Sports have mental components that require focus and concentration to direct one’s thoughts. A cricketer’s mental approach can be constructed in the nets in much the same way that a batsman refines his reverse sweep or a bowler perfects his slower ball. However, this can take time and even cricket clubs are still battling to find the right approach towards psychological side of the cricket. The most gifted players can fail to give good performance in the field if their psychological approach fails to match with their physical competence (Stow, 2013). The 1990s was the fitness revolution, the 2000s have been the sport science and analysis decade and now the next leading edge will be the mental one (Lenac, 2012). Cricket is a physical as well as a psychological game which is played in more than 104 countries. Mental flexibility guarantees emotional balance, intensity and confidence (Gill, 2000). A batsman may bat for over three hours in scoring a hundred but is actually batting for around only 8-10 seconds per delivery. The focusing point in cricket must be the region under the helmet of batsmen, the hair bands of bowlers and the caps of fielders (Katie, 2011).
The concept of mental toughness has recently attracted significant attention from sport psychology researchers attempting to understand how psychological factors can underpin success in sport. From the emerging knowledge base, mental toughness is considered to be multi-dimensional comprising of cognitive, affective and behavioral components and an important psychological construct that is related to successful sport (Jones, Hanton, & Connaughton, 2007).
Mental toughness describes a bundle of qualities that include an unusually high level of resolution, a refusal to be intimidated, an ability to stay focused in high pressure situations, a capacity for retaining an optimum level of arousal throughout a competition, an unflagging eagerness to compete when injured, an unyielding attitude when being beaten, a propensity to take risks when rivals show caution and an inflexible, perhaps obstinate insistence on finishing a contest rather than conceding defeat (Cashmore, 2002).
Jones et al. (2002) investigated mental toughness in elite players and concentrated on some of the theoretical flaws and limitations. Personal-construct theory as a guiding structure (Kelly, 1955) was used to describe mental toughness and categorize the elements compulsory to be a psychologically tough performer. Consistent, firm, focused, convinced, and in having control during competition pressure and competing better to their competitors are the central elements associated with mentally tough athletes.
1.2 Existing Scales on Mental Toughness
1.2.1 Mental Toughness Questionnaire 48
The Mental Toughness Questionnaire 48 (Crust, 2011) is a high quality psychometric measure used to assess Mental Toughness. It assesses mental toughness through a unique 48 item psychometric measure using the four key components of Mental Toughness, known as the 4 C’s: Control and Emotional Control, Commitment, Challenge, and confidence. It takes approximately 8-10 minutes to complete.
1.2.1 Mental Toughness Questionnaire
Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ) developed by Goldberg (2012) was used to measure mental toughness in cricket players. It has thirty items that have two response categories: (1) True and (2) False. MTQ has five sub scales: Reboundability (RA: items 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6), Ability to handle pressure (ATHP: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12), Concentration (Con: 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18), Confidence (Conf: 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24), and Motivation (M: 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, and 30).
1.3 Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory
The purpose behind the development of cricket mental toughness inventory was to have sound psychometric measure to assess cricket related mental toughness. For this purpose, two qualitative studies in which current and former cricketers’ (n = 16) perceptions of the key components of mental toughness in cricket. Two quantitative studies were conducted to investigate the within and between network properties of the Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory by using confirmatory factor analysis and correlations. Each of the five subscales (affective intelligence, attentional control, resilience, self-belief, and desire to achieve) were positively correlated with dispositional flow, hardiness, and resilience and negatively correlated with athlete burnout.
1.3.1 Sub Scales of Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory
220.127.116.11 Affective Intelligence
Affective Intelligence is the ability to regulate one’s emotions and moods in any circumstance to facilitate performance (Gucciardi & Gordon, 2001).
18.104.22.168 Desire to Achieve
Desire to achieve is an internalized, insatiable desire and commitment to consistently improve one’s performance levels and achieve success (Gucciardi & Gordon, 2001).
The ability to withstand and bounce back from situations in which negative outcomes are experienced (i.e. pressure, adversity, challenge) is called resilience (Gucciardi & Gordon, 2001).
22.214.171.124 Attentional Control
Attentional Control is the ability to manage one’s attention and focus over extended periods of play involving various distractions (Gucciardi & Gordon, 2001).
An unshakeable self-belief in your physical ability to perform in any circumstance is known as self-belief (Gucciardi & Gordon, 2001).
