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Concept, Theories and Process of Socialization

This report covers Concept, Theories and Process of Socialization , Social Control, Class and Caste and Individual is a prisoner of society.

Socialization Definition:

Socialization is a process of growth, developing an individual in unique, process of development in personality. Inducting an individual into society is called socialization. It is a processes of training to adjust man in society. Man is to time in various social3groups and different social situations and has to learn techniques of life to adjust in new modes of life. Learning techniques of social life is called socialization. Learning of different social situations is to processes of socialization.

Socialization of individual starts from the birth. When the child is born them according to a philosophy is a “Tabullarasa” meaning allows sheet and what is taught got imprinted on that sheet. That’s why it is said that “child is father of man”.


“Process of transmission of culture, the process whereby man learn the rules and practices of social group”.

Joln J. Maccionis

“It is a long life social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture”.

Hoston and Hirt

“Socialization is a processes whereby one internalizes the norms of the groups among whom one likes so that a unique “self emerges”.

Aims/Objectives and Functions of Socialization:-

  1. Socialization is a process of learning

Socialization is not only term but a full process of learning of individuals how to conduct their life, morals and values.

  1. Converts Individual from bio-logical being to social being

Socialization converts individual from a biological bearing to social being and social entity.

  1. Personality Development

Socialization play a vital role in personality and self-development as self is not inherited but acquired from the society by individual.

  1. Teacher Discipline

Socialization teachers discipline and conduct to the individuals and show the way to live in society.

  1. Socialization Teachers Duties and Responsibilities

Male and female acquire the sense of duties and responsibilities dis-motively through socialization.

  1. Establishes Knowledge and Skill

Socialization establishes knowledge and skills in individual. It is the only process which give shine and groom the natural talent with acquired skills.

  1. Stability of Social Order

Socialization brining social control and stability in social order. Social order is brought by social.

  1. Transmission of culture from one generation to other

Socialization ism a bridge for transmission of culture from our generation to another processing one.

  1. Development of Social Qualities

Child through socialization on uncovered to act according the accepted values and ideas of society.

Process of Socialization

The process of socialization starts from very birth of child. But that he lacks that essential elements of the social life. As he grows, he molds himself according to the needs of the society.

At time of birth child only have “Natural Instincts”, but later on in most make on development according to needs of society. Socialization process could be studied on following points;

  • Rearing up: Brining Up

They may parents rear their child, the way he shall grow and acquire qualities and traits that are result of that way of rearing up.

  • Identification

The child develops feeling of identification from family which in term develops with him maintain of language, way of living values etc.

  • Social Teaching

From family to school, peers the child marted with social teaching. According to Miller Dolard, this social teaching is based on following four elements.

  • Derive
  • Cue
  • Response
  • Record
  • Perceiving the situation

Individual at any age has to change his or her behavior pattern according to situation. This process of perceiving is helpful in acquiring of social ideas.

  • Mutual Behavior and Cooperation

When an individual comes in contact with other, got influence by mutual corporation, the social qualities also develop in the individual. This is another way of developing social qualities and organizing the social personality.

  • Suggestions

The child also tries to adjust himself to social needs according to the suggestions from others.

Generally these suggestions are received from family, peer group, school and other agencies of socialization.

  • Reward or Punishment

If acted according to social values and ideals have get record and punishment if act against the interest of society.

Agencies of Socialization:

Agencies of socialization are one which bringing about this process. Agents of socialization completes the discussion on socialization.

  • The Family

During socialization process the family is considered the most significant. The child not only bring member and learn several timings not only in regard to family but also the society. It is the family teaches one the basic value.

  • Peers or Age mates

“Peer groups” means those groups made in school, in playground and in street.

One learn from pears, face and facets of culture that they have previously learnt at different times and from their parents. As the time passes this peer group surfaces family a “Peer Culture” becomes more important and effective and also many times exert highest measures per conformity.

  • Social Institutions

Family, markets, mosques, madrassas, fairs are social institution of socialization. A school is one of the educational institution of socialization.

School, college, university and offices are formal institutions and teachers the techniques and skills of earn livelihood along with teaching cultural news, belief and values.

Literature is found in literate societies and import an impact on socialization. The society and the literature written are two sides of mirror and shadow of each other. The literature teaches the individual the aspect of society and contribute to its socialization.

