develop high-quality talents to gain competitive advantages continuously. In particular, human society has entered a new era based on knowledge-based economic resources and information resources, and intellectual capital has become a critical factor in obtaining productivity, competitiveness and economic achievements. Huawei’s competition no longer relies on natural resources, cheap labor, sophisticated machines and abundant financial resources, but mainly relies on knowledge-intensive human capital. Therefore, the way to create intellectual capital through employee training is because intellectual capital consists of basic skills, advanced skills. For example, Huawei employee able to use technology to share information with other employees, understand customers and production systems and self-stimulate creativity.

In contrast, each training center of Huawei has a teaching team composed of nearly 100 seniors their network experts who have participated in the construction of various large-scale operation level network which including data communication, optical network, core network, wireless and access network products, as well as related industry marketing and management fields. Over the years, many senior lecturers of various specialities have won the title of Huawei gold medal lecturer, and participate in teacher experience sharing activities for training benchmark. The training has charge Huawei’s high cost because the cost of such external professional training instructors is relatively high, such as accommodation, meals, travel expenses, etc., which add up to be quite expensive. Even if the participants need to pay part of the expenses, Huawei reduces the costs in order to encourage employees to participate in the training. In terms of time arrangement, it is difficult for all employees to gather together for training. Even that was one of the special training, but it needs to be held several more classes so that each employee can spare his own time to attend.

Next, Huawei always promotes the value-added of employees and encourage them to participate in training when they have free time in order to improve their professional knowledge and technical ability. Although Huawei has been encouraging their employees, through the pressure can make the employee production work with effectiveness and efficiency, but once the pressure is too big, it will make the employee’s spirit decadent and lost. Therefore, some employees will think about whether they are suitable for the job because they feel that the fast pace of life when working at Huawei and they always working overtime. Sometimes the holidays are no exception due to employees need to attend the training to improve themselves. In other words, they usually don’t have any spare time to relax, since almost all their time will contribute to the jobs.

4.0 Recommendation

The decision-making of employee training is of great strategic significance because it requires a lot of capital and human capital, which is a rare source of strategic resources and competitive advantages. Of course, the choice between “make or buy” is to compare, and each option has a different standard. So far, outsourcing training has been provided, such as cost reduction, lack of internal capabilities, acquisition of best practices and talents, minimisation of capital costs, timeliness, focus on core and peripheral training tasks, improve quality, measurement and competitiveness, and enhance training functions (Richman and Trondsen, 2004, DeViney and Sugrue, 2004, Gainey et al., 2002). Therefore, Huawei can convert most of the traditional internal training to online training platform, which is iLearning. Since, offline training needs the cost of venue, lecturer and time-consuming. When Huawei choosing online internal training platform for their employee not need to pay those fees.  First of all, it dramatically reduces the cost of the enterprise’s training site and does not need offline training.

Moreover, the training program will become more flexible because they can learn anytime and anywhere. They only need to release learning tasks and the employees can complete the tasks within the specified time. There is no need to take out special time for training, which reduces the time cost. According studies in many literatures show that there is no significant difference in the amount of learning when people acquire knowledge through classroom training and distance learning (Russell, 1998).

Moreover, for the company in response to these pressures to adopt environmental practices, the company’s resource-based view believes that the company will build the necessary capabilities and capabilities to be able to compete more effectively. Tactical ability is established by training workers and acquiring knowledge and skills through training. The ability to manage and balance these external and internal pressures is not only important for organisational management, but also provides policymakers and partners with a broader supply chain perspective (Sarkis, Gonzalez-Torre, & Adenso-Diaz, 2010). Once the contrast between pressure and ability is too large, the employee will be unable to bear it, and the efficiency will be lower and lower because stress has an impact on personal physical and mental health, enterprise productivity and the burden of social public service departments. In the United States alone, the economic losses caused by excessive employee pressure exceed $150 billion a year, mainly due to the reduction of productivity caused by frequent absenteeism, absent-minded and decreased creativity. Huawei can provide health care or health programs to employees and encourage them to develop a good and healthy lifestyle. For example, the company have set up special health care rooms to provide employees with all kinds of exercise and relaxation equipment for free and hire full-time health instructor to supervise exercise plans and activities. Huawei also provides funds for people with fitness habits to encourage them to keep fit. Through fitness and exercise, not only can the physical health of employees be maintained because this is the basis of mental health, but also the pressure of employees can be released and vented to a large extent rather than just always join the training in order to make timely adjustments, change passive into active, reduce pressure.

Besides, Huawei should launch the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) services to help members of the organisation overcome the stress and psychological suffering brought about the work. According to Hartwell, Steele, French, Potter, Rodman, and Zarkin (1996) mention that the EAP work-based process is identifying problem employees, motivating them to solve problems, and providing counselling or treatment to employees who need these services. Huawei can hire senior professionals as psychological counselors to provide free psychological counseling to employees under pressure, so that employees can reach a consensus. Psychological counseling for employees is a very effective scientific method in providing mental support because it’s able helping them improve their social adaptability, relieving psychological pressure and maintaining mental health. Therefore, through psychological counseling, we can understand the ideas of employees with poor ability and give them more attention and active care, so that they can feel that they are not discriminated against, and they will work harder and more wholeheartedly, open their hearts and take the initiative to accept those colleagues who are better than themselves while top employees have better understanding after attend the training and development program.  As a result, effective employee stress management is conducive to reduce the psychological pressure of employees, maintain appropriate pressure and the best pressure, so as to improve the work efficiency of employees and improve the performance of the whole organisation.

5.0 Conclusion

All employees in Huawei must keep learning, whether new employees or existing employees will implement different levels of training and development plans. Training is an essential element of learning enterprises. The training designed by Huawei for all kinds of employees has strong pertinence and sound system. In addition, Huawei also promotes mutual learning and exchange among employees through job rotation. Through different training and guidance in these ways, Huawei has formed a unique learning culture which are learning has become a habit, continuous learning and systematic learning. Huawei’s perfect training system not only provides employees with a rapid growth channel, but also creates and maintains competitive advantages for the development of enterprises. Moreover, Huawei clearly established the post qualification system to standardise the training and selection of talents; set up an effective training and self-learning benchmark, with the qualification standards to guide the staff to continue to learn and improve, maintain sustainable development, and encourage employees to continuously improve their job competency. In terms of training management, each employee of Huawei’s has his or her own training file to record the different training employees receive at different stages. To achieve a certain working period, there will be a qualification promotion training, which integrates the qualification requirements into the ordinary work, and promotes according to the performance. In a word, in the process of employees from joining the company to improving their positions, they make a smooth transition with the help of training at each stage. Therefore, Huawei attracts excellent talents through clear career development traction, good platform advantages and competitive salary, so as to realise the acquisition, integration and value display of excellent talents. Huawei always adheres to the concept of “struggle oriented”, fully encourages employees to give full play to their personal expertise and help them realise their personal value. At the same time, it also pays attention to the incentive mode of material and non-material to improve the satisfaction of employees. Even if employees are under pressure sometimes, Huawei should fully realise that employees are under pressure because dissatisfaction is a very normal phenomenon. Therefore, Huawei has the responsibility to help them adjust their emotions, so as to provide employees with training and development to improve their work performance in term of effectiveness and efficiency.

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