- Answer Sheets
It takes 12-15 minutes to be administered.
|Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory |
Instructions: Please indicate the extent to which you personally agree or disagree with the following statements as they relate to you. Respond to each item as accurately and honestly as you can and try not to let your answer to one question influence your answers to other questions. There are no right or wrong answers.
|کرکٹ کی ذہنی مضبوطی کی انوینٹری |
ہدایات: برائے مہربانی نشاندہی کریں کہ درج ذیل بیانات سے آپکس حد تک متفق یا غیرمتفق ہیںجیسا کہ یہ آپکو بیان کرتے ہیں ۔ جتنا ممکن ہو اتنا درست اور ایمانداری سے جواب دیں اور کوشش کریں کہ کسی ایک سوال کا جواب آپکے دوسرے سوال کےجواب کو اثر انداز نہ کریں۔ کوئی بھی صحیح یا غلط جوابات نہیں ہیں۔
|As a cricketer I||بطور کرکٹر میں|
|1. am able to deal with anxiety.||پریشانی سے نمٹنے کے قابل ہوں۔|
|2. in general, display a hard work ethic.||عام طور پر محنت کی اخلاقیات کا مظاہرہ کرتا ہوں-|
|3. am able to deal with setbacks associated with cricket.||کرکٹ سے متعلقہ رکاوٹوں سے نمٹنے کے قابل ہوں۔|
|4. Remain focused during adversity.||مصیبت کے دوران توجہ مرکوز رکھتا ہوں .|
|5. believe my skills are superior to others.||یقین رکھتا ہوں کہ میری مہارتیں دوسروں سے بہتر ہیں۔|
|6. have high emotional stress tolerance.||جذباتی تناوُ کی بہت زیادہ برداشت رکھتا ہوں۔|
|7. have an insatiable desire to improve all areas of my game.||اپنے کھیل کے تما م شعبوں کو بہتر بنانے کیلئے نا قابل تسکین خواہش رکھتا ہوں۔|
|8. have the ability to bounce back from setbacks.||دھچکوں سے واپس اٹھنے کی صلاحیت رکھتا ہوں۔|
|9. remain focused despite cricket-related distractions.||کرکٹ سے متعلقہ خلل کے باوجود متوجہ رہتا ہوں-|
|10. have an unshakeable self-belief in my cricket ability.||اپنی کرکٹ کی صلاحیت پر غیر متزلزل خود یقینی رکھتاہوں۔|
|11. effectively manage arousal levels under pressure.||دباوُ کے تحت ابھار کو موثر طریقے سے سنبھال سکتا ہوں۔|
|12. Am willing to got the extra mile to succeed.||کامیابی حاصل کرنے کے لیے ضرورت سے زیادہ محنت کرنے کے لیے آمادہ ہوں۔|
|13. remain optimistic when faced with difficulties during games.||کھیل کے دوران جب مشکلات کاسامنا ہو تو مثبت رہتا ہوں|
|14. am able to effectively block out non-cricket distraction.||موثرطریقے سے کرکٹ سے غیر متعلقہ خلل کو روکنے کے قابل ہوں۔|
|15. never experience doubts about my ability.||اپنی قابلیت پر کبھی شک نہیں کیا۔|
1.6 Purpose of translation
Cricket is being loved passionately by the people of sub-continent. The Government of Pakistan is having a lot of expenditure on Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) that is working for the betterment of cricket in Pakistan. The aim of this translation was to generate a translation of English version of Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory into Urdu that is conceptualized to the original and can easily be understood by the cricketers.
The Pakistan cricket team is the national cricket team of Pakistan and it is a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC). Currently Pakistan is ranked third as per the ICC Test rankings. Pakistan have played 817 ODIs, winning 437 (55.12%), losing 355, tying 8 and with 17 ending in no-result. Pakistan was the 1992 World Cup champions, and also came runners-up in the 1999 tournament. Pakistan, in conjunction with other countries in South Asia, have hosted the 1987 and 1996 World Cups, with the1996 final being hosted at Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore. Pakistan won the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 and was runners-up in the inaugural tournament in 2007. They are the sole winners of the Asian Test Championship of 1999 (Abbasi, 2013).
1.7 Rationale for the Translation of Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory
Psychological issues in sports especially in cricket and psychological techniques related with cricket have never been discussed in Pakistan. Cricket carries great psychological significance that demands focus and peaceful state of mind (Pandoo, 2009). Psychological constituents are one of the weakest and neglected parts in sports activity.
The phenomenon of victory is apparently more passionate for athletes. The consideration of being the most influential, powerful and charisma in their abilities is fascinating for athletes and encompasses impulse for success. Physiological factors, technical skills, match strategies and psychological control are primary ingredients for outstanding sports performance but psychological control has ever been neglected not only by the players but from management and officials also (Gahwiler, 2013).