Words on billboards, newspaper, magazine and text book and assault ears as in radio and televisions which gives as their message and gives premises to ideas, attitudes and culture and contribute to all modes of socialization.

  • The Community

Biggest agency of socialization, large member of agencies are available in community which educates its member informally. Individual learn ways of life and norms of society by participating in these agencies and adds to information. This is socialization in community.

  • Physiological Facts or physical facts

Physiological factors a physical fact plays a vital role in the process of socialization. A deformed person or a child with deformed body is not able to acquire socialization at faster pace.

  • Psychological Factor

Play a vital role in process of socialization. According to psychologist a person acquires only those social norms that are useful for one and has effect on process of socialization.

Biological Needs

In this a need of person to safety the biological needs with the help of socialization. One needs and have to own social customs, traditions and pattern of behavior for the innate instincts.

Deviant Behavior and Social Control

Deviance/Deviant Behaviour

Deviance is a violation of norms. Deviance is breaking of norms of society. Similarly, deviant behavior is breaking social manners, social code of conduct in business, family, marriage etc. breaking of promise, breaking of law of state everything is deviance and behavior is known as deviant behavior. It is natural of man to deviate. Deviancy of one society/generation may be noun of other.


Hoston and Hunt

“Any failure to conform the customary norms is called deviance”.

Horise Waston

‘Behavior that is contrary to the standards of conduct or social expectations of given groups or society is called deviant behavior.

I am Roberston

“Behavior that violates significant social norms said is disapproved by large number of people as result”.

Causes of Deviance

It is failure of learning norms which creates deviance socializing meditations fail to perform their roles. The learning of norms is basis of obedience of norms. Following are the reason of deviance is society.

  • Broken family and improper socialization

Family is the first institution and parents are 1st and important to play role siblings are next to socialize the individual. If one or both parents absent due to any reasons, the child fails to proper and required learning, affection and satisfaction. This creates emotional and psychological disturbance and child could indulge in anti-social activities. Delinquency enters in the social life. A child could become even a criminal. Family fails in proper socialization, as an institution.

  • Lack of Interest in Education

Educational institutions are next socializing institution. If one does not take interest in study it means attention has been diverted towards anti-social activities individual need connection by force and presentation even corrosion.

  • Lack of Religions Education and Morality

Religion teaches ethics and moralities. Manners of social life based on good and bad, right of wrong develop in religion as institution.

Failure of religion and moral values is the man case of immoral behavior and delinquency.

  • Lack of Basic Facilities

Humans strive for straining place and case in social life. Sometimes due to in elegancy to get the basic necessities by right way deviant behavior is adopted.

  • Mass Media

Although mass media is the main force of public opinion and a guidance, still negative use of it is harmful for youth and could indulge youth in drug addiction, immoral and mythical activities and cause deviancy.

Theories of Deviant Behavior

Biological Theory

“Some people are unable to conform due to biological defects”.

Theory presented by Hombroso (1912)

Further studies were done by Sheldon in (1999) and on body physiology described behavior. According to him three kinds of body forms and associated behaviors.

Endomorph-Rand, Soft, Fate, Mesomorph, Muscular, Athletic (Usually delinquent/ascetics) Ectomorph-Thin, bony  

This physical type theory become popular but as devoid of scientific evidence.

Another example of biological theory was given by Montogue (1968) and Fox (1971). According to them about one of each thousand mail inherits an extra Y chromosomes and more suspect-able of deviancy and crime.

But replication studies have failed to conform any association between double y chromosomes and deviant behavior.

Psychological Theory

It is more likely to overlap with biological theories.

It says that;

“One is mentally ill that why showing deviant behavior”.

It is true in some cases, but not always, is that case. Thus psychological theory are not very helpful in explaining deviant behavior.

Socialization Theories

Social theories begin with functionalist assumptions that there is common core of norms and values shared by most society members. Social theory maintains that social behavior both deviant and conformist controlled by internalized norms and value. Deviation is attributed to those values and one behavior.

Anomie Theory

The Anomie Theory was fast could by EMILE DURHEIM (1897). The term roughly mean “normlessness”. It defines society which has many sets of conflating norms and values, and no one set is strong enough to bring acceptance and social binding. This provide no internalized guideline to follow.

Merton in 1938 theorized that anomie also develop from disharmony between cultural goals and instutionalized means to attain them. He argues that while a society provide encouragement to all it members to aspire wealth and prosperity it allow only few to succeed. Deviance become wide spread when majority deprived and people term to disapproved means to succeed. Martin categorized on basis of several responses of goals choice tabulated below.

Sr. No Cultural Goals Institutionalized Response
1. Accept (+) Accept (+) Conformist
2. Accept (+) Reject (-) Innovative
3. Reject (-) Accept (+) Ritualist
4. Reject (-) Reject (-) Reiterative
5. Reject but adopt new one Reject and adopt new one Rebellion

Labeling Theory

It tells the fact the on act of deviant set in motion a charm of events which tend to push a person into greater deviation and finally into a deviant life organization.

Conflict Theory

It is of this type;

  1. Cultural conflict theory and class conflict theory
  2. Conflict Class Theory

Cultural Conflict Theory

When there are member of subcultures (ethnic religious, national, regional, class) in a society, this reduce degree of value consensus. The clashing norms of differing subculture creates a condition of anomic. The norms of dominant culture become law and making criminals of these sharing a divergent sub culture.

This provides a reasonable exploitation to some kind of deviance but offers little insight to deviation of well-been and powerful.

Conflict class theory

Class conflict reject the consensus model the conflict arises from the classing different interest of different social classes.

Theory is pleas able but if true then crime and other deviation should vary them crime and other deviation should vary with class inequality and exploitation. But there is not the case.

Control Theory

Control theorist assume that most people conform to the dominant values because of inner and outer controls. Inner controls are internalized norms, outer controls are rewards and penalties. Control theory fails to tell about case and effect of behavior.

Social Control

Deviance needs to be controlled. Social order is to maintained and this could be achieved with the help of social control, the mean to get goal of social order. Social control regulates social behavior.


Gillin and Gillin

Social control is the system of measures, suggestions, persuasions.

Ogbon and Nimkoff

“The patterns of pressure which society exerts to maintain order and establishes in rules in known as its system of social control”.

Features of social control

  • Social control is an influence

The influence many be exerted through public opinion, coercion, social suggestion, religion, appeal to reasons on by any other method.

  • The influence is exercised by society

It means that group better able to exercise influence over the individual. There is in memorable agencies of social control and the effectiveness of each agency depends largely upon the circumstances.

  • The influence is exercised for welfare

Social control is exercised for come specific end in view. The end is always welfare of the whole. The individual is made conscious of other existence and their interest is required to permute them.

Types/Agencies of Social Control

Social control can be classified into two major types on the basis of the means of social control that are employed.

  1. Formal Control
  2. Informal Control

Formal Control/External Control

The state malls use of law, legislation, military force, police force, administrative devices etc. for purpose of social control. Similarly different political, religion, educational institutions also serve as formal institutions.

Formal control is deliberately created. Necessities of following formal rule is clearly stated by association and institutions.

Formal control has become necessity in the modern complex societies as interaction is almost impersonal in nature.

Informal Control/Internal Control

Informal control includes group, slander, resentment public opinion, folkways, mores etc. these are not purposefully created. Nothing could be said with certain regarding their origin. There is no punishment in formal control yet more powerful than formal control. They don’t need extra staff or physical force to enforce them.

Informal control is effective in primary social group such as family, neighborhood, tribe, rural community.

Why Social Control is Established

  • It is established to maintain that old orders which are already present in society.
  • Social control establishes social unity.
  • It regulates individual behavior.
  • It provides social sanctions.
  • It checks cultural miss adjustments.

Steps to attain social control

  1. Socialization of parents, so they could enforce norms to children more effectively.
  2. There should be model orphanage for bordering and lodging to parentless children so they could be saved from alterability of deviance.
  3. Deggers and unemployed showed be given technical education and teaching to can every hood in conformist way.
  4. There should be increased recreational activities.
  5. Education at all levels and ages should be provided religious, technical, and professional.
  6. Media should use effective campaign to reduce social deviance and enhance social control.


Q: Detailed note of Amile Durkheim theory of suicide. And explanation of its good and bad points. (Critical analysis).

  • Social control establishes social unity.
  • It regulates individual behavior.
  • It provides social sanctions.
  • It checks cultural miss adjustments.

Amile Durkheim (1858-1917)

Emile Durkheim was a French Philosopher and physicist. He was follower of comle. He discovered new science called social physics. He gave many theories regarding the condition of society for example theory of division of labor in soci8ety, theory of suicide, effect of religion on society, rules of sociological methods and many others.