Mental skills make the clear difference between winning and losing. It is necessary to reduce too much stress and there must be psychological training to enhance mental toughness and to produce outstanding performance especially in cricket. The translated version of Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory would be a great opportunity to assess the psychological strengthens and weaknesses of cricketers in Pakistan and also would be helpful for Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) and National Cricket Academy (NCA) to have psychological profile of cricketers.
1.8 Procedure for Translation of Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory
The steps that are followed in translating “positive and negative suicide ideation Inventory” are given in a flow chart below:
Permission to use Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory was sought by the author. Translation was done according to the MAPI guidelines. Following are the steps of scale translation:
1.8.1 Conceptual definitions
Mental toughness is considered to be multi-dimensional comprising of cognitive, affective and behavioral components and an important psychological construct that is related to successful sport (Jones, Hanton, & Connaughton, 2007).
1.8.2 Forward Translation
The aim of this process was to acquire translation of original cricket mental toughness inventory in Urdu that is both conceptually equivalent to the original inventory and easily understood by the people to whom the translated questionnaire is administered. Two forward translations were carried out. The translations included title of inventory, instructions, response categories and the items of the inventory.
1.8.3 Two forward translations
After taking formal permission from the author, in order to get forward translations (English to Urdu translation), two bilinguals (English & Urdu) Mphil scholars from Institute of Applied Psychology did two forward translations. Hence, two independent forward translations were obtained.
1.8.4 Reconciled version of forward translation
After doing two independent forward translations, the consensus was developed with the supervisor Prof. Dr. Rukhsana Kausar and all the M.phil students of the session (2013-2015) between the two forward translations in a classroom setting. And that translation was given preference which completed the meaning behind the items in English and on which there was a mutual consent too. Every effort was made by the translators to stay as close to the literal meaning behind the item as they can. In that way, a final version of Urdu translation was completed. There were certain discrepancies regarding translation that were noted.
This final version was then discussed with the course instructor in order to resolve the queries and problems regarding translation. For example, in item 2, the translation for “display a hard work ethic” done by two translators was “محنت کا مظاہرہ ” or “مشکل کام کی اخلاقیات کو ظاہر کرتا ہو” so after consultation with supervisor محنت کی اخلاقیاتکا مظاہرہ کرتا ہوں”” was retained in the final version. Similarly, in item 3, the word ”setbacks” was translated as “ناکامیوں” by both translators, So after consultation it was changed into “رکاوٹوں ” because ناکامیوںdid not convey the same meaning as the “setback” had in the original version. In item 5, word “skills” was translated as “ہنر” or “صلاحیتیں”, after consensus it was changed into مہارتیں because of its closer meaning to the original version. In item 6 “tolerance” was translated as برداشت or رواداری ,so the first one was selected finally because of its readability. “Satiable” was translated as نہ ختم ہونے by both the translators but after consensus نا قابل تسکین was found more appropriate in the formation and meaning of sentence in item 7.In item 6, the word “arousal level” was translated as جسمانی تبدیلوں by both the translators but it was replaced with“ابھار” after consensus as it is more appropriate. In tem 12, “extra mile to succeed” was translated asزیادہ محنت کرناکامیابی کے لیے or کامیابی کے لیے اضافی میل کی دوری, after consensus the first one was selected for final translation. On the basis of this feedback first consensus target language version obtained.
1.8.5 Backward Translation
The purpose of backward translation was to obtain a translation into English (source language) of the target language version (Urdu). For this purpose backward translations were carried out.
Backward Translation I
For backward translation, the Urdu version of the cricket mental toughness inventory was given to a senior M.Phil student in Institute who was proficient in both English and Urdu.
Backward Translation II
For second backward translation, the Urdu version of cricket mental toughness inventory was given to a M.S student of Institute. The student completed backward translation in one day.
1.9 Proof Reading
The final step was proof reading that was completed under the supervision of the supervisor. Only two changes were advised by the supervisor in the proof reading process. They are as under:
- In item no 4, the word “area” was translated into شعبوں that was changed into پہلووُں after proof reading.
- In item no 10, the word “setback” was translated into ناکامیوں that was changed into دھچکوں after proof reading.
The Cricket mental toughness inventory consisting of 15 items was selected for the sake of translation. It is the only scale that assesses cricketers’ mental toughness. Therefore, the translated version of this scale can be used in future researches to evaluate different domains of mental toughness in cricketers.
The translation procedure was completed with the help of supervisor and two M. Phil students. After two forward translation, the consensus was developed with M. Phil students under the supervision of Professor. The consensus of Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory (CMTI) was given to a M. Phil scholar for the sake of backward translation. Consensus was obtained on the discrepancies obtained in backward translation with the supervisor Professor and a final translation of the scale was obtained.
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