Theory of Suicide

Emile Durkheim theory of suicide gained popularity. The main epicenter of this theory is social solidarity. Emile discussed different types of suicide implicating that although suicide is an individual act but the main reason of suicide is due to the society.

Emile argued that when sources of happiness get less in number than reasons of happiness, the reaction come out as suicide.

Emile defined suicide as

“Any deliberate at which cause death and actor Hrows the consequences of his act before committing is called suicide”.

Types of Suicide

Emile Durkheim gave following types of suicide.

  • Egoistic Suicide

In this type of suicide individual become in solvent, estranger and get detached from society.

The group solidarity becomes weak in this kind of suicide. The bonds of society get loose lack of grouping in evident in this type.

The individual stop taking interest in family affairs. The primary or secondary group loose its importance in eye of individual.

Individual feel isolated, lo9oses the charm of life, life became useless for him. He became self-centered and secluded. He remains alone in society aloof of family members and their activities.

This type of suicide is found more in organic society than mechanical society.

  • Anomic Suicide

This type of suicide over when social misbalance or disintegration occur. Norms and manners of face unexpected, sudden change. The individual could not adopt himself in new condition and conflict arise between individual and society. This normative gap is known as “cultural lag”.

For individual social laws fails and individual unable to think for future, this commit suicide.

In anomic suicidal laws of country are not respected by people and state of law lessens prevailed in society. The life of people ends in despair and people fell inclined towards suicide.

This condition depicts the social disorganization in society.

  • Anomic Suicide

This type of suicide seen when social solidarity is all its peak. The individual life and idea don’t hold importance. The traditions of society are important than life of individual. Examples of this kind of suicide is of “Satti” where wife burn herself with the dead body of her husband.

Old people in tumdara region kill themselves for food and shelter.

The war for country is also its type, similarly the concept of “Jehad” and shadat in Islam according to will of Allah and in name of religion.

Some times this suicides in ceremonial as in Japan samurai kill themselves by empowerment. This type of suicide is called “suppler”.

Emile Durkheim purposed that suicide is duel to social disintegration and main reason is social and cultural behavior. Lots of external and internal factor are responsible for disarrangement. Two factors important were discussed in regard of suicide.

  • Religion and Suicide

Religion is a strengthening force between individual and society. Suicide is collective responsibility of society. The examples of all three types of suicide are seen in society of different regions.

Egisotic, economic and altruistic suicide are seen very evidently in society.

Different societies show the practically of different types of suicide.

  • Link people with social group.

With help of research Emile Durkheim showed that suicide rates have correlation with group affiliations. Stronger the group integration, the rate of the suicide is low. Even in many instances the social groups specially primary or secondary help individuals to get back to their normal life and to break the individual shell.

  • Valid and Reliable.

Emile Durkheim study was according to scientific study method, thus the theory is conserved a valid.

Religious thoughts and actions construct group. Religious beliefs and ceremonies are such things which are distinctive from society.

The sacred belief and actions unite people in chain of morality for example church, mosque, bible and Quran etc.

According to Durkhein collective force in society is due to religion. Social life, culture and norms would be absent if there is no religion thus beliefs of religion and actions are related to gather in system.

Suicide and Society

According to Durkhein if society fails the social relationship fails, the social norms and culture fails, resulting in failure of social organization occur. The amalgation of society when get reduced, social solidarity and social integration fades away thus compelling individual to commit suicide.

Critical Analysis of Suicide

Theory of Emile Durkheim 

Durkheim intensive study on suicide is much more them statistical data analysis on this empirical topic. Durkheim refrained from defining suicide s an external act of self-destruction. Durkheim argued that basic cause of suicide is integration of group.

Points supporting the theory  

  • Societies important entity

Durkheim argument that society is a key factor in suicide prove to be true in majority instances, with the exception of few cases. His research showed correlation of suicide rate with the conditions of individual and attitude of groups with one.

  • Collective Responsibility of Society

The facts supported the Durkheim nation that it is scientifically validated and another important aspect is that its result are accurate which demonstrates that theory is relatable.

Thus the theory is considered but valid and reliable.

Points Negative Theory

Although Emile Durkheim theory has been accomplished in many aspects, still it face number of critical objections by sociologists even of modern era. Few critical aspects are enumerated as follow.

  • Ignored other factors of suicide

Emile Durkheim ignored factors other than society contributing to suicide. Factors like geographical, biological, climate, psychological, heredity, race and personal motives were completely dispelled while studying the suicide.

  • No ways to measure integration

All arguments of Durkheim revolves around that the degree of integration is key factor of suicide. All importance was of degree of integration but failed to define a way that is possible to measure the integration directly or relativity. Thus the relationship imitatively failed for study.

  • Governmental Statistics effect the study

The governmental statistics sometimes don’t correspond with the study and data by theory. This decrease the authenticity of theory and many times put a question mark on the validity of theory.

  • Suicide pre judge-mented and self-assumed

According to studiers many a time suicide committed is prejudged and self-assumed. The original facts and happenings are ignored and misinterpretation occur which result in suicide. This aspect is completely ignored by Durkheim.

  • Behavioral Changes

It has been evident that in many instances the role of society gets diminished but the reason of suicide is personal behavior of individual. The suicide theory purposes by Emile Durkheim ignored this aspect.

 Max Weber

Durkheim was very keen the study of scientific method. Emile worked in and specifically in theory of suicide, although under criticism land the foundation of modern pessimistic sociology. Sociology according to Durkheim is study of social facts with relation to institution groups and their genesis and functioning. The effect of this groups and institutions on the stability and change in society.

Social Change/Mobility

Every society of the world has social mobility. Though the rate of mobility is different in all societies depending upon their cultural conditions.

Fair Child

“Social mobility is movement from one condition to another”.

Huston and Hunt

“Social mobility may be defended as the act of morning from one social class to another”.

Types of Social Mobility

Following are few important types of social mobility.

  1. Territorial Mobility

“It is the change of residence from one place to another”.

In rural areas this mobility is seldom found as people don’t prefer to learn their ancestral leaving place. In urban areas people sell one house and purchase other or rent or migrate inter or intraday.

  1. Vertical Mobility

It is defined as any upward or downward change in the absolute or relate rank of any individual or group.  Promotion in job, change in come etc. are examples of vertical movement. It’s of two types.

Upward Mobility

The progression in income, job, status or any role in upward mobility. It is also known as vertical mobility. It is fast in urban areas due to rapid changing socio-economic conditions as compare to rural areas.

Downward Mobility

It takes place when there is loss in income, fall in status or job etc.

  1. Horizontal Mobility

An alternation of profession with no significance vertical chase in social status is horizontal movement change in department or working place with no change in income and status is horizontal mobility.

  1. Inter-Generational

Refers to social mobility that takes place between generations”.

  1. Intergenerational

Change or changes in the social status of an individual or group of individuals within some generation.

Causes of Social Mobility

Following are factors of social mobility.

  • Dissatisfaction from previous condition

Individuals never stick to one condition of life. They won’t change so leave the previous condition.

  • Adoption of New Condition

The people leaving the previous condition adopt new condition functional according to new ways of living.

  • Industrial technological and educational development

The development of industry, technology and education change people modes of living, attitudes, habits, antes, total socio-cultural change.

  • Urbanization

The development of urban population and modern ways is called urbanization, a push factor of social change.

  • News of Communication and Transportation

It plays major role to brining social change-people get traditional attitude change and accept modern ways of living by these sources of information.

Class and Caste

Social Stratification

Society is heterogeneous in nature. Every society is divided into division according to political, social and religious basis.



“Social stratification is horizontal division of society into “higher” and “lower” social units”.


“Social stratification is a system of differentiation which includes a hierarchy of social positions”.

Theories of Social Stratification

  • Marxist Theory

Social satisfaction depends on mode of production. Marx divides society in two classes.

  1. Proletariat class represent cookers.
  2. Bourgeoisie represent capitalist.

“The relation of individual to the means of production is a crucial determination of societal division”.

  • Functionalist Theory

“Different persons in society are entrusted with functions of different types resulting in class division and satisfaction”.

Forms of social satisfaction

Two main forms of social stratification are evident in society.

  1. Caste
  2. Class


Class is framed on achievement of economic resources, education, standard, prestige, and other elements of society. The member of class is always changing due to social mobility.


Karl Marx:

“A group of people having more or less equal economic resources and indicating similar standard of living in a society”.

Max Weber:

“Social classes are aggregates of individuals who have the same opportunities of acquiring goods, the same exhibited standard of living”.

Categories of Classes

Generally there are three classes in society high, middle and low. These are future divided into three categories.

Concept, Theories and Process of Socialization

 Nature of class

  1. Social class is a status group
  2. Social class determined our achieved status
  3. It is a universal phenomenon and present in all societies of world.
  4. An open group where vertical mobility is possible.
  5. Economics play a vital role in determining social class.
  6. Class members have feeling, of consciousness belonging to small class.

Demerits of Class

  1. The inequality of class given loss to some members as form a hurdle to pick up line according to its capabilities.
  2. Class differences decreases the social integration and solidarity.
  3. Individual often adopt deviant behavior to change their class vertically.

Merits of Class

  1. It clearly distinguishes roles and responsibilities of members according to their abilities.
  2. It increases the positive progress as individual work hard in their field to change class.
  3. It is important to evaluate functions, position and behaviors and help finding competence individuals.


It is a permanent group having its status ascribed at birth. Its membership is unchanging and is heredity. Every person attaches himself with some caste and sub-caste.


  1. Green

“Caste is a system of stratification in which mobility least ideally may not occur”.

Maciver and page

“When status is wholly predetermined so that men are born to their lot without any hope of changing it, then the class takes the extreme form of caste”.

Characteristics of Caste

  1. It is a hierarchal division of society.
  2. It is a close group and change can be brought.
  3. Every caste has its own sub-culture in which some things are mandatory for individual to follow.
  4. Class has its own informal way of social control.

Merits of Caste

  1. It provides social solidarity among individuals.
  2. Norms are so forceful that deviance become difficult and social order is maintained.
  3. Endogamous so social adjustment is more easy to accomplish.

Demerits of Caste

  1. Development of ethnocentrism which intern create hatred among different castes.
  2. Social changes are difficult castes.
  3. Social change is difficult to attain obstacle.
  4. Due to endogen social progress, social relations remain limited.

Differences between class and caste

Class                                        Caste

Flexible                                      Rigid

Charming                                  Permanent

No Biradri                                 Birdri

Erogenous                                 Endogamous

Favours social change             Opposes Social Change

No norms                                   Have strict norms


Any small or large group living together in a such a way that they share the basic conditions of common life is known as community. The basic elements of a community are locality and settlements which shape a community. The sense of belonging together and residence is real sentiment of community. A common way of life of people along with its awareness on common territory is community.



“Community is a social group with some degree of “we feeling” and living in gmen area”.

Kingsley Davis

“The smallest testimonial group that can embrace all aspects of social life called community”.

Nature/Characteristics of Community

A community can be

  1. A group of people living together in an area fulfilling their needs by mutual cooperation.
  2. A group of people having a sense of belong to place a residence creates sentiment of community.
  3. Community is group of people having a common culture.

Types of Community

Communities have been classified into rural and urban communities due to different social conditions.

Rural Community

Rural community is a natural phenomenon. It is present in almost every society of the world. Agriculture is main identity of this kind of community. People have face to face interaction and high degree of homogeneity. Basic facilities like school, hospital, market, etc., usually missing in this community.

Characteristics of Rural Community

  • Small population

Population is usually small living in homeless, hack and basti.

  • Lack of facilities

Population lack basic facilities of gas, clean water and electricity.

  • Lack of institutions and organizations

The big institutions such as hospital, college, industries hotels and telephones are usually missing.

  • Lack of facilities

Population lack basic facilities of gas, clean water and electricity.

  • Equal division of labor

The male and female old and young, all work in same farm without distinction of labor.

  • Informal interaction

The interaction patterns are mostly informal “{Hukka” is important institution of reaction.

  • Slow Interaction acid social change

The rate of interaction and social change among villages is slow.

  • Scattered house pattern

Houses are mostly away from one and another in their respective farms called farm.

  • Events and traditional recreations

The celebrations in of happiness and sadness showed little changes within decades. Fairs drums, rustling, fairy tales, radio are the popular recreations of rural people.

  • Endogamy

Marriages take place between caste and biradri, means endogamy is popular.

  • Homogeny

The language patterns, the styles of dresses, the type of food and other ways are homogenous and according to Durkheim create mechanical solidarity.

Urban Community

People are highly impersonal with each other along high degree of complexity and heterogeneity in their style and identification. It is actually the product of rationality is choice. A complex division of labor is evident.

Characteristics of Urban Community

  • Large population and administrative organization.

It is the population which lives together in large number at a place. Also administrative organizations like municipal committee.

  • Modern Facilities and Recreation

Radio, T.V. Newspaper, electricity, gas, modern machinery are available recreation and facilities respectively to Urban community.

  • Expanding social institution.

The social institutions like educational, technological and industrial are expanding in cities.

  • Division of labour and specialization

A variety of professions is found in those areas are present. Governmental, semi-governmental and private organizations demanded specialized technical personal for specific duty.

  • Heterogeneity

The population is heterogeneous due to diversity in profession, caste, class, education, residence, religion, sect and biradri. This create organic solidarity according to Durkheim. No social solidarity and weak cohesion.

  • Fast Interaction and charging behavior pattern

The interaction rate is very fast which brining people close due to this behavior pattern changes. The people adopt novel ways of living.

  • Social mobility and rapid social change

The frequent and fast social mobility is found fiber. Also the attitude of people goes on changing. Education and media play important role in these.

  • Anonymity

Anonymity is a condition in which large number of urban people he strangers to local residents.

  • Exogaing

Marriages among different caste are being held. New baradries come into being.

Difference between rural and urban communities

  • Division of labor population density

Agrarian profession is dominant in rural areas but due to large population density the professional activities are diverse.

  • Solidarity and relations interaction

In rural areas there is high social solidarity and sincere informal relation but in urban society relations are formal and reciprocal.

  • Boat mobility and social stratification

There is very less social mobility no rural areas as compared to urban areas. In rural areas social stratification elements are caste, profession but in urban areas elements are economic resources and education.

  • Environment

In environment rural society is almost natural but in urban environment social life is based on industrial relations.


 Individual is a prisoner of society

Individual is based to be a social animal and is nothing without society. It is said by French revolutionist that “Mam is born free but now in chains”. These chains are the chains of society. Mam is caught in the web of society. The threads of that web are formulated from the elements of society like norms, folkways, mam, values, habits etc. Mam living in society should follow the society and its principles like be one follow the rules of offices, the discipline of school and traditions of family.


There are four characteristics of group to be society.

  • It is an aggregate of individuals.
  • The sense of belonging and cooperation.
  • A more or less permanent association.
  • A common culture.

According to Bertrand society is that group within which man share a total common life.

Linton defined society as

“Any group of people who have lived and worked together long enough to get themselves organized and to think of themselves as a social unit with well-defined limits”.

Macvier and Page Defined Society as

“Society is the system of usages and procedures, authority and mental aid of many grouping and divisions of control of human behavior and of liberties”.

“It is not group of people, it is the system of relationship that exist between the individual of the group”.


“Society is non itself organization the sum formal relationships is which associating individuals are formal together”.

Generally, society is an aggregate having common way of living. It is a product of social relation shays among the individuals.

Characteristics of Society

Human society has the following characteristics.

  • It is the largest social group of individual living together.
  • It is compared of various social groups, perform their respective purpose, have their own structure.
  • Social institutions are main organ of human society at least five basic institutions, family, education, economy, and religion found in all societies of world.
  • No society is statistic, rate of change though show.
  • Human society have all least thus aspects rural and urban society.

All human societies have their own culture. It is the way of life of people. Culture consists of values, sentiments, attitudes, beliefs, customs, rituals, fashion, religion etc.

  • Society fulfills human needs through social relationship among the members.
  • Consciousness of find is another quality of human society.
  • The people of one interest profession surround themselves and form a group, formal or informal society is divided into various groups of people having respective interest.
  • A society is organized by the process of independence among group and institutions.
  • As society is spread in a limited geographical territory, having political governments.
  • Individual participate within their roles ascribed according to their status.
  • Human societies have social norms and social sanctions so that human behavior may be controlled.
  • Socialization process circulates throughout the life in society by which individual is made a useful member of society.
  • A society is permanent social group which lived and continues to live for indefinite period.

Elements of human society

  • A big aggregate of people.
  • Living together since very long.
  • Having a sense of belonging to one another.
  • Having a common culture.

Who is individual and relation with society?

Individual is defined as unit of society as cell is unit of life.

For an individual the group and the society merge into one at one point or the other or at one time or the other. The individual doesn’t remain intact. His very existence is wielded into fabrics of group of society.

Cooley has said

“A separate individual is an abstraction unknown to experience and so likely wise is a society. When regarding as something apart from individuals. In other ward ‘society’ and individual do not denote separate phoneme but are simply collective and distribute aspect of the same thing”.

One more concept is that society as a system is contracts between the individuals who constitute it.

The society is regarded as a greater organism, somewhat on live of biological system of human body.

Man is social animal by nature and cannot afford to live alone. No human being is normally developed in isolation. This phenomenon is told in many novels like “hard of flies”: in which few children were left on island similarly. The characteristics like “Robinson Circuit had never taken birth. Even the pirates used the punishment of “block spot” to their traitors and that was learning one on an island all alone. “Treasure Island” also shows this phenomenon.

In real life cases proved that human being is social by nature. Case of “Anna” an illegitimate child in America has been placed in a room at age of 6 months and discovered after 5 years. One discovery it was found that she could not walk or speak and indifferent to her surroundings and individuals.

Similar was the case of Isa Bella who was on experiment basis kept away from society for six years and when she was studied she only react to instant of man that is food and nothing else, even was devoid of emotions.

The personality of individual develop in society by various societal phenomena. Individual has to follow and restrain itself within them. Few are discussed as follows.


Social norms are the shared expectations of group members in a social situation, while culture norms are ideally expected manners of behavior.

Young and Mack

Norms referred to group shared operations.

Robert Bierdt

A norm is a rule or standard that governs conduct in the social situation in which individual participate.

The society expects from its members to abide normative behavior of culture. This normative behavior guide interaction pattern an one hand and reproduce on other. Without existence of group norms human society will not be different from animal society. Norms make human behavior predictable because of anticipation of individual behavior in certain situation by groups norms.


Folkways are socially approved ways of behaving in a society.

There are ways of life in society which open unconsciously upon people. These arise during social interaction and handed from one generation to other. They are simply accumulated patterns of expected behaviors which pave out a way of sanctioned way of life.

These folkways define specific behavior for specific situation and vary from society to society and time to time.

By Summer

“Folkways are not reaction of human purpose and will. They are products of natural forces which men anxiously set in operation”.

Gillin and Gillin

“Folkways are behavioral patterns of everyday life which generally arise unconsciously in a group”.


Mores are more compulsory to confirm them the folkways. Are more seriom norms but also informal like folkways. Although they are unwritten customary way of life. They have very serious binding on group. These violation is serious threat to society’s social orders. On violation of move the people take very serious action and sometimes violent punish for violator.

Positive moves are sometimes called codified more Maclver and Pages.

“When folkways have added to them conception of group welfare, standards of right and wrong, they are converted into moves”.

Gillin and Gillin

“Moves are these customer and group routines which are thought by the members of society to be necessary to group continued instance”.


Value are socially shared ideas about what is good, right and desirable and are conceptions of good which influence selection from available ends, means and made of actions. Values are cultural products as a standards having high importance. Every culture provides a process, a method of getting values and differ from culture to culture.

Values develop from society. It’s a social production value defend on the social structure and the culture. Value provides goat, stability and infirmity in group interaction bring legitimacy to the rules and brining adjustment differentiate between right and wrong what is desirable and undesirable.

M. Johnson

“Values a general standards and many be regarded as higher order norms”.


“A value is a belief that something is good and worthwhile. It defines what is worth having worth striving for”.


Culture is complete self-working achievements. These achievements categorized into material and non-material objects are elements of self-moving units of culture. Culture is interrelated unit of its interdependent parts.


“Man-made part of environment’.


“The culture is social heredity which is transmitted from, one generation to other with the accumulation of individual experiences”.


“That complex whole which includes knowledge beliefs, art, novel, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by individual as a member of society”.

Culture is socially learnt, shared and trans missive continuous and cumulative, consistent and integrated dynamic and adaptive, gratifying, varies from society to society and supevongamic.

Habits and customs  

Habit is personal phenomenon   and custom is a social phenomenon. Customs are long established habits and usages of the people. Habit proceed and create customs but in many cases custom given rise to habits and supported by them.

Custom regulates social life and reporting of social heritage.

The fetters of above mentioned elements of societies enhanced man and made man a prisoner of society. The wills and wishes of are dictated by society and influenced by the society this completely captivating the individual psychologically, emotionally and spiritually.